Uploaded by Isabel Kolb


1. Agricultural revolution Improved livestock breeding led to
amplified food production, spike in population, increased
health, & an enclosure movement.
2. Industrial revolution: The transition from hand made to
machine made production in Europe and the US.
3. 1st Industrial Revolution: (1750-1870), Complex machines,
Development of factory system, Steam a source of power,
Increased output of coal, iron, and steel, New methods of
transportation and communication.
4. 2nd Industrial Revolution: (1870-Present), New sources of
power, development of synthetic products, newer and
faster methods of transportation and communication,
computers/robotics, space exploration
5. Reasons the Industrial Revolution began in England:
Increasing food production meant the British population
could be fed at lower prices with less effort than ever
before. This was the theme of industrialization, making
production more efficient.
6. Coal was needed in big amounts to fuel steam engines and
7. The assembly lines sped up the manufacturing process,
reduced labor hours, and increased the number of
products made.
8. Division of Labor: a concept that says dividing the
production process into different stages enables workers
to focus on specific tasks
9. Henry Ford is accredited for using the first assembly line.
10. Eli Whitney = The cotton gin, made with a wire screen and
small wire hooks to pull the cotton through, brushes
removed lint to prevent jams.
11. Problems workers faced: Bad working conditions, low
wages, long hours, lack of security/safety measures, poor
treatment, child labor.
12. Methods unions used to get their demands met: strikes,
parades, boycotts, and collective bargaining
13. 4 things unions and workers wanted to improve during the
industrial revolution: improve their salary, working
conditions, job security, and benefits through the union.
14. List the 4 ways employers could stop unions.
15. Social results of the Industrial revolution: increase in
wealth, the production of goods, a better standard of
living, healthier diets, better houses, education increase,
and cheaper goods.
16. Political changes: More people gained the right to vote,
women’s suffrage movement began, labor unions formed.
17. Industrial revolution turned economies from agriculture
and handicraft based into large-scale industry, mechanized
manufacturing, and factory system based.
18. Capitalist Republic: form of government associated with
19. Key ideas of Capitalism: two-class system, profit motive,
minimal government intervention, competition.
20. Adam Smith wrote Wealth of Nations
21. Laissez-Faire: means “let people do as they choose” in
French. Opposes regulation by the government in public
22. Democratic socialism: elected government, emphasis on
workers’ self-management.
23. Communist Manifesto: written by Karl Marx and Friedrich
24. Violent revolution to overflow governments
25. Property & wealth is community-owned, no religion, no
26. Capitalism was geared more towards the private interest.
27. Communism geared more towards public interest.
28. Major increase in population led to the depletion of natural
resources. The use of chemicals and fuel in factories
resulted in increased air and water pollution and an
increased use of fossil fuels.
29. Urban cities were very dirty and crowded.
30. Edwin Chadwick: English social reformer, instituted major
sanitation and public health reform.
Textiles: type of cloth/woven fabric
Mass Production: producing stuff in bulk
Factors of Industrialization: textiles, factories, etc.
Domestic System: goods produced in home, small scale
Factory System: everything done in one building with machines
Interchangeable Parts: universal parts for a product that can be
switched out
Corporations: group of people authorized to act as a single
Monopoly: exclusive possession or control of the supply of
trade in a commodity or service
Adam Smith: capitalism, laissez-faire
Laissez-Faire: abstention by gov from interfering in the
workings of the free market
Eli Whitney: cotton gin, interchangeable parts
Jethro Tull: seed drill- sewed seeds in neat rows
Samuel Morse: Morse code
Capitalism: trade and industry is controlled by the people
Factory Act 1833: improved factory working conditions for
Karl Marx: German philosopher famous for his theories on
Communist Manifesto:
Communism: eliminates social classes, violent gov overthrow,
gov owns all industries
Socialism: eliminates social classes, peaceful gov overthrow,
gov owns major industries
James Watt: Scottish, improved the steam engine
Henry Ford: American, created assembly line
George Stephenson: British, “father of railways”
Richard Arkwright: English, created factory system
Henry Bessemer: English, known for his steel making process
Robert Fulton: American, created the steamboat