Uploaded by Kostia Iliuchok

Professional Issues Notes

2.1 Strive to achieve high quality in both the processes and products of professional
Computing professionals should insist on and support high quality work from themselves and
from colleagues. The dignity of employers, employees, colleagues, clients, users, and anyone
else affected either directly or indirectly by the work should be respected throughout the
process. Computing professionals should respect the right of those involved to transparent
communication about the project. Professionals should be cognizant of any serious negative
consequences affecting any stakeholder that may result from poor quality work and should
resist inducements to neglect this responsibility.
2.3 Know and respect existing rules pertaining to professional work.
"Rules" here include local, regional, national, and international laws and regulations, as well as
any policies and procedures of the organizations to which the professional belongs. Computing
professionals must abide by these rules unless there is a compelling ethical justification to do
otherwise. Rules that are judged unethical should be challenged. A rule may be unethical when
it has an inadequate moral basis or causes recognizable harm. A computing professional should
consider challenging the rule through existing channels before violating the rule. A computing
professional who decides to violate a rule because it is unethical, or for any other reason, must
consider potential consequences and accept responsibility for that action.
2.6 Perform work only in areas of competence.
A computing professional is responsible for evaluating potential work assignments. This
includes evaluating the work's feasibility and advisability, and making a judgment about
whether the work assignment is within the professional's areas of competence. If at any time
before or during the work assignment the professional identifies a lack of a necessary expertise,
they must disclose this to the employer or client. The client or employer may decide to pursue
the assignment with the professional after additional time to acquire the necessary
competencies, to pursue the assignment with someone else who has the required expertise, or
to forgo the assignment. A computing professional's ethical judgment should be the final guide
in deciding whether to work on the assignment.
Arguments Bullet Points:
1. Resolve premises and conclusion
2. Unfold your ideas in natural order
3. Start from reliable premises
4. Be concrete and precise
5. Build on substance, not overtone
6. Use concrete terms
7. Use more than one example
8. Use representative examples
9. Background rates are often crucial (hit rate | hits vs misses)
10. Statistics needs a critical eye (statistics can be widely misused and misunderstood)
11. Recon with counterexamples
12. Analogies require relevantly similar examples
13. Cite your sources
14. Seek informed sources (to explain source’s qualifications)
15. Seek impartial sources (reliable, with no direct stakes in issue)
16. Cross-check sources
17. Build your Internet savvy
18. Causal arguments start with correlations
19. Correlations may have alternative explanations
20. Work toward the most likely explanation
21. Expect complexity
22. Modus ponens (If p then q. p. Therefore, q.)
23. Modus tollens (If p then q. Not-q. Therefore, not-p.)
24. Hypothetic syllogism (If p then q. If q then r. Therefore, if p then r.)
25. Disjunctive syllogism (p or q. Not-p. Therefore, q.)
26. Dilemma (p or q. If p then r. If q then s. Therefore, r or s.)
27. Reductio ad absurdum (To prove: p. Assume: Not-p. Argue to conclude: q. Show that q is
false, or “absurd”. Conclude that p must be true after all.)
28. Deductive arguments in multiple steps