ORGANIZATION AND MANAGEMENT FOUR FUNCTIONS OF MANAGEMENT Function One: Planning Planning involves deciding where to take a company and selecting steps to get there. It first requires managers to be aware of challenges facing their businesses, and it then it requires managers to forecast future business and economic conditions. They then formulate objectives to reach by certain deadlines and decide on steps to reach them. They re-evaluate their plans as conditions change and make adjustments as necessary. Planning helps allocate resources and reduce waste as well. Function Two: Organizing Managers organize by bringing together physical, human and financial resources to achieve objectives. They identify activities to be accomplished, classify activities, assign activities to groups or individuals, create responsibility and delegate authority. They then coordinate the relationships of responsibility and authority. Function Three: Leading Leading requires managers to motivate employees to achieve business objectives and goals. It requires the use of authority to achieve those ends as well as the ability to communicate effectively. Effective leaders are students of human personalities, motivation and communication. They can influence their personnel to view situations from their perspectives. Leading also involves supervision of employees and their work. Function Four: Controlling Controlling is a function of management that involves measuring achievement against established objectives and goals. It also requires managers to be able to identify sources of deviation from successful accomplishment and to provide a corrective course of action. Managers first establish objectives and goals, then measure achievement of them, identify anything that is keeping the company from achieving them, and provide means of correction if necessary. Controlling does not necessarily involve achieving only monetary goals and objectives. It can also relate to nontangible goals and objectives like meeting a production quota or reducing customer complaints by a certain amount. Mintzberg published his Ten Management Roles in his book, "Mintzberg on Management: Inside our Strange World of Organizations," in 1990. The ten roles are: 1. Figurehead. 2. Leader. 3. Liaison. 4. Monitor. 5. Disseminator. 6. Spokesperson. 7. Entrepreneur. 8. Disturbance Handler. 9. Resource Allocator. 10. Negotiator Category Roles Interpersonal Figurehead Leader Liaison Informational Monitor Disseminator Spokesperson Decisional Entrepreneur Disturbance Handler Resource Allocator Negotiator Interpersonal Category The managerial roles in this category involve providing information and ideas. 1. Figurehead – As a manager, you have social, ceremonial and legal responsibilities. You're expected to be a source of inspiration. People look up to you as a person with authority, and as a figurehead. 2. Leader – This is where you provide leadership for your team, your department or perhaps your entire organization; and it's where you manage the performance and responsibilities of everyone in the group. 3. Liaison – Managers must communicate with internal and external contacts. You need to be able to network effectively on behalf of your organization. Informational Category The managerial roles in this category involve processing information. 4. Monitor – In this role, you regularly seek out information related to your organization and industry, looking for relevant changes in the environment. You also monitor your team, in terms of both their productivity, and their well-being. 5. Disseminator – This is where you communicate potentially useful information to your colleagues and your team. 6. Spokesperson – Managers represent and speak for their organization. In this role, you're responsible for transmitting information about your organization and its goals to the people outside it. Decisional Category The managerial roles in this category involve using information. 7. Entrepreneur – As a manager, you create and control change within the organization. This means solving problems, generating new ideas, and implementing them. 8. Disturbance Handler – When an organization or team hits an unexpected roadblock, it's the manager who must take charge. You also need to help mediate disputes within it. 9. Resource Allocator – You'll also need to determine where organizational resources are best applied. This involves allocating funding, as well as assigning staff and other organizational resources. 10. Negotiator – You may be needed to take part in, and direct, important negotiations within your team, department, or organization.