Uploaded by Marci Fry


Signal Phrase Worksheet
Writing with Sources
Hacker & Sommers (2011) defined a signal phrase as follows: “Whenever you include a paraphrase, summary, or direct quotation of
another writer’s work in your paper, prepare your readers for it with a signal phrase. A signal phrase… names the author of the
source, gives the publication year in parentheses [APA only –JMC], and often provides some context. It commonly appears before
the source material. To vary your sentence structure, you may decide to interrupt source material with a signal phrase or place the
signal phrase after your paraphrase, summary, or direct quotation. It is generally acceptable in the social sciences to call authors by
their last name only, even on a first mention [in the Humanities, use first and last name for the first mention and last name only for
every subsequent mention -JMC]…Readers need to move from your words to the words of a source without feeling a jolt. Avoid
dropping direct quotations into your text without warning… Signal phrases mark the boundaries between source material and your
own words; they can also tell readers why a source is worth quoting” (pp. 453-55).
In the boxes below, paraphrase a claim or concept from each of two of your sources using the language of signal
Source 1:
Source 2:
Some Sample Verbs for Signal Phrases: acknowledge, add, admit, address, argue, assert, believe, claim, comment,
compare, confirm, contend, declare, deny, dispute, emphasize, endorse, grant, illustrate, imply, insist, note, observe,
point out, reason, refute, reject, report, respond, suggest, think, write, &c.
Some Sample Subordinate Conjunctions for Acknowledgments: Although, While, Even though, On the one hand,
Despite, Regardless, Notwithstanding, Perhaps, Potentially, Plausibly, &c.
Some Sample Adverbs for Responses: But, However, On the other hand, &c.
Then, in the boxes below, think of how other sources you have would respond to the claims/concepts above and write it
the responses down along with where you think the information comes from directly in the source:
Rebuttal Source 3:
Rebuttal Source 4: