Uploaded by Mhooker2018

Inclusive Education and Assistive Technology

advertisement
Inclusive Education
The Role of Assistive
Technology
Ghana Education Services Special Education Division,
Ministry of Education, Science and Sports,
Accra, Ghana
December, 2007
Mary Hooker
Education Specialist
Global eSchools and Communities Initiative
Dublin, Ireland.
[email protected]
00353 863378219
What is Assistive Technology?
Assistive Technology (AT) includes a
range of technologies, which enable
people to build on their abilities and
participate as fully as possible at
home, school, work and in their
community.
What does Assistive Technology
mean?
AT is used to describe both the
products and the services for people
with special needs.
AT Products
The term ‘assistive technology device’
means any item, piece of equipment,
or product system (whether acquired
off the shelf, modified, or customized)
that is used to increase, maintain or
improve the functional capability of
an individual with disability.
AT Services
The term ‘assistive technology
service’ means any service that
directly assists a child with a
disability in the selection,
acquisition, or use of an assistive
technology device.
Individual with Disabilities Act of 1990 (IDEA) P.L. 101 - 1476
AT Range



The AT definitions are flexible and open many
possibilities for what the products and services
of assistive technology can be.
They do not imply that assistive technology must
include computers, or that it must be expensive,
or that it can only be prescribed.
Assistive technology is essentially a very broad
field and may range from the very simple to the
very complex
What are the types of AT
devices?


AT may be organized into a system of lowtech, medium-tech and high-tech tools and
strategies that match a person’s needs,
abilities and tasks.
Learners/ teachers/parents pick and choose
from the system the appropriate tools for
the situation
Low-tech

refers to unsophisticated
devices and largely nonelectronic devices, many of
which can be produced from
local materials, such as:
• pencil grips
• book holders
• texture boards
• reading stands
• educational toys and games
Low-tech






cut-out pictures
jigsaw puzzles
sign language
natural gesture
facial expression
body language
bowl
Medium-tech

devices are more
complicated, many of
which can be
manufactured locally,
such as :
• hearing aids
• speech trainers
• Braille paper and
styluses
• tape recorders
• magnifying reading
glasses
High-tech
devices involve the use of
sophisticated communication and
environmental control systems that
are electronically based.
 increasing variety of methods of
adapting the computer through the
use of special needs peripherals
and/or software

Peripherals
Some keyboard alternatives
Input or
Other non-standard
Output devices devices
Keyboard
Benefits
Concept Keyboards
Physical,
visual and cognitive access
Overlays allow for pre-programmed, words,
symbols, pictures
Additional features include key guards,
alternative overlays, switch access
Large keyboard
Keys
that are up to four times the size of
standard computer keys
Can be useful for students with visual
difficulties or limited hand function.
Available in multi-colour, plain white, ABC
or Qwerty format.
Some have speech feedback, permitting
students to talk and work at the same time.
Peripherals
Some screen alternatives/enhancers
Input or Output
devices
Other non-standard device
Benefits
Screen
Touch screen
Ideal
Braille display
Replaces
for students who cannot understand the
relationship between the mouse or the keyboard
and movement on the screen.
Instead of using a pointing device such as a
mouse, the student can use their finger to point
directly to objects on the screen.
Also suitable for those who find it hard to
manipulate a mouse or other pointing devices.
the computer monitor and is often
augmented with Speech Output Systems
A line of Braille cells gives a tactile
representation of the computer’s text output
Peripherals
Some pointing options
Input or Output
device
Other non-standard
device
Benefits
Pointing devices
Roller balls
Stationary,
Joysticks
Students
Switches
Can
Touch pad
Alternative
requires little operating space
Slows down movement of cursor buttons
with limited hand function can
find them easier to use
Dampens down random motion s the
movement of the pointer will be less
erratic
be operated by any area of the body
(e.g. hand head)
Allows user to operate a computer or
other electrical device
to conventional mouse
Useful for people with fine finger control
but lack gross movements
Software categories
Software
Reinforcement
(drill and practice)
Interactive
books
Electronic books
which bring
stories to life
Benefits
Concerns
Helps
develop skills and
reinforce concepts and
knowledge
Provides practice on learned
skills
Gives immediate feedback/
non judgemental
Should
Cater
Edutainment
for a range of levels
(Non-readers to older
students with reading
difficulties
Links written word with
spoken words
Gives students opportunity
to practice reading same text
more than one time
complement
teaher instruction, not
replace it
Skills are often
presented in isolation
from classroom themes
and planning
value v
Educational value
Content-free software
Software
Content free software
allows teachers to design
own content - text and
graphics
Word Processing
Programmes enable
production of a wide range of
products
Talking Word Processing
Programmes
include in-build speech
synthesizer
Benefits
Can
be used in many areas of the curriculum
Teachers can develop materials to meet
individual needs of students
Help students overcome barriers to learning
Student
can express themseles
Spellchecker allows concentraion on content
Relieves pressures that face students with
learning dfficulties
Allows
students to monitor their work
Brings writing to life - auditory feedback links
written word to spoken word
Auditory feedback assists students in
correcting spelling, grammar and syntax
Content-free software
Software
Word Prediction Software
runs in conjunction with
word processor and
suggests words as text is
entered - as soon as a user
types first letter of a word, a
list of words beginning with
that letter appear
Benefits
Suggests
words so students can concentrate
on context rather tan spelling
Remembers words that student uses most
frequently
Word Bank Programmes
Teacher can choose words that individual
allow the teacher to input
students have difficulty with
lists of words the student has Students can concentrate on context rather
particular difficulty with than spelling
topic words, lists of nuns,
verbs, adjectives, adverbs,
sentence starters etc.
Content-free software
Software
Planning and organising
software helps struggling
students visually organise
their ideas - can be used for
brainstorming, outlining,
prewriting, diagramming and
concept webbing.
Desktop Publishing/Art &
Design Applications
include a wide range of writing
and drawing tools that can be
used to draw a picture, write a
story, create a newsletter etc.
Benefits
Ideal
for students who think in
pictures rather than words (visual
learners)
Spellchecker allows concentration
on content
Relieves pressures that face
students with learning difficulties
Individualise
for students by
adding or removing tools
Professional results help
struggling students gain confidence
Software categories
Software
Study Skills Software
assists students in
developing the necessary
skills needed for efficient
study
Assessment software
used to assess student
attainment and identify
learning difficulties
Benefits
Enables
students to independently
develop their own organisation and study
skills strategies
Provides students with direct
instruction and practice in developing
these skills
Can
be helpful in early identification of
learning difficulties including dyslexia
Results can be used to individualize
instruction and develop individual
education plans
Progress can be monitored on a regular
basis
Access tools software
Optical Character
Recognition Programmes
Reads
a text on a page
Converts it to digital format
Scan/Read software
Allow
Screen readers
Read
Screen magnification
systems
scanning from any book
Display on-screen version of printed material
back text from any programme
Highlight text as spoken
Read downloaded pages from internet, e-mails, text
scanned
Increases
size of text or image displayed on the
monitor
Only prt of the screen can be seen at any one time
Voice recognition software
Allows
Switch Access Software
Used
dictation of written assignments, notes etc.
Vocabulary must be developed for software by the
user
by many students with physical disabilities
who are unable to use a mouse or keyboard due to
limited manual control
Accessibility
•
•
•
•
All OS have built-in options to support students
with special needs
Options allow user to adjust keyboard response,
mouse movement and screen appearance
Features have been designed to support the
needs of those with hearing, visual,
physical/motor and learning difficulties
Before looking at specialised solutions, check
accessibility built-in options for effective
utilization
AT not a fix for impairment

Pupil's impairment should be accepted as normal
to that person

Technology attempts to provide an alternative or
compensatory approach that works around the
impairment

AT sometimes called work-around technology
AT and Inclusive Education




AT will be more likely accepted if it is seen to
contribute to the achievement of relevant and
identified educational goals
Goals should be set in accordance with
individual’s needs, differences and abilities
Learner may need support to achieve goals at a
slower pace
AT interventions should not create unrealistic
expectations of what learner can achieve
Information on AT sourced principally from the Irish National Centre for Technology in Education
NCTE website – www.ncte.ie and Bassi, 2007
AT Utilization and Production
Lynch, 2007





How are they used?
Can we generalise them across
disability?
Use symbols for hearing impaired and
learning disabilities or speech
conditions?
How easy is it to make them?
Who should make them?
AT and Curriculum Access
Lynch, 2007


How can AT help children with
disabilities access the curriculum?
E.g. Braille books, large print,
symbols, increasing font size on the
page, using low vision aids to read
books.
AT, Assessment and IEPs
Lynch, 2007


Planning where AT can be used to
help a child learn.
What are the implications of
assessing a child and recommending
AT if none are available?
Low-tech V high-tech


Low-tech solutions often more
effective and easily integrated
High-tech solutions have enormous
potential, yet require
• careful assessment/ judgement for ‘fit’
•
•
with individual
require considerable specialist training
and support to be effective
can be prohibitively expensive
ICT Based Solutions for SEN in Ghana
Casely-Hayford and Lynch, 2003
Capacity Building
 Build capacity for the Material Resource Centre
Accra to become a key institution for the supply
of AT into both mainstream schools and special
schools
 Develop capacity for AT production in Ghana by
firms in the country in the form of:
•
•
low to medium-cost materials development beyond
Braille books
equipment to assist children with physical disabilities
ICT Based Solutions for SEN in Ghana
Casely-Hayford and Lynch, 2003
Resources Centres and Special Schools
 Establish fully equipped and staffed assessment
centres outside of Accra, and Kumasi.
 Provide all of the 110 teacher resource centres in
every district in Ghana with AT and technical
advice in order to assist teachers.

Special schools and institutions should be restricted
to children diagnosed as having a Profound/Multiple
Learning Disabilities.
ICT Based Solutions for SEN in Ghana
Casely-Hayford and Lynch, 2003
Itinerant teachers
 Build capacity of graduates in special
education as itinerant teachers to
school clusters in the districts where
mainstreaming is intensively being
focussed
• to support individual students
• to work with whole classes, classroom and
teachers.
ICT Based Solutions for SEN in Ghana
Lynch, 2007
Another example of a recent initiative
between Sightsavers and Dolphin to
produce a screen-reader on a USB that
third-level students can use on any PC. I
think a few students at the University of
Ghana are using these USP pens.
ICT Based Solutions for SEN in Ghana
Casely-Hayford and Lynch, 2003
On-line Support

Develop ODL training for University and teacher training
college levels on the fundamentals and implementation of
assistive technologies

Link with free online courses such as the NCTE, Ireland
which has 7 online courses of 20 hours each for ICT &
Special Needs:
• The Basics
• Learning Support
• Mild Learning Disabilities
• Moderate/Severe/ Profound Learning Disabilities
• Deaf/Hard of Hearing
• Introduction to ICT and Visual Impairments
• Autistic Spectrum Disorders
ICT Based Solutions for SEN in Ghana
Casely-Hayford and Lynch, 2003
Special Courses

Train teachers in Assistive Technology usage
through regular training programmes organised
by the SpED with the support of outside
agencies

Call on private sector ICT training companies to
provide initial In-Service training in how to use
computer software to teach or supplement
curriculum areas in SEN
ICT Based Solutions for SEN in Ghana
Casely-Hayford and Lynch, 2003
Community Based Rehabilitation


The Integrated Education Project (IEP) was set up by
Sight Savers, Ghana in collaboration with the SpED and
the Ghana Society for the Blind (GSB)
Programme success generated through the Community
Based Rehabilitation (CBR) model:
•
•
•
funds for an itinerant teacher to visit the school
provision of free classroom materials (e.g. books
in Braille) and regular eye treatment
capacity building to enhance teacher skills in
monitoring and evaluating progress
Issues around AT
Cost
 Technical knowledge on how to
use it
 Level of support, loss and
breakage.

AT provision where there are few
resources – 3 approaches


As special schools become decongested,
develop a new role for the schools as outreach
centres of advice and ideas for teachers in
ordinary schools –
Centres with dedicated staff who have
theoretical knowledge and practical expertise in
the areas of curriculum, assessment and
teaching methods in special education and the
development, utilization and monitoring of AT
technologies (Special School Approach).
Twinomugisha, 2007
AT provision where there are few
resources – 3 approaches

Develop a decentralized dedicated
network of resource centres or special
units linked to regular schools or school
cluster zones (Resource Centre Network
Approach)
Twinomugisha, 2007
AT provision where there are few
resources – 3 approaches

Developing a full IE setting where the AT
is deployed in the regular classroom
(School Based Approach).
Twinomugisha, 2007
AT provision where there are few
resources – 3 approaches

A combined approach?
Twinomugisha, 2007
References








Bassi, R. 2007. How can ICT help people with disabilities? Dublin: GeSCI (Internal document)
Casely-Hayward, L. and Lynch, P. 2003. A Review of Good Practice in ICT and Special Educational Needs
for Africa. London: Imfundo/DFID
Enabling Technology. (Homepage). [Online]. Available from: http://www.enabletech.ie/index.html
[Accessed 21 October 2007]
Individuals with Disabilities Act 1997 [Online]. Available from:
http://www.ed.gov/policy/speced/leg/idea/idea.pdf [Accessed 14 November 2007]
Morrison, K. 2007. Implementation of assistive computer technology: A model for school systems.
International Journal of Special Education. 22 (1), pp83-95
National Centre for Technology in Education 2007. [Online]. Available from:
fromhttp://www.ncte.ie/SpecialNeedsICT/ResourcesAdvice/AssistiveTechnology/[Accessed 14 November
2007]
Twinomugisha, A. 26 November 2007. Re: Financing IE where there are few resources. Educationist Group
[Online Discussion List]. Available from: Gesci
http://www.gesci.org/index.php?option=com_joomlaboard&Itemid=61&func=view&id=17&catid=8
[Accessed 28 November 2007]
UNESCO 2006. Press Conference on Inclusive Technologies for Persons with Disabilities [Online].
Available from UNESCO <http://www.un.org/News/briefings/docs/2007/070326_Disabilities.doc.htm>
[Accessed 20 October 2007]
Resources
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Group discussion 1
The topic of resources is a very emotive one when inclusion is being discussed. Many people
argue that they ‘cannot do inclusive education because we do not have enough resources’.
What are the resource barriers to inclusion?
What resources do we have within ourselves and our communities? CBR, Special
Schools, National, District and School Cluster Resource Centres
What is needed?
What are the options?
How can they source funding through the Education Sector Plan?
Resources
Group Discussion 2
Case Study
• Kwame is 7 has low vision, goes to local school, unable to see
blackboard, finds it difficult to read normal size print, enjoys
maths, etc.
•
Work out a plan on the use of Assistive Technology that helps
Kwame integrate into the class.
Download