# chapter-1

```Chapter 1
EGR 271 – Circuit Theory I
Reading Assignment: Chapter 1 in Electric Circuits, 9th Edition by Nilsson
Welcome to
EGR 271
Circuit Theory I
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When you purchase Mastering Engineering it is good for both semesters
EGR 271: Chapters 1 - 6 in Electric Circuits, 9th Edition by Nilsson
EGR 272: Chapters 7-10, 12 - 15 in Electric Circuits, 9th Edition by Nilsson
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Chapter 1
EGR 271 – Circuit Theory I
Changes to Electrical/Computer Engineering Courses at TCC
Due to recent changes at ODU, TCC will make the following changes to the
sequence of electrical/computer engineering courses:
• EGR 260-261 will be replaced by EGR 271-272
• EGR 267 will no longer be offered
• No changes to EGR 262 or EGR 270
The changes will be phased in as follows:
• Fall 2013:
First time EGR 271 will be offered
Last time EGR 261 will be offered
• Spring 2014: First time EGR 272 will be offered
• See the chart on the following page for additional scheduling information
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Chapter 1
EGR 271 – Circuit Theory I
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Content differences between EGR 260-261 and EGR 271-272
The new course sequence at ODU actually is a return to the format that they
used several years ago and is similar to the format used by many universities.
How is EGR 271 different from EGR 260?
• EGR 271 will be more manageable as it will cover less material (Ch. 1-6 in
Nilsson instead of Ch. 1-8 covered in EGR 260).
• MATLAB solutions for problems will be added to EGR 271.
How is EGR 272 different from EGR 261?
• EGR 272 will cover Ch. 7-10, 12-15 in Nilsson instead of Ch. 12-17 covered
in EGR 261 + additional material from a second textbook in EGR 261).
• AC circuit analysis will be added to EGR 272 (Ch. 9-10 in Nilsson).
• MATLAB solutions for problems will be added to EGR 272.
• Material on Fourier Series, Fourier transforms, convolution, and properties
of linear signals and systems will be moved to a junior-level course at ODU.
Chapter 1
EGR 271 – Circuit Theory I
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Sequence of Electrical/Computer Engineering Courses at TCC
EGR 271 (3 cr)
Circuit Theory I
ODU equiv: ECE 201
Offered: F, Sp, Su
EGR 272 (3 cr)
Circuit Theory II
ODU equiv: ECE 202
Offered: F, Sp
MTH 279 (4 cr)
Differential
Equations
EGR 262 (2 cr)
Fund. Circuits Lab
ODU equiv: ECE 287
Offered: F, Sp, Su
EGR 125 (4 cr)
Into to Engineering
Methods (C++)
EGR 270 (4 cr)
Fund. Of Computer EGR
ODU equiv: ECE 241
Offered: F, Sp, Su
Notes:
1. Classes available at the Virginia Beach Campus, the Chesapeake Campus, and the TriCities Center
2. EGR 271-272 transfers to Virginia Tech as ECE 2004
3. EGR 270 transfers to Virginia Tech as ECE 2504
4. EGR 262 does not transfer to Virginia Tech
Chapter 1
EGR 271 – Circuit Theory I
Chapter 1 - Circuit Variables
Systems of Units
• Most engineering disciplines have to routinely deal with two
systems of units: US units and SI units
• Electrical engineering uses SI units almost exclusively
Example: List various units used in electrical engineering courses
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Chapter 1
EGR 271 – Circuit Theory I
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SI System
• Recall that the SI system is a decimal system that uses prefixes as multipliers.
• Some common SI prefixes are listed below:
SI Prefixes
Multiplier Prefix name Symbol
10 +12
tera
T
10 +9
giga
G
10 +6
mega
M
10 +3
kilo
k
10 -3
milli
m
10 -6
micro

10 -9
nano
n
10 -12
pico
p
10 -15
femto
f
Example: Ohm’s Law (V = IR) will
be introduced in Chapter 2 where:
V = voltage measured in volts, V
I = current measured in amperes, A
R = resistance measured in ohms, 
and 1V = (1A)(1 )
A) if I = 50.0 nA and R = 40.0 k , calculateV
B) if R = 10.0 k  and V = 3.75 mV, calculate I
Chapter 1
EGR 271 – Circuit Theory I
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SI System
• The SI system is built on a system of 7 base units.
• 4 of the 7 base units are shown below (the 4 that mainly affect this course)
• Other units (derived units) are built on these base units.
SI Base Units
Quantity
Length
Mass
Time
Electric current
Name
meter
kilogram
second
ampere
Symbol
m
kg
s
A
The first three base units listed above are familiar and will not be defined here.
Electric current, along with some derived units, are perhaps not familiar and are
defined in Chapter 1. Specifically, definitions for the following five important
quantities will be provided since these are key quantities in this course.
Charge
Current
Voltage
Power
Energy
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EGR 271 – Circuit Theory I
Chapter 1
Charge
Charge is a difficult quantity to define. One well-known circuits text defines
charge as “the quantity of electricity responsible for electric phenomena.” This
is a little vague. We will define charge as follows:
Charge - an electrical property possessed by some materials that can result
in forces of electrical attraction and repulsion. These forces are somewhat
similar to gravitational forces. Charge is represented by the symbol q, Q,
or q(t) and has units of coulombs, C.
Gravitational Force
Fg
Electric Force due to Charge
Fg
m1
Fe
m2
Q1
Q2
R
Newton’s Law of Gravitation:
Kg  m1  m2
Fg 
R2
Fe
R
Coulomb’s Law:
Fe 
Ke  Q1  Q2
R2
Chapter 1
EGR 271 – Circuit Theory I
Charge on an electron = -1.602 x 10-19 C
Charge on a proton = +1.602 x 10-19 C
Charge on a neutron = 0
Total charge on an atom = 0
Number of electrons needed to form 1C of charge = 6.24 x 10+18
The direction of the force of attraction/repulsion between charged
particles depends on the relative polarities of the charges. In particular,
• Opposite charges attract
• Like charges repel
Illustration:
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Chapter 1
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EGR 271 – Circuit Theory I
Current – the rate of change of charge with respect to time
dq(t)
i(t) 
dt
coulombs
in units of
 Amperes, A (So 1A = 1 C/s)
second
Illustration: Current can be thought of as the amount of charge flowing
through a conductor (such as a wire) that crosses some plane over a specified
period of time.
I
positive charge
negative charge
Direction of current: There are two conventions for describing the direction
of the current:
1) electron flow
2) conventional current flow
Chapter 1
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EGR 271 – Circuit Theory I
Example: 25 billion electrons pass a given point in a conductor in 3 s.
Determine the current I.
Key relationships:
dq(t)
i(t) 
dt
t

Example: q(t) = 5e-6t mC.
q(t) 
 i(t)dt
-
t

i(t)dt
0
Determine the current i(t).
 q(0)
EGR 271 – Circuit Theory I
Chapter 1
Example: Sketch i(t) for q(t) shown below.
q(t) [C]
12
0
3
6
9
t [s]
12
Chapter 1
EGR 271 – Circuit Theory I
Example: Sketch q(t) for i(t) shown below.
i(t) [A]
16
t [s]
0
2
4
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Chapter 1
EGR 271 – Circuit Theory I
Upper case vs. lower case:
In some areas of engineering, upper case and lower case variables are used for
different quantities. In this course, however, there is generally no distinction.
Example: List various quantities in upper and lower case form.
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Chapter 1
EGR 271 – Circuit Theory I
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Voltage – change in energy with respect to charge
v(t) 
dW
dq
in units of
joules
 volts, V
coulomb
(so 1V = 1J/C )
• The definition above is not generally familiar to the layman
• voltage is also referred to as potential difference
• voltage should always be expressed with a polarity (+ and - terminals)
Polarity: voltage should always be expressed with a polarity (+ and - terminals)
+
12V
-
-12V
+
Two equivalent representations of
the voltage across a circuit element
12V
Unclear
Chapter 1
EGR 271 – Circuit Theory I
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Illustration:
If 1V = 1 J/C, then 1V of potential difference exists across an element if 1J of
energy is expended in passing 1C of charge though the element as illustrated
below:
electrons enter the device
at a higher energy level
1C
+
1V
Element
1J of energy is used
(stored or given off as
heat or light)
_
1C
electrons leave the device
at a lower energy level
Chapter 1
EGR 271 – Circuit Theory I
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Voltage is sometimes referred to as an “electrical pressure” which forces charge
through a circuit.
Water system analogy: Sometimes an analogy is made between an electric
circuit and a water system. This may help to give a more intuitive feel to terms
like charge, current, and voltage.
Electrical System
Water System
Chapter 1
EGR 271 – Circuit Theory I
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Passive and Active Devices
Passive device – a device that dissipates (uses) energy. The energy is given off
as heat or light.
Examples of passive devices: resistors, inductors, and capacitors (to be
introduced later). Practical items like filaments in bulbs, burners on a stove,
etc., are essentially resistors so they are also passive devices. The burner on
your stove can only use energy - it can’t produce energy on its own.
Passive sign convention – current is shown entering the positive terminal.
Therefore, if the current direction is known, then the voltage polarity is known,
and vice versa.
+
I
Passive
Device
V
_
Passive
Device
The voltage polarity is known from the current direction
or
the current direction is known from the voltage polarity
Chapter 1
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EGR 271 – Circuit Theory I
Passive Sign Convention and Ohm’s Law
Ohm’s Law will be introduced in Chapter 2, but here it will be used briefly to
make a point about passive sign convention.
Ohm’s Law: V = IR
(voltage = current x resistance)
This law describes how voltage and current are related for a resistor.
Since a resistor is a passive device, this formula requires that passive sign
convention be used.
Example: Calculate the voltage, V, across the resistor shown below.
_
I = 2A
V
R = 10 
+
Chapter 1
EGR 271 – Circuit Theory I
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Active device – a device that is capable of delivering (supplying) energy, but
might use energy, such as when a battery is being charged.
Examples of active devices: batteries, voltage sources, and current sources (to
be introduced later)
Active sign convention – current is shown leaving the positive terminal.
Therefore, if the current direction is known, then the voltage polarity is known,
and vice versa.
Examples: Show examples of active-sign convention used with batteries and
voltage sources
Chapter 1
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EGR 271 – Circuit Theory I
Power – the rate of change of energy with respect to time
power  p(t) 
dW
joules
in
 watts, W
dt
second
(so 1 W = 1 J/s)
also
p(t) 
dW dq
dW


 vi in (volts)(amperes)  watts, W (so 1 W = 1 V&middot;A)
dq
dt
dt
Notes:
• If voltage and current are shown using passive sign convention then p = vi
calculates power absorbed (or used or dissipated)
• If voltage and current are shown using active sign convention then p = vi
calculates power delivered (or generated or supplied)
• Power delivered = -(Power absorbed) for a given device – For example, if a
device is absorbing 20W then it is delivering -20W.
• Whenever power is calculated, it should be made clear whether it is absorbed
or delivered
Chapter 1
EGR 271 – Circuit Theory I
Example: Find the power in each case shown below.
Case 1:
+
15 V
+
15 V
_
2A
Case 2:
_
-2A
Case 3:
_
15 V
+
2A
Case 4:
_
-2A
15 V
+
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Chapter 1
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EGR 271 – Circuit Theory I
Power check: For any circuit the following relationship exists:
Pdel = Pabs
Example: Shown below is an illustration of using one car battery to “jump
start” another car battery. Perform a “power check.” (Calculate the power for
each battery.)
10A
+
12V Good car
battery
-
12V +
Weak car
battery
Chapter 1
EGR 271 – Circuit Theory I
Example
The numerical values for the
currents and voltages in the circuit
shown are given in the table below.
Find the total power developed in
the circuit. Show that Pdel = Pabs.
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Chapter 1
EGR 271 – Circuit Theory I
Energy: W or w(t) = energy
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(in joules, where 1J = 1Ws )
t
dW
p(t) 
dt
w(t) 
so
 p(t)dt
-
t
or
w(t)  p(t)dt  w(0)
0
Example: Given p(t) below, find the energy at time t = 3 seconds
p(t)
50W
t [s]
0
2
4
Chapter 1
EGR 271 – Circuit Theory I
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Example: If i(t) is the current entering the device shown below, sketch p(t) and
w(t).
i(t)
i(t)
+
4A
4
0
2
-4A
0
6V
6
t [s]
-
Chapter 1
EGR 271 – Circuit Theory I
Energy Cost
Virginia Power charges for the amount of energy that is used each month
(power is the rate at which the energy is used).
The unit of energy used on power bills is the kilowatt-hour, kWh.
1 kWh = (1000W)(3600 s) = 3600000 Ws = 3.6 MJ
A typical rate used for energy costs might be 8&cent;/ kWh (discuss)
If energy is used linearly, then
dW
p(t) 
 W so W P(t)
dt
t
Typical power rates for appliances:
Appliance
Air conditioner
Blow dryer
Clock
Dishwasher
Electric Dryer
Microwave Oven
Television
Electric Water Heater
Power Rating (W)
860
1300
2
1200
4800
800
150
2500
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Chapter 1
EGR 271 – Circuit Theory I
Example: Calculate the monthly cost to keep a porch light on each night.
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