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The dispute between globalists and sceptics is not about the reality of change; it is about
the nature and significance of the changes under way as well as the driving forces
behind them.
--Linda Weiss
In today’s constantly changing world, societies are
becoming increasingly interdependent and have more
social, economic,
political and cultural relationships.
Similarly, the problems and issues that characterize the
As a result, the various actors—states, organizations, and citizens—
are called upon to work together to find global solutions.
Learning Outcomes:
At the end of the lesson, you must be able to:
1. introduce self to classmates and teacher(s);
2. choose a plausible working definition of globalization for the course;
3. discuss the essential philosophies/theories of globalization
4. compare and contrast the opposing concepts of globalization;
5. Narrate a personal experience of globalization; and
6. Create a sound personal definition of globalization
What is the relevance of using our own experiences in understanding
globalization and its diverse kinds and aspects?
Why it is crucial to emphasize that globalization is uneven?
Let us
Getting to Know You
Let us start the semester by knowing each other. Here’s what you need to do:
On the box below, write three things about you (as long as you are comfortable to
share these information with your classmates), one of which is false
If possible, ask the classmates near you to or you may contact at least five (5) of them
in social media, then let them figure out which one is false
Lastly, ask their reasons why did they choose such item
Three things about me:
Summarize the responses of your classmates
Name of
Which did they think is
false among the things
you have written about
Why did they choose such item?
Go to your room and do an inventory of everything you have in your
possession. You will find out that the most essential among the “things” in your
room are footwear, clothes, computers (if any), cell phones, television (if
possible), and maybe a radio. If you are a student, you may also notice
books, newspapers, news magazines, not to mention school supplies and
Organize your inventory into two types:
Philippine Brands
Foreign Brands
(Indicate here the country of
origin of each foreign brand)
Do the same thing for kitchen and living room. These should include appliances.
Philippine Brands
Living Room:
Philippine Brands
Foreign Brands
Foreign Brands
(Indicate here the
country of origin of each
foreign brand)
(Indicate here the
country of origin of each
foreign brand)
By contacting two (2) of your classmates in your social media site, compare
your lists.
Which countries make the most household, as well as personal needs you, and your
families have?
What are the Philippine-made stuff?
Think it
Why do you think certain products are made in the Philippines while others are
produced abroad?
Your Journey continues…
Global Experiences
Be ready for…
Task #1: Go to www.youtube.com and watch the video in the provided link.
Make sure to get the gist of the story by using the guide questions below:
https://youtu.becom/0AS65clOJA watch the video clip of A Story: Gio, Latif
and the Laksa
Let Us Check
Guide Questions:
How did Gio and Latif come to know each other?
What is a Laksa? What makes it a significant cultural symbol?
How do you think your experiences differ from those people in other
Gio and Latif’s story is fictional but very reasonable since, in
fact, based on the real-life experience of one this module’s main
text authors. It was through such friendships that one was able to
appreciate the meaning and impact of globalization.
We begin our definition of globalization with this story to
demonstrate how concrete the occurrence is. The narrative
presents how globalization works at numerous, overlapping levels.
Things to
What other hints of globalization did you find in the story?
Our discussion should begin with an instinctive sense that
something is transpiring, and it is not affecting everyone in the
same manner.
Gio’s story is an advantaged way of
experiencing global flows, but for others, the shrinking of the
world may not be as thrilling and enriching similar to our present
battle against the Covid-19 crisis since our borders are open to
foreign interaction through investments and travels.
Since diverse people encounter globalization in a variety
of ways, it is deemed handy to ask simple questions like: “Is
globalization good or bad, what do you think?”, “Is it beneficial
or damaging?” The discussion begins with two grounds:
1. Globalization is a complex phenomenon that occurs at
multiple levels; and
2. It is an uneven process that affects people differently
But then again, what is Globalization?
Come on…
Task #2: Go to youtube.com and watch the videos in the provided links. Make sure
to get the gist of every video clip by using the guide questions below:
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=p6u9m5FK0IQ (Globalization in 3 minutes,
theory in three minutes) and watch the video clip.
https://youtu.be//JJ0nFD19eT8 (Globalization explained by Explainity channel)
Let us Check
Guide Questions:
What do the video clips say about globalization?
Do you agree on what they say about globalization? Why or why not?
Are there common elements about globalization in these videos?
What are these?
Most accounts view globalization as primarily
an economic process that but may affect anyone in
A Working
varying but intersecting level.
globalization is more than just a term.
understanding of it has much to with your political
views and theoretical stance.
Globalization is a terrain of conflicting
discourses. So, in order for you to understand it better,
corresponding viewpoint.
When nationalists are
resisting globalization
When activists refer to
the “anti-globalization”
movement of the 1990s
When Globalization
Scholars are asked of
their stance on
When you ask
academicians about
It means they resist the integration of the national markets
to a wider global market signified by the increased free
It means resisting the trade deals among countries
facilitated and promoted by global organization like the
World Trade Organization.
They do not necessarily disagree with people who criticize
unfair international trade deals or global economic
organizations. In fact, many are sympathetic to the
critique of economic globalization.
They differ from journalists and political activists, however,
because they see globalization in much broader terms.
They view the process through various lenses that consider
multiple theories and perspective. Academics call this an
interdisciplinary approach.
Since there is no single specific definition of globalization, other scholars also came up
with their definitions:
Marginson &
Globalization refers to the growing impact of world systems of
Considine (2000) finance and economic life, transport, communications and
media, language and symbols. It is as much about life crossglobal movement of people and ideas as about markets and
money, and more about networks than about patterns off
commodity trade or off-shore production.
Held et al. (1999) In its simplest sense, globalization refers to the widening,
deepening and speeding up of global interconnectedness.
Robertson (1992)
Giddens (1990)
Globalization as a concept refers both to the compression of
the world and the intensification of the consciousness of the
world as a whole.
Globalization…is the intensification of worldwide social relations
which link distant localities in such a way that local happenings
are shaped by events occurring miles away and vice versa.
Despite of no single prescribed definition, Manfred Steger has offered the best scholarly description of
what globalization is. Pay attention to what he have to say.
“the expansion and intensification of social relations and
consciousness across world-time and across worldspace.”
Manfred Steger
Expansion – refers to “both the creation of new social
networks & the multiplication of existing connections that
cut across traditional political, economic, cultural &
geographical boundaries.
These various connections
occur at different levels.
For example, Facebook
established new global connections between people while
international groups or non-governmental organizations
(NGOs) are networks that connect a more specific group—
social workers and activists—from different corners of the
Intensification – refers to the expansion, stretching and
acceleration of these networks.
Global connections
multiply and becoming closely-knit and expanding reach.
There has always been a strong financial market
connecting London and New York. With the coming of
electronic trading, however, the volume of trade increases
exponentially since traders can now trade more at higher
speeds. Also, the world becomes more financially
integrated, after China committed itself to the global
economy in the 1980s, Shanghai steadily returned to its old
role as a major trading post.
The concluding trait of this definition recounts the manner of
how people remark time and space.
Let’s seal the deal
Steger notes, “globalization processes do not occur merely at
an objective, material level but they also involve the subjective
plane of human consciousness.”
In plain language, people start to recognize that the world
becomes borderless with just few clicks away. You may now
have greater sense of what is happening in other places.
Through social media sites, you get to know the latest trends,
milestones of your friends or even information that should be
kept in private.
Globalization is a concept that has been defined variously over the
years, with some connotations referring to progress, development and
stability, integration and cooperation, and others referring to regression,
colonialism, and destabilization.
There are myriad of discourses on globalization and some may be
confusing. Undeniably, it may be difficult to assess globalization or comment
on it because it is so diffuse and almost fleeting.
It is essential to study the various theories on globalization so you can
understand its dynamics.
Now, you have to do…
Task #3: Go to youtube.com and watch the video in the provided links.
Make sure to get the gist of the video clip by using the guide questions
https://youtu.be/IQVIYCZ4ec (Globalization theories │Society and Culture │
MCAT │ Khan Academy)
https://youtu.be/tLF5J8Y5zyg (Castells and the Network Theory)
https://youtu.be/ZirXnc5P20E (Cultural Globalization)
https://youtu.be/JN6LIMY2ApQ (Dependency Theory)
https://youtu.be/Hk61GIOZ1Ic (C3 Modernisation Theory)
https://youtu.be/iwFiSwr_T70 (Global Village Theory)
Let us Check
Guide Questions:
Who are the proponents of each globalization theory?
What are the significant claims of theory?
The World Systems Theory
Modernization Theory
Dependency Theory
Hyperglobalist Theory
Skeptical Theory
The Network Theory
The Global Village
Cultural Globalization Theory and its 4 main points:
➢ Homogenization
➢ Heterogenization
➢ Hybridization
➢ Polarization
There are myriad of discourse on globalization and some may be
confusing. Undeniably, it may be difficult to assess globalization or comment
on it because it is so diffuse and almost fleeting.
Some scholars found it simpler to avoid talking about globalization as a
whole, instead of just one process, they want to discuss “multiple
For anthropologist, Arjun Appudarai, various kinds of globalization happen
on multiple and intersecting dimensions of integration that he calls
Some scholars found it simpler to
avoid talking about globalization
as a whole, instead of just one
process, they want to discuss
“multiple globalizations”
globalization happen on multiple
and intersecting dimensions of
integration that he calls “scapes”
the global movement of people
mediascape the flow of culture
technoscape Circulation of mechanical goods and software
financescape Global circulation of money
Realm where political ideas move around
Although these “scapes” intersect, these have differing logics—they are
just distinct windows into the broader phenomenon of globalization
Appadurai’s argument is simple: there are multiple globalizations and it is
hard to deny his central thrust of viewing globalization through various
Depending of what is being globalized, a different dynamic(s) may