This section describes the world’s earliest humans and relates their change from nomadic to farmers. Focusing on the Main Ideas Paleolithic people adapted to their environment and invented many tools to help them survive. In the Neolithic Age, people started farming, building communities, producing goods, and trading. Early Humans Tools of Discovery Who were Hunters & Gathers? Adapting to the Environment What were the Ice Ages? Language, Art, & Religion The Invention of Tools So what? What is important to understand about this? Neolithic Times Main ideas Why was Farming Important? The Growth of Villages The Benefits of a Settled Life Facts History is the story of humans in the past, and Historians are the people who study and write about humans of the past. History began about 5,500 years ago when people first began to write. The story of people begins in prehistory (the time before writing was developed) What we know about the earliest people come from the things they left behind. Archaeologist hunt for evidence buried in the ground where settlements might once have been. They dig up and study artifacts. Artifacts are weapons, tools, pottery, or anything else made by humans. They also look for fossils which are traces of plants or animals that have been preserved in rock. Anthropologist focus on human society by studying how humans developed and related to each other. The early period of human history is called the Stone Age. The name comes from the fact that people during this time used stone to make tools and weapons. The earliest part of the Stone Age is called the Paleolithic period. Paleolithic means “old stone” in Greek. This time period began about 2.5 million years ago and lasted until around 8000 B.C. Paleolithic people were nomads, traveling from place to place to hunt and search for food. They traveled in groups of 30 or more because it was safer and made the search for food easier. Men and women had different roles within the group. The women cared for the children, gathered berries, nuts, and grains. The men hunted animals using clubs, spears, Paleolithic people adapted to their environment. Those in warm climates wore little clothing and had little need for shelter. However those in cold climates needed thick clothing and used caves for shelter. Over time they learned to create shelter from animal hides and wooden poles. Paleolithic people made a life changing discovery when they learned to create and tame fire. Fire gave warmth, lit darkness, and scared away wild animals. Long periods of extreme cold are called the Ice Ages. During the Ice Ages, thick sheets of ice covered parts of Europe, Asia, and North America The last Ice Age began about 100,000 B.C. It lasted until about 8,000 B.C. During this time early humans had to adapt their lifestyles. Paleolithic people developed spoken language and expressed themselves through art, which may have had religious meaning. Language made it far easier for people to work together and to pass on knowledge. To create art they would crush yellow, black, and red rocks together to make powders for paint. They created scenes of lions, oxen, panthers, and other animals on cave walls. Historians are not sure why these painting were created. They may have religious meaning or they may be for good luck during a hunt. During this time, humans created tools such as spears and hand axes using a stone called flint. Technology – tools and methods to help humans perform tasks. DISCUSSION QUESTION: In your groups turn and talk to answer the following question. How did spoken language help the Paleolithic people? Language made it easier for people to work together and pass on knowledge. In the beginning of the Neolithic Age, people began to domesticate, or tame, animals. Domesticated animals carried goods and provided meat, milk, and wool. People in different parts of the world began growing crops about the same time. Historians call this change the farming revolution. The word revolution refers to changes that greatly affect many areas of life. Because farmers needed to stay close to their fields, they built permanent homes in villages. One of the oldest villages is Jericho in present day Israel and Jordan. The city dates back to around 8,000 B.C. Another Neolithic village is Catal Huyuk in present day Turkey. It was some to some 6,000 people between 6700 B.C. and 5700B.C. They lived in simple mud brick houses packed tight together and decorated with wall paintings. They had separate buildings for worship. Permanent villages provided people with security and steady food. The surplus food led to a larger population. Not all people in a village were farmers. People began to practice specialization or the development of different kinds of jobs. Some made pottery, mats, and cloths. They traded these goods for things they did not have. People continued to create new technology. They created better farming tools and began working with metal, copper, and tin. They also began working with bronze. DISCUSSION QUESTION: In your groups turn and talk to answer the following question. Why was farming important to the Neolithic people? Farming allowed people to settle in one place, and it provided a steady food supply.