North South University Dhaka, Bangladesh Financial Ratio Analysis Of Aramit Cement & Confidence Cement Course: FIN254 Course title: Introduction to Managerial Finance Submitted by Nurul Samnan Rafeed ID: 1611333030 Sheikh Istiaque ID: 1610074030 Mashiwiyat Tabassum ID: 1610567030 Chowdhury Wafee Daraiat ID: 1631068030 Samiul Islam ID: 1631244030 Submitted to – Muhammad Nasiruddin (MN) Lecturer Department of Accounting & Finance School of Business & Economics North South University 29th of October, 2017 Letter of Transmittal 29th of Octover, 2017 Muhammad Nassiruddin Lecturer, Department of Accounting & Finance, School of Business & Economics North South University Dhaka – 1215. Subject: Submission of the report on Financial Ratios Analysis. Dear Sir, As per your instructions, we formed a group and worked on the ratio analysis of the two companies – Aramit Cement & Confidence Cement that were assigned to us few weeks back as a requirement of the course completion of FIN254. To present you the report, is a matter of great contentment and quite the cachet for us. We had to research a lot throughout the whole assignment which helped us to gain an in depth knowledge on the analyzing of financial ratios. We have tried our best to accommodate as much as information and facts as possible following the guidelines you have provided -trying our best to make this report as relevant as we could. We are grateful to you for your kind cooperation most sincere concern at every step of our journey in making this report. Hope you find this report useful and find our hard work and dedication while evaluating the report. Sincerely, Nurul Samnan Rafeed ID: 1611333030 Sheikh Istiaque ID: 1610074030 Mashiwiyat Tabassum ID: 1610567030 Chowdhury Wafee Daraiat ID: 1631068030 Samiul Islam ID: 1631244030 Table of Contents Content Page(s) Executive Summary ------------------------------------------------- 04 Introduction ----------------------------------------------------------- 05 Analysis of Financial Ratios ---------------------------------------- 06 - 26 Liquidity Ratios: Current Ratio Quick Ratio Asset Management Ratio Inventory Turnover Total Asset Turnover fixed asset Turnover Accounts receivable turnover Average Collection Period Average Payment Period Profitability Ratios Gross Profit Margin Operating Profit Margin Net Profit Margin Basic Earning Power(BEP ratio) Return On Asset(ROA) Return On Equity(ROE) Earnings Per Share(EPS) Debt Management Ratios Debt Ratio Times Interest Earned Market Ratios P/E Ratio M/B Ratio Du-Pont Analysis 06 - 07 06 07 08 - 14 08 09 10 11 12-13 14 15 - 21 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 - 23 22 23 24 - 25 24 25 26 Summary ------------------------------------------------------------- 27- 28 Recommendation ----------------------------------------------------- 29 Conclusion ------------------------------------------------------------- 30 Bibliography ----------------------------------------------------------- 31 Executive Summary In this report, we analyzed and compared a number financial ratios between Aramit Cement and Confidence Cement for the years between 2011 and 2015. In doing so, we have been able to identify and comprehend a significant amount of information involving the financial position for both the given companies. In doing the report, we have found how Aramit Cement has better and improving liquidity position, with the current and quick ratios being favorable over time. Aramit Cement had also succeeded in marinating higher gross profit margin, operating profit margin and a greater basic earning power (BEP), despite having a relatively lower net profit available for shareholders. In addition, Aramit Cement is highly dependent on debts to finance its assets, and therefore have very high debt ratios and lower interest coverage ratios. It also seems to have a poor credit control policy with its average payment and collection ratios being significantly higher than the industry average. On the contrary, Confidence Cement has been succeeded in maintaining favorable asset turnover ratios, accounts receivable turnover and inventory turnover. It also has very impressive and quick collection and payment periods, proving is prowess in efficiently managing its assets. Even if its gross and operating profit margins are low, it offers a higher net profit margin and thereby greater opportunities for its shareholders. In addition, it often is not burdened by debts, and a greater portion of its financing is generated internally from its shareholders. All in all, we have attempted to provide true information verified from a number of sources, besides analyzing the ratios perfectly. However, there has been limitations in getting hold of data required for calculations which have not been published. Although, the ratios provide a true comparison between the companies, it fails to consider factors such as size and scale of operations, skill of workforce and management, efficiency of machineries, other than major external changes in the industry and economy of operation. We hope this report meets its objective of providing in depth analysis of the financial ratios and a better idea regarding the financial position of the two companies in context. Introduction This report provides information obtained through ratio analysis, regarding the profitability, liquidity, activity, debt and financial stability of X and Y for the years from 2011-2014. This report pays particular attention to the earning power, liquidity and credit management, inventory management and debt management, and will highlight major strengths and weaknesses while offering some explanation for observed changes. A brief description of all the ratios divided in time series analysis and cross section analysis compared to industry average is given in this report. Aramit Cement Limited, as a part of the conglomerate Aramit Group, was incorporated on the August 19, 1995 as a public limited company and established with technical collaboration of a Chinese company for producing Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) to commence with its production from November 10, 1999. Aramit Cement has since marketed its product with a brand name of Camel, tried to focus on improving its quality, creating exports and expanding its production to include OPC - 43 N Grade Cement and Portland Slag Cement. Existing capacity of the plant is 700 metric tons per day which is going to be enhanced by 1000 metric tons per day production capacity through setting up of another expansion unit. Confidence Cement, on the other hand, is the first private sector cement manufacturing company in Bangladesh, being established in 1994 with having 4,80,000 M/T annual production capacity at Chittagong. It attempts to focus in Quality Assurance, Marketing, Sales and Procurements. It Manufactures Portland Cement and Portland Composite Cement and aims to be the number one cement manufacturing company in Bangladesh, through continuous development and by producing high and consistent quality Cement to meet all customers requirement at all time. Analysis of Financial Ratios Liquidity Ratios Current Ratio 1,6 1,4 1,2 1 0,8 0,6 0,4 0,2 0 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 Aramit 0,69 0,68 0,67 0,92 1,19 Confidence 1,24 1,3 1,41 1,39 0,7 Aramit Confidence Time Series Analysis of Aramit Cement As seen in the graph below, Aramit Cement had a relatively similar Current Ratio values from 2011 to 2013, between 0.69 and 0.67, before gradually increasing to 0.92 in 2014 and 1.19 in 2015. Despite owing higher short term debts compared to its current assets, from 2011 to 2014, Aramit Cement finally in 2015 managed to get its current ratio over 1. The upward movement of the curve exhibits an improving liquidity position for Aramit Cement, with trends suggesting greater improvements over time. Time Series Analysis of Confidence Cement The ratio had been increasing steadily to reach its peak in 2013, where Confidence Cement owned 1.41 current assets compared to 1 current liabilities. However, 2015 saw a drastic decline in Confidence Cement’s current ratio, as the value fell from 1.39 in 2014 to 0.7 in 2015. Cross Section Analysis Confidence Cement held a better off liquidity position compared to the Aramit, with its current ratio remaining well above that of Aramit Cement till 2014. Despite having a better current ratio over Aramit Cement in the previous years, Confidence Cement were in worse position, with greater current liabilities to meet with existing current assets, compared to Aramit Cement’s growing solvency. Acid Test Ratio 1,4 1,22 1,2 1,16 1,07 0,99 1 0,88 0,79 0,8 0,6 0,57 0,58 0,6 0,55 0,4 0,2 0 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 Aramit 0,57 0,58 0,6 0,79 1,07 Confidence 0,88 0,99 1,22 1,16 0,55 Aramit Confidence Time Series Analysis of Aramit Cement Similar, to the previous ratio, the above graph shows a low, yet steady Acid Test Ratio for Aramit Cement between 2011 and 2013, before the ratio starts increasing in 2014 to reach at a value of 1.07 in 2015. Thus, Aramit in 2015, had 1.07 units of liquid assets to pay off short term debts equivalent to 1 unit. Time Series Analysis of Confidence Cement Confidence Cement had a better liquidity position in comparison to Aramit Cement from 2011 to 2014. Its ratio had been increasing till 2013, when Confidence Cement had 1.22 units of current assets other than Inventory to satisfy 1 unit of its current liabilities. Despite the value declining to 1.16 in 2014, the ratio rapidly fell to 0.55 in 2015. Cross Section Analysis Confidence Cement had maintained a better quick ratio compared to Aramit Cement till 2014. However, Aramit Cement had shown quick ratio over time, and therefore in 2015 its value of 1.07 was well ahead of Confidence Cement’s ratio that had abruptly declined to 0.55 almost half of the former’s value. Asset Management Ratios Inventory Turnover 14,00 11,85 12,00 9,23 10,00 8,00 6,00 6,45 7,31 5,93 7,64 7,43 6,30 5,08 3,18 4,00 2,00 0,00 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 Aramit 6,45 6,30 7,43 3,18 5,08 Confidence 5,93 7,31 11,85 7,64 9,23 Aramit Confidence Time Series Analysis of Aramit Cement Aramit Cement had an inventory turnover of 6.45 times in 2011, which gradually had increased to 7.43 times in 2013, indicating greater sales being made earlier, causing more inventory to be replaced. However, the turnover drastically declined by over 57% to 3.18 times in 2014, before increasing to 5.08 times in 2015. Time Series Analysis of Confidence Cement Confidence Cement turned over its inventory into sales 5.93 times in 2011, which significantly increased over two years to 11.85 times in 2013, well exceeding Aramit Cement’s 7.43. Confidence Cement in 2013, held highest inventory turnover in the given period. However 2014 saw a decline to 7.64 times, before again increasing in 2015. Cross Section Analysis While 2013 saw the highest inventory turnover for both the companies, 2014 saw massive decline in turnover for both. However, Confidence cement’s turnover had remained higher than Aramit cement’s in 2014. Thus, it can be understood, both companies held excess stock in 2014 with lower value of sales compared to previous years. Aramit Cement’s sales had declined from Tk. 871,405,186 to Tk. 623,698,928 while its inventory held increased to worth Tk. 149,365,619 from Tk. 91,035,394, explaining the change in its ratio. On the other side, Confidence Cement’s sales had increased from Tk. 3,481,284,388 to Tk. 3,634,989,180, it inventory had increased at a greater rate from Tk. 233,412,271 to Tk. 396,303,714, hence resulting in excess inventory, which thereby reduced the inventory turner over. 2015, again saw a general improvement in inventory turnover for both the respective companies. Total Asset Turnover 0,9 0,8 0,7 0,77 0,8 0,71 0,76 0,72 0,65 0,6 0,55 0,6 0,5 0,4 0,33 0,4 0,3 0,2 0,1 0 2011 2012 2013 2014 Aramit 0,77 0,71 0,55 0,33 0,4 Confidence 0,6 0,8 0,76 0,72 0,65 Aramit 2015 Confidence Time Series Analysis of Aramit Cement As seen in the diagram above, Aramit cement’s total asset turnover has declined gradually over time from 0.77 to 0.33 between 2011 and 2014, indicating a subsequent fall in its ability to generate sales from every dollar of asset it owns. Though the asset turnover increases to 0.4 in 2015, it still is well below in relation to the performance of Confidence cement. Time Series Analysis of Confidence Cement Confidence Cement, however did not have the best of performance in 2011, when it had a Total Asset Turnover of 0.6. However, it improved in its efficiency in using assets in converting them into sales in the following years, and despite a slight decrease in its values lately, it is still in a significantly better position than Aramit cement. Cross Section Analysis Aramit Cement held a better Total Asset turnover ratio of 0.77, in 2011, compared to Confidence Cement’s 0.6. However, since 2012, Confidence Cement had been performing more efficiently in using its assets to generate sales, and therefore, unlike 2011, had been well ahead of Aramit Cement, despite the latter’s recent improvement in asset turnover. Fixed Asset Turnover 2,00 1,80 1,60 1,40 1,20 1,00 0,80 0,60 0,40 0,20 0,00 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 Aramit 1,75 1,67 1,20 0,75 0,98 Confidence 0,86 1,29 1,23 1,39 0,90 Aramit Confidence Time Series Analysis of Aramit Cement Aramit cement’s fixed asset turnover had remained significantly high between 2011 and 2012, before declining to 0.75 times in 2014. Thus in 2014, Aramit Cement had been using $1 of its fixed assets to gain sales valued at 0.75. 2015, on the contrary, saw an opposite trend, as the fixed asset turnover increased to almost 1, ahead of its competitor, while Confidence cement had been more efficient in generating 1.39 sales using $1 of its fixed asset. Time Series Analysis of Confidence Cement Confidence Cement’s fixed asset turnover had been poor compared to Aramit Cement’s at 0.86 in 2011, before significantly improving to 1.29 in the following year. The figures remained stable before reaching Confidence Cement’s highest turnover in 2013, where Confidence Cement had been more efficient in generating 1.39 sales using $1 of its fixed asset. Despite the improvement, the turnover again fell to 0.90 times in 2015. Cross Section Analysis Aramit cement’s fixed asset turnover had remained significantly higher at 1.75, more than double of Confidence Cement’s value of 0.86 in 2011, before falling in the subsequent years. Confidence Cement’s Fixed Asset turnover, on the other hand, had remained consistent between 1.20 and 1.40 times. However, in 2015, both companies saw opposite trends in its fixed asset turnover, as Aramit cement’s declining turnover reversed positively to go ahead of Confidence cement’s turnover, which rapidly declined to 0.90 from 1.39 in 2014. Accounts Receivables Turnover 7,34 8,00 7,00 5,97 6,00 5,00 4,00 4,35 3,75 4,92 4,77 1,86 1,68 3,68 2,92 3,00 2,00 1,00 0,00 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 Aramit 3,75 3,68 2,92 1,86 1,68 Confidence 4,35 7,34 5,97 4,92 4,77 Aramit Confidence Time Series Analysis of Aramit Cement Aramit Cement had an overall poor Accounts receivables turn over, which in addition was also declining since 2011. The ratio fell to 1.68 times in 2015, indicating it had only collected all of its owing debts, only 1.68 times, suggesting a very inefficient management of credit, especially in comparison to Confidence Cement Time Series Analysis of Confidence Cement Confidence Cement’s Accounts Receivables turnover increased from 4.35 times in 2011 to its peak at 7.34 times in 2012. Thus, in 2012, Confidence Cement had collected its debts a total of 7.34 times, the quickest in terms of the given values. The values, however, gradually fell over the subsequent years to 4.77 in 2015. Despite that, its overall turnover had remained fruitful. Cross Section Analysis Confidence Cement throughout the period had a better accounts receivable turnover than Aramit Cement, that is, it was more effective with its credit policy and in collecting debts from accounts receivables. Though the ratios had seen a falling trend, Confidence cement was well ahead of Aramit Cement with its inventory turning over 4.77 times, in comparison to the former’s 1.68. Average Collection Period 250,00 216,68 196,57 200,00 150,00 100,00 125,03 97,39 83,96 99,07 49,74 61,14 74,21 76,52 50,00 0,00 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 Aramit 97,39 99,07 125,03 196,57 216,68 Confidence 83,96 49,74 61,14 74,21 76,52 Aramit Confidence Time Series Analysis of Aramit Cement Aramit Cement, as seen above, had greater collection period in comparison to Confidence Cement, with the days significantly increasing from 97.39 days in 2011, to 216.68 days in 2015. The longer and increasing collection period suggests poor credit management as stated earlier, such that it is requiring Aramit Cement, almost 2/3 of a year to collect its debts in 2015. Time Series Analysis of Confidence Cement Confidence Cement, in comparison, has much better Average Collection Period. Though the difference between its values against that of Aramit Cement was relatively low in 2011, the chart above shows how drastically Confidence Cement has reduced its collection period. Though its effectiveness in collecting debts has slightly declined in 2015, it however is much more efficient and quicker. Cross Section Analysis Aramit Cement held a longer collection period in comparison to Confidence Cement throughout the period, with the difference in their values significantly getting larger over time. In 2015, the collection period for Confidence Cement was almost 3 times quicker than Aramit Cement’s. Greater efficiency in collecting debts means that a smaller sum of money is tied up with the accounts receivable, and a firm therefore has more cash to use. As per the time value of money principle, a firm would be losing more money if it had been taking a longer period to collect its debts; Aramit Cement in this case. Average Payment Period 350,00 300,00 250,00 200,00 150,00 100,00 57,35 0,00 36,37 34,62 50,00 28,89 36,34 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 Aramit 200,29 277,86 327,48 292,42 123,61 Confidence 57,35 34,62 36,37 28,89 36,34 Aramit Confidence Time Series Analysis of Aramit Cement Aramit Cement, as shown above, has significantly higher average payment period in comparison to Confidence Cement. The period increased from around 200 days in 2011 to 327 days in 2013. Though the payment period had reduced in 2015, it still was very high, compared to Confidence Cement. Such substantial payment periods could exist as a result of the previously discussed high Average Collection period of Aramit Cement. Given that Aramit Cement had not been able to collect its debts properly, it lacked liquidity, and thereby transferred the crisis on accounts payable, by taking very long periods to time to pay them. Time Series Analysis of Confidence Cement On the contrary, Confidence much shorter and stable average payment periods. 2011 saw the longest payment period for Confidence Cement. However, since 2012, it maintained a payment period around one month. Making quicker payments might also have been possible for Confidence Cement for having a better credit policy on collection of debts. It might also be able to gain of discounts from suppliers for early payments. Cross Section Analysis Aramit Cement’s payment period was much larger in comparison to Confidence Cement’s period. The payment period for Aramit Cement was such high that, in 2013, it would have required almost an entire year to pay off its accounts payable, which was about 9 times that of Confidence Cement in that period. Profitability Ratios Gross Profit Margin 30,00 27,10 25,00 20,00 15,00 19,22 19,4719,53 22,37 20,57 23,96 16,68 14,03 15,68 10,00 5,00 0,00 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 Aramit 19,22 19,47 22,37 23,96 27,10 Confidence 14,03 19,53 20,57 16,68 15,68 Aramit Confidence Time Series Analysis of Aramit Cement: As the times series analysis indicates, Aramit Cement generated tk.19.22taka gross profit from every tk.100 of sale in 2011. The company maintained a stable growth of gross profit margin in the following years and ended up with 27.10% gross profit margin, which is a very good sign for the company. Time Series Analysis of Confidence Cement: As the times series analysis indicates, Confidence Cement generated tk.14.03 gross profit from every tk.100 of sale in 2011. The company maintained a stable gross profit margin in the following 3 years but in the year 2014 their gross profit margin reduced to 16.68% and it decreased even more in 2015 which is 15.68%, which is not a good sign for the company’s management and operational excellence. Cross Sectional Analysis: Aramit Cement has higher gross profit margin than Confidence Cement. Though Gross profit margin do not indicate the overall performance of the company, it is just the first step to earning profit. A higher gross profit margin indicates lower cost of goods sold and it lead a company to earn higher net profit margin. According to graph, Aramit Cement’s performance is better than Confidence Cement in gross profit margin. Operating Profit Margin 25,00 19,59 20,00 15,00 14,14 14,8014,23 19,32 17,12 16,07 12,20 10,01 11,31 10,00 5,00 0,00 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 Aramit 14,14 14,80 16,07 19,59 19,32 Confidence 10,01 14,23 17,12 12,20 11,31 Aramit Confidence Time Series Analysis of Aramit Cement: From the view of time series analysis, in 2011, Aramit Cement generated tk.14.14 operating profit from every tk100 of sales. Afterwards, the company gradually increased their operating profit. In 2015, Aramit Cement earned 19.32% operating profit margin. Increased operating profit margin indicates that Aramit Cement could manage operational expenses properly. Time Series Analysis of Confidence Cement: From the view of time series analysis, in 2011, Confidence Cement generated tk.10.01 taka operating profit from every tk100 of sales. Afterwards, the company gradually increased their operating profit. In 2014, Confidence Cement started losing their operating profit margin. Reduced operating profit margin indicates that Confidence Cement could not manage operational expenses properly. Cross Sectional Analysis: Aramit Cement’s operating profit margin is higher than Confidence Cement. Confidence Cement had a higher gross profit margin but they could not manage their operational expenses properly which reduced their operating profit margin. The graph indicates that Confidence Cement will get a lower net operating profit margin which is not a good sign for the company. Net Profit Margin 12,00 10,46 10,00 8,85 8,97 8,57 8,00 6,00 6,58 5,19 4,99 4,65 4,00 2,44 2,00 0,00 2011 2012 Aramit 5,19 Confidence 8,85 1,91 2013 2014 2015 4,65 4,99 2,44 1,91 8,57 10,46 6,58 8,97 Aramit Confidence Time Series Analysis of Aramit Cement: In 2011, Aramit Cement generated tk.5.19% net profit from every tk.100 of sales. From 2012 to 2015, their net profit margin decreased. In the fiscal year 2015, the company earned their lowest net profit margin of 1.91%. Deceasing net profit margin is not a good sign for the company. Time Series Analysis of Confidence Cement: From the view of time series analysis, Confidence Cement’s net profit margin has fluctuated from 2011 to 2015, which is not a good sign for a company. Cross Sectional Analysis: Confidence Cement is earning higher net profit margin than Aramit Cement. Confidence Cement showed higher operational excellence in gaining good gross, operational, and net profit margin. Profit is the ultimate success of a company. Higher profit margin helps a company to grow its business. Here, Confidence Cement had showed a great skill in earning higher profit than Aramit Cement. Basic Earning Power 14,00 12,00 12,99 11,40 10,57 10,83 10,00 8,82 8,00 8,76 6,54 6,01 7,72 7,39 6,00 4,00 2,00 0,00 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 Aramit 10,83 10,57 8,82 6,54 7,72 Confidence 6,01 11,40 12,99 8,76 7,39 Aramit Confidence Time Series Analysis of Aramit Cement: The basic earning power ratio for Aramit Cement shows that, in the year 2011 Aramit Cement is earning 10.83tk of profit before interest and taxes against 100tk worth of total assets. Till 2014 it decreased to 6.54. Then it again increased to 7.72 Time Series Analysis of Confidence Cement: The basic earning power ratio for Confidence Cement shows that, in the year 2011 Confidence Cement is earning 6.01tk of profit before interest and taxes against 100tk worth of total assets. In 2012 & 2013 the basic earning power ratio for Confidence Cement increased to 12.99%, then from 2014 the basic earning power ratio started decreasing to 7.39. Cross Sectional Analysis: Aramit Cement generated higher return on basic earning power ratio than Confidence Cement. It means Aramit Cement is earning more in EBIT than Confidence Cement. Confidence Cement is using more assets to earn than Aramit Cement which is not a good sign for the company. On the other hand, Aramit Cement should continue their BEP ratio like this to get preference from the stockholders. Return On Asset 9,00 7,94 8,00 6,87 7,00 6,00 5,00 5,86 5,31 4,73 3,98 4,00 3,32 2,74 3,00 2,00 0,81 1,00 0,00 0,76 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 Aramit 3,98 3,32 2,74 0,81 0,76 Confidence 5,31 6,87 7,94 4,73 5,86 Aramit Confidence Time Series Analysis of Aramit Cement: In 2011, Aramit Cement made tk.3.98-taka profit from every tk.100 taka worth assets. As the time series analysis indicates, the ROA was lowest 0.76% in 2015 and highest 3.98% in 2011. Time Series Analysis of Confidence Cement: In 2011, Confidence Cement made tk.5.31-taka profit from every tk.100 taka worth assets. As the time series analysis indicates, the ROA was lowest 4.73% in 2014 and highest 7.94% in 2013. Cross Sectional Analysis: Aramit Cement had lower ROA than Confidence Cement in all the years. It means that Aramit Cement is using more assets to generate revenues than Confidence Cement. Using more assets for less revenue is not a good sign for the company because assets increases depreciation costs and decrease net income. On the other hand, Confidence Cement is generating net income by using less assets which shows their operational excellence. Return On Equity 30,00 27,96 25,00 22,16 20,00 15,81 15,00 10,98 10,00 12,43 10,51 8,26 7,88 5,00 0,00 2,90 3,25 2011 2012 2013 2014 Aramit 27,96 22,16 15,81 2,90 3,25 Confidence 7,88 10,98 12,43 8,26 10,51 Aramit 2015 Confidence Time Series Analysis of Aramit Cement: As the time series analysis indicates, Aramit Cement had tk.27.96 taka profit worth every tk.100 of stockholders equity in 2011. The company generated lower ROE in each following year. In 2011, Aramit Cement’s ROE was lowest 2.90% which was not a good sign as it indicates the company is earning more profit for its stockholders. Time Series Analysis of Confidence Cement: As the time series analysis indicates, Confidence Cement had tk.7.88 profit worth every tk.100 of stockholders equity in 2011. The company generated fluctuating ROE in each following year. In 2013, Confidence Cement’s ROE was highest 12.43%. Cross Sectional Analysis: Confidence Cement generated higher return on equity than Aramit Cement. It means Confidence Cement is earning more for their stockholders than Aramit Cement. Higher net income lead Confidence Cement to get higher ROE. Lower return stockholders equity discourage stockholders to invest and it increases the risk of investment. As the industry standard, Confidence Cement is performing better than Aramit Cement in Return on Equity ratio. Earning Per Share 9,00 8,10 7,50 8,00 7,00 7,20 6,10 6,00 5,30 5,00 4,00 3,30 3,03 2,56 3,00 2,00 0,45 1,00 0,00 2011 2012 2013 2014 Aramit 3,30 3,03 2,56 0,45 Confidence 6,10 7,50 8,10 5,30 Aramit 2015 7,20 Confidence Time Series Analysis of Aramit Cement: From the view of time series analysis, Aramit Cement allocated tk.3.30 per share for their stockholders in 2011. Earnings per share started decreasing from 2012. The value of 2015 could not be found, so that space is left vacant. Time Series Analysis of Confidence Cement: Confidence Cement allocated tk.6.10 per share for their stockholders in 2011. EPS increased drastically in the following years. In the fiscal year of 2013, Confidence Cement’s EPS was highest tk.8.10 per share. Cross Sectional Analysis: Confidence Cement had greater earning per share than Aramit Cement which indicates that Confidence Cement is making satisfactory profit for their stockholders. Higher EPS ensures higher share price for a company. The EPS of Aramit Cement is not good enough to attract shareholders to make investment in that company. As the industry standard, the earning per share for Aramit Cement is not good. On the other hand, Confidence Cement is doing well in this case. Debt Management Ratios (Capital Structure Ratio) Debt Ratio 100% 90% 86% 85% 83% 80% 77% 72% 70% 60% 50% 40% 33% 37% 43% 44% 36% 30% 20% 10% 0% 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 Aramit 86% 85% 83% 72% 77% Confidence 33% 37% 36% 43% 44% Aramit Confidence Time Series Analysis of Aramit Cement Aramit had a debt ratio stable at around at 83 to 86% between 2011 and 2013, before slightly declining to 72% and 77% in 2014 and 2015 respectively. A 77% debt ratio in 2015, suggested almost 3/4th of Aramit’s assets were financed by debts, while the shareholder’s equity was only responsible for 23% of the funding. Time Series Analysis of Confidence Cement The debt ratio had remained low throughout the period, with its value gradually increasing from 33% in 2011 to 44% in 2015. A 44% debt ratio in 2015, meant a little less than half of Confidence Cement’s funding had been done through debts, which was higher than previous years. An increase in debts could be explained by Confidence Cement’s significant increase in fixed assets from 2.6 billion Taka in 2014 to over 4 billion Taka in 2015, suggesting higher investments, which required funding from debts, and not just the shareholders. Cross Section Analysis Confidence Cement’s debt ratio had remained significantly low compared to Aramit Cement’s ratio. Aramit Cement therefore had raised greater proportion of its finance from debts rather than from shareholder’s equity, which was quite opposite in the case of Confidence Cement. For example in 2015, 77% of Aramit Cement’s assets were financed by liabilities, while only 44% of Confidence Cement’s assets were financed in such manner. Times Interest Earned 10,00 9,28 9,00 8,00 6,82 7,00 5,70 6,00 5,91 4,78 5,00 4,00 3,00 1,88 1,60 1,43 1,16 1,12 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 Aramit 1,88 1,60 1,43 1,16 1,12 Confidence 9,28 5,70 5,91 6,82 4,78 2,00 1,00 0,00 Aramit Confidence Time Series Analysis of Aramit Cement Aramit Cement’s ability to pay interest charges had remained low, and in addition was declining. It had the ability to meet the interest payment 1.88 times in 2011, which gradually had reduced by about 40% over 5 years to 1.12 times in 2015. Time Series Analysis of Confidence Cement Confidence Cement had a relatively high, yet fluctuating interest coverage ratio. A ratio of 9.28 times in 2011 had declined to 5.70 times in 2012, which increased to 6.81 in 2014, before again falling in 2015. Moreover, it was always making enough operating profits to be able to pay its interest charges. Cross Section Analysis Confidence Cement’s interest coverage ratio had throughout the five years remained in much better position than Aramit Cement. In 2015, Confidence Cement was being able to pay its interests about 5 times, while Aramit Cement had been struggling at a little more than 1 time. The main reason behind such occurring was Aramit Cement’s high dependency on debts for its finance. Since it had higher debts in comparison to Confidence Cement, it had to pay greater interests. However, it had lower Earnings before Interest and Tax (EBIT), and thereby lower coverage. Market Ratios P/E Ratio 100,00 87,42 90,00 80,00 70,00 60,00 50,00 40,00 35,43 30,00 20,00 32,87 21,19 11,03 10,68 11,06 10,00 0,00 6,22 2011 2012 2013 2014 Aramit 35,43 21,19 32,87 87,42 Confidence 11,03 10,68 11,06 6,22 Aramit 4,98 2015 4,98 Confidence Time Series Analysis of Aramit Cement: In 2011, the common stockholders of Aramit Cement were willing to pay tk.35.43 for each tk.1 of reported earnings. In the following years the amount increased because of the increasing net profit margin and earning per share. It may increase the reputation of the company among shareholders. Time Series Analysis of Confidence Cement: In 2011, the common stockholders of Confidence Cement were willing to pay tk.11.03 for each tk.1 of reported earnings. In the following years the amount decreased which is a very disappointing sign for the company. In 2015, Confidence Cement’s P/E Ratio was the lowest of 4.98. Cross Sectional Analysis: In the Price Earnings ratio, Aramit Cement is doing better than Confidence Cement. The market price for the both of the companies are same, because of the greater earning per share, Confidence Cement got lower P/E ratio than Aramit Cement. If the net income and EPS works positively for a company, lower P/E ratio is not a big problem for that. M/B Ratio 12,00 10,00 9,91 8,00 6,00 5,20 4,70 4,00 2,00 0,00 2,54 0,87 1,41 1,37 0,51 2011 2012 2013 2014 Aramit 9,91 4,70 5,20 2,54 Confidence 0,87 1,41 1,37 0,51 Aramit 0,52 2015 0,52 Confidence Time Series Analysis of Aramit Cement: From views of times series analysis, Aramit Cement’s M/B ratio was 9.91 in 2011. Over the years, the M/B ratio of the company has decreased significantly which is a bad sign as it indicates the unfavourable assessment in investors view towards the company. Time Series Analysis of Confidence Cement: Graph shows in times series analysis, Confidence Cement’s M/B ratio was 0.87 in 2011. Over the years, the M/B ratio of the company has fluctuated significantly which is not a good sign as it indicates the unfavourable assessment in investors view towards the company. Cross Sectional Analysis: Confidence Cement had lower M/B ratio in 2011 than Aramit Cement but in 2012 Aramit Cement got a higher M/B ratio than Confidence Cement. We all know that book value of a share is always same in a country. So, the performance of a company depends on the higher market price of the shares. Higher market price will help Confidence Cement to increase its reputation and investors. On the other hand Aramit Cement should not lose their current M/B ratio. Du-Pont Analysis M/B Ratio 10,00 9,00 8,00 7,00 6,00 5,00 4,00 3,00 2,00 1,00 0,00 8,97 4,34 1,91 1,79 0,40 0,67 Aramit Confidence Profitability 1,91 8,97 Efficiency 0,40 0,67 Equity Multiplier 4,34 1,79 Profitability Efficiency Equity Multiplier Interpretation: Here, in the graph we can see that the profitability of Confidence Cement is much higher than the Aramit Cement, which is 8.97% and 1.91%. The efficiency of Confidence Cement is also higher. But the equity multiplier of Aramit Cement is higher than Confidence Cement, which is 4.34 and 1.79. So we can say that Confidence Cement is doing better than Aramit Cement. Summary Chart of Ratios Aramit Cement Confidence Cement Recommendation In this report we have found different scenarios for different ratios for both of the companies. As the performance of the company, here are some recommendations and guidelines for both companies to do well in their weak area. There are some factors where both of the companies need to improve their performance to get themselves in the industry standards. In the current ratio section Aramit Cement has higher ratio than industry standard, it will lead Aramit Cement to capture more liquids in hand. Aramit Cement can use their lazy liquids to grow their business. But still Aramit Cement’s goal should be profit maximization if they want to continue in the current industry as their profit margins are very low. Confidence Cement’s profit margins are very good and also in the inventory turnover and total asset turnover, Aramit Cement has lower ratios than Confidence Cement. EPS is greater for Aramit Cement and their P/E ratio is greater. Though they should follow asset maximization strategies to increase the market price of their shares. Overall, the performance of Aramit Cement is not that much well compared to Confidence Cement’s. Aramit Cement should concentrate on current assets management to get better current ratios and to decrease their debt. They should also manage their accounts receivable turnover fairly to maintain a good relationship with their suppliers. Aramit Cement should gain operational excellence for uplifting profit margin ratios. Conclusion Financial Statements, in the end of the day, are just numbers and if they are not analyzed, it will provide no value in evaluating and comparing performance of businesses in an industry. Similarly, ratios are calculated using values from the statements, and greater importance lies in its interpretation and corresponding uses and decisions for different parties. Different stakeholders shall be interested in different ratios. Moreover, ratios must be compared with one another, with the industry averages, bench marks, and over time to identify and develop useful trends. One must consider the differences between companies and the industries they belong to before interpretation. Ratios, extracted from the financial statements might be related to one another and thereby provide users with useful information. Ratios can be divided into five general categories: liquidity, asset management, debt, profitability and market ratios. Despite their use in measuring returns, efficiency and risks, the ratios often lack sufficient information, may be made from distorted value, may not show a proper trend due to inflation and for the use of different techniques in their preparation, etc. This these factors have to be considered during interpretation. On calculating and analyzing a set of important ratios, we have been able to evaluate the financial performance of Aramit Cement and Confidence Cement. Aramit Cement, might have a good liquidity and a higher profitability from operations, it has performed poorly in its asset management and in managing its capital structure. Meanwhile, Confidence Cement is a larger company and has performed more effectively in raising finance, generating turnover, managing its assets, although it is not the most liquid firm in the market. However, both have been competing over time, and trying to improve their performance in a growing cement market in Bangladesh. 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