Uploaded by Muhammad Zarif

chapter 5 communication

Chapter 5: Communication in
Required Reading
Textbook 4- 369-371
• Textbook 3- 339-353
Meaning and Importance of Communication
Communication process
Forms of Communication
Communication with the public
Communication from outside
Communication is the process through which information and meaning
are transferred from one person to another person.
Communication: Any act by which one person gives to or receives from
another person’s information.
Communication may be intentional or unintentional.
Importance of communication
Allow people to engage in the planning, organizing, leading and
controlling functions.
2. Achieving integration and coordination of agency goals rules and
human resources
3. Able to communicate vision, goals and direction to others
4. Improve performance
Communication Process
There are six elements involve in the communication
1. Sender- is the person who whishes to
relay or to share particular information
and meaning. Often they are the one who
initiate the communication process. The
sender has an intention to communicate
with another person.
2. Encoding – the process of transforming
information into understandable symbols,
typically spoken, written words or
3. Channels- the medium or methods used
to transmit the intended information and
meaning, such as by phone or in person
4. Receivers- the person to whom the
information and meaning are sent.
5. Decoding- the process of interpreting and
attaching personal meaning to the
6. Feedback-the receiver’s response to the
sender’s communication.
Anything that acts as information filter, such as knowledge, attitudes,
and other factors that interferes with the message being
communicated effectively. It can be of various types:
a) educational level
b) experience
c) culture
The process of encoding and decoding are potential source of
communication errors.
In the translation of symbols to meaning, knowledge, attitudes and
other factors can act as information filters and create noise, anything
that interferes with the message being communicated effectively.
Forms of Communication
1. Verbal communication- refers to words spoken through various
2. Written communication-information and meaning transferred as
recorded words, such as memo, report, e-mail.
3. Nonverbal communication-information conveyed by actions and
behaviors rather than spoken or written words.
Categories of communication
1. Formal communication
Usually refers to written communication, the use of formal communication usually
determines by organizational size, because as organization grows they tend to make
increasing use of formal communication and diminish the use of informal
The other factor is public character; public organization tends to rely more heavily on
formal communication. This is because:
a. Bureaucratic establishment that depend on written official documents
b. Organization manages distrust so they rely on this papers or written word, which is
shared, and binding.
c. Organization makes and maintains “papereality” that take precedence over the
things and event they portray.
b) Informal communication (grapevine)
Refers to oral communication. It also includes attitudes, ideas, which
can be transmitted by means of gesture, and body language.
Although it has a place in organization life, its role is limited and in
any case it is hard to analyze and define.
It deals with more subjects but lack of authority although it may have
considerable influence.
Informal communication may passes between staff at the same level
ranging from how to get along with the supervisor to the observation
on which rules are and are not enforced. It often reinforce formal
It takes two forms (grapevine chains)
1. Gossip chain
The spreading of information by one person to many others
2. Cluster chain
An exchange in which one person or a selected few share information with few others
Flow of Communication
Upward communication
Communication flowing from lower to higher levels of organization, such as progress report,
suggestion, inquiries, and grievances .
2. Downward communication
The traditional flows of information from upper organization level to lower level such as job
direction, assignment or task, performance feedback, information concerning
organization’s goal.
3. Horizontal communication
The exchange of information among individual on the same organization level either across or
within department
4. Diagonal communication
The flow of information, often in matrix structure. Between individual from different units and
organizational level
1. Personal barrier (as a result of individual differences)
Individual Characteristics- It has to do with the personality, back ground, ethnic,
national culture, beliefs, and attitude even moods.
Semantic- different uses and meaning of words
Channel selection- lean towards a particular channels even though more effective
channel exist.
Consistency- communication symbols and signals are consistent
Credibility- receiver doesn’t consider that the sender is trustworthy and
knowledgeable about the subject being communicated
Incrimination - people may be reluctant to transmit the information because it is likely
to anger the supervisor
2. Organizational barrier (organizational characteristics)
1. Power and status
People in the upper position usually hesitant to listen to those
individual at lower level.
2. Goal and priority differences
Goal and priority differences among organizational department or
divisions may influence how effective message is sent.
3. Organizational structure
organization does not provide sufficient upward, downward and
horizontal communication
3. Environmental barrier
The factors include noise, information overload, and physical barrier within
the environment
Overcoming communication barrier
1. Listening
2. Providing feedback
3. Being aware of the cultural diversity
4. Choosing an appropriate channel
5. Structuring the organization for communication
6. Improving interpersonal relationship
Communication with the Public
Communication between government and the publics is essential to the
agencies effort to achieve its goal. Government produced a lot of
information and distribute it trough many channels. Some message are
aimed for general publics, constituent group, legislators, private sector
It can fall under informal and formal categories e.g press release, reports,
media interview
Government communicate to the public because of
several reasons
They want to support or aim to enlighten people basically for their
private activities e.g avoid contracting AIDS.
To publicize and win public popular support. It may include
educational and economic benefit for certain people. Some have
larger aims to impress people with the importance of service the
agency perform.
Public agencies publicizes service/ benefit they make available and
the means by which people can obtain them.
Government communicate their laws/ rules and regulations
Communication from outside.
Government agencies also obtain message from outside, from legislator, citizen complain,
court, other agencies, private sector, NGOs and other parties. Most call for response and
urgency of action
Informal communication flows across organization occurs through many ways e.g police
tell s environmental officer about dumping toxic waste, social worker tells reporter
about their new project .
The communication system of public agencies often appears inefficient and difficult to
penetrate. It is because of the fact that different agencies response differently in their
means to handle public concerns.
Some put high priority, others see no need to respond or are selective to whom they
respond to. Many agencies use information technologies to reach citizen for all these
It also refers to any government functions or process that are carried
out in digital form over the Internet.
a way for governments to use the most innovative information and
communication technologies, particularly web based Internet
applications, to provide citizens and businesses with more
convenient access to government information and services and to
provide greater opportunities to participate in democratic situations
and processes.
Functions of E-government
To promote democratic participation by providing citizens with
more digital connections such as e-mail and simplifying procedure
for democratic elections such as e-voting
To deliver government service to citizens without any restrictions of
time and space by bringing governmental information on-line.
To make administrative work more transparent, efficient and
accountable.Through e-government, citizens, media can assess the
performance of their government in all sectors such as economic,
social and security e.g. through the ministry’s, department’s web
Implications pf E-government
1. Less scope for corruption
2. More pressure on officials to perform well (efficient and effective
3. Government can act as the center of information and public services.
Additionally, more information should be provided in e-government.
4. It allows citizens to communicate interactively with the government.
They would be able to give opinions, ask questions, criticize, or make
suggestions to governments and their apparatuses.
1. IT Infrastructural weakness
2. Lack of knowledge about the e-government program
3. Lack of security and privacy of information
4. Lack of qualified personnel and training courses
5. Culture differences
6. Leaders and management support
7. Lack of policy and regulation for e-usage
8. Lack of partnership and collaboration
9. Lack of strategic plans
10. Resistance to change to E-Systems
11. Shortage of financial resources
Malaysian e-government experience has not been without its
challenges and shortcomings (Siddiquee &Mohamed; 2015, Hussein;
2010, Danila & Abdullah; 2014, Kaliannan et all; 2007).
• Some challenges as discuss in the literature are mainly revolved
around the issue of effectiveness, reliability, accessibility
transparency, low acceptance rate.
Discuss the topics covered.
• Reiterate your welcome.
• Remind the participants to submit paperwork.
• Wrap up the orientation session.