Uploaded by Evelyn Fung

Intro to Unit 1

Intro to Animals: Structure and Function
Necessary Life Functions
Metabolism: all the chemical reactions that occur in the body
Excretion: removal of wastes from the body
Reproduction: cellular and organism levels
o Cellular: an original cell divides ad produces 2 identical daughter cells
o Organism: sperm and egg unite to make a whole new person
Growth: increase in size of a body part or od the organism
Levels of Structural Organization of Multicellular Organisms
Atoms  molecules  organelles  cells  tissues  organ organ system  organism
Organ Systems
Integumentary System
o Forms the external body covering
o Composed of skin, sweat glands, oil glands, hair, and nails
o Protects deep tissues from injury and synthesizes vitamin D
Skeletal System
o Composed of bone, cartilage, and ligaments
o Protects and support body organs
o Provides framework for muscles
o Site of blood cell formation
o Stores minerals
Muscular System
o Composed of muscles and tendons
o Allows manipulation of the environment, locomotion, and facial expression
o Maintain posture
o Produces heat
Nervous System
o Is the fast-acting control system of the body
o Responds to stimuli by activating muscles and glands
Cardiovascular System
o Composed of heart and blood vessels
o Heart pumps blood
o Blood vessels transport blood throughout the body
Lymphatic System
o Picks up fluid leaked from blood vessels
Contains white blood cells involved w/ immunity
Respiratory System
o Keeps blood supplied w/ oxygen and removes carbon dioxide
Digestive System
o Breaks down food into absorbable units that enter the blood
o Eliminates indigestible food as feces
Urinary System
o Eliminates toxins and nitrogen-containing wastes from the body
o Regulates water, electrolyte, and pH balance of the blood
Endocrine System
o System of glands, each of which secretes a type of hormone to regulate the internal
conditions of the body
o Is an information signal system
o Works w/ the nervous system
Reproductive System
o Main function is the production of offspring
o Ovaries produce eggs and testicles produce sperm
Organ System Interrelationships
o Integumentary system protects body from external environment
o Digestive and respiratory systems, in contact with the external environment, take in
nutrients and oxygen
o Nutrients and oxygen are distributed by the blood
o Metabolic wastes are eliminated by the urinary and respiratory systems