CONCEPT PRESENTATION – GRADE 12 BIOLOGY – ENZYME FUNCTION IN METABOLISM By Simon Chiang WHY ENZYMES? • Enzymes can be found in the foods or herbs that we consume everyday: • Pineapples • Papayas • Mangoes • Avocadoes • Sage • Sauerkraut • Soy Sauce • Benefits can include aiding digestion and promoting health by antioxidant effects • There are many other uses of enzymes including industrial but the focus will be on nutrition and metabolism ENZYMES • Enzymes are protein macromolecules produced by living organisms to speed up or catalyze chemical reactions • They work by lowering activation energy that is required by chemical reactions • There are several factors that can effect enzyme activity • pH • Temperature • Substrate concentration • Enzyme concentration • Substrates bind to enzymes at the allosteric site and combine to form complexes called an enzyme-substrate complex CURRICULUM EXPECTATIONS • B2.1 use appropriate terminology related to biochemistry, including, but not limited to: active and passive transport, covalent and ionic bond, allosteric site, substrate, substrate-enzyme complex, and inhibition • B2.5 plan and conduct an investigation related to a cellular process (e.g., factors that affect enzyme activity; factors that affect transport of substances across cell membranes), using appropriate laboratory equipment and techniques, and report the results in an appropriate format • B3.4 describe the chemical structures and mechanisms of various enzymes BACKGROUND KNOWLEDGE • Students should have a conceptual understanding of: • macromolecules (protein, carbohydrates, lipids) • covalent and ionic bond • chemical reactions (including types and requirements i.e. energy) • Students should have foundational knowledge of Scientific Investigation Skills LESSON SEQUENCE 1. Engage •Introduction to enzymes – Pineapple Steak •Lock and key art activity 2. Explore 3. Explain 4. Environment/Elder •Students perform H2O2-catalase lab •Investigate factors that effect enzyme activity •Flipped Classroom – students gain a basic understanding before class •Concept Map of Enzymes Function •Picnic in the outer yard or nearby park with invited Elder •Students learn about the benefits of sage 5+6 Elaborate 7. Evaluate •Students design a lab to investigate other factors that effect enzyme activity •Problem-posing – students analyze articles discussing use of enzyme supplements to enhance metabolism •Students submit a lab report on their lab in the form of a report or presentation •Students finalize their lock and key art and submit an artist statement detailing the mechanism of enzyme function COMMON MISCONCEPTIONS (PT 1) These misconceptions can be addressed through formative assessments such as exit tickets or Kahoot quizzes 1. Enzymes only catalyze the breaking-down processes • Metabolism is both catabolic and anabolic, and enzymes are involved with both 2. Enzymes are only involved in the digestion of food • Enzymes are essential parts of metabolism which is ALL chemical reactions in the organism 3. Enzymes only speed up forward reactions • Reactions do not only go one way, they can reversible which enzymes speed up both reactions COMMON MISCONCEPTIONS (PT 2) These misconceptions can be addressed through formative assessments such as exit tickets or Kahoot quizzes 4. Heating kills enzymes • Enzymes are not living therefore they cannot be “killed”, however they can be denatured • Heating will initially increase enzyme activity 5. The rate of enzymatic reaction decreases because enzyme molecules are used up • Enzymes are not used up, instead they are “occupied” 6. Spontaneous reactions do not require activation energy • Even though some reactions occur spontaneously, there still has to be activation energy (and the energy in the surroundings is usually enough) TEACHING STRATEGIES AND ACTIVITIES • https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RAOyI3L3mN4 • This is a video showing one method to tenderize a steak using pineapple which works because of the enzyme bromelain • This could be a great way to engage students and provoke thought where one option is to develop a parking lot of questions for us to eventually answer OR to have students partially complete a K-W-L Chart NB: Be aware of any students that are Hindu as this may be sensitive TEACHING STRATEGIES AND ACTIVITIES Lock and Key Art Activity • Students are slowly introduced to the mechanism of enzyme function • They design their own “enzyme” out of cardboard making it into any shape using an X-Acto knife or scissors. • Following this, they cut out a particular shape from the edge of their cardboard piece (half-circle, triangle, square, etc) which forms the location for the “substrate” • They will colour it using paint or create a design that reflects themselves • They notice that other students’ substrate can possibly fit into others which leads into the idea of specificity or inhibition • Students end the unit by writing an “Artist Statement” regarding what they learned about enzymes and enzyme activity TEACHING STRATEGIES AND ACTIVITIES H2O2-catalase Laboratory • Modified from https://studylib.net/doc/7557918/laboratoryexercise-%236---stuyvesant-high-school • This is a laboratory investigating the effects of pH on enzyme activity • Relevance: • Humans produce hydrogen peroxide as a result of anti-oxidant effects and a well-known anti-oxidant enzyme is superoxide dismutase (SOD) • Sage and many other fruits/herbs/vegetables is known to contain SOD • Here, we would look at the breakdown of H2O2 by catalase into water and oxygen (the next step in breaking down of harmful substances in body) TEACHING STRATEGIES AND ACTIVITIES Flipped Classroom: • https://www.khanacademy.org/science/high-schoolbiology/hs-energy-and-transport/hs-enzymes/v/enzymes • Students watch a video about enzymes and enzyme activity at home or before class and come into class with questions Mindomo: • https://www.mindomo.com/ • Students create a concept map collaboratively from the Flipped Classroom Video • Possible Extension: Students that finish quickly can do further research to look more into enzymes in daily life (food, baking) or the industrial use of enzymes Taken from https://www.odysseyware.com/blog/usingclasspace-flipped-classroom TEACHING STRATEGIES AND ACTIVITIES FNMI and Picnic: • An Elder is invited to give a talk about FNMI and science to be hosted at a nearby park or outside the school • Students are expected to bring “healthy” foods that contain enzymes • Objective is to go into the details of the medicinal use of sage and its health benefits • If given enough time, can delve into smudging as well • If Elder cannot be invited, consider combining this video and reading: • https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zzysDb4pVco • http://www.whfoods.com/genpage.php?pfriendly=1&tname=foods pice&dbid=76 • Students compare and contrast Indigenous knowledge and “western” science knowledge TEACHING STRATEGIES AND ACTIVITIES STSE and Problem-Posing: • https://www.mcgill.ca/oss/article/health/digestive-enzymes-weight-lossproduct-will-probably-produce-opposite-results • https://www.woodpath.com/guide/do-digestive-enzymes-help-with-weightloss • Students critically analyze articles that discuss the topic of using digestive enzyme supplements to enhance metabolism • Relevance: • Nutritional supplements are popular in losing weight and for overall health benefits • However, the majority of these supplements have not been “scientifically” proven, but can bypass FDA regulations (or Health Canada) TEACHING STRATEGIES AND ACTIVITIES Student-designed Lab: • Using the H2O2-catalase lab as a template, students investigate the effects of other factors that could alter enzyme activity i.e. substrate concentration, enzyme concentration, temperature, or inhibitors • Students create a lab report or presentation outlining the process, results and discussion of the lab ASSESSMENT FOR LEARNING • Diagnostic Assessment • KWL Chart • Exit Tickets • Entrance Tickets (For the Flipped Classroom) • Quiz • Kahoot – an interactive online platform that allows student input • Concept Map • Mindomo – an easy-to-use online graphical interface that can create concept maps • https://www.mindomo.com/ • Protopedia – database with 3D simulation models of proteins • https://proteopedia.org/wiki/index.php/Papain • Other options: • Frayer Model • Class Jeopardy Review ASSESSMENT AS LEARNING • Artist Statement for Lock and Key Art Activity • Reflection on what they have learned and their journey through the process • Peer-Assessment • Students assess other students’ lab design and offer improvements (2 stars and a wish) • Other options • Reflection on KWL Chart • Self-assessment near/at the end of the unit ASSESSMENT OF LEARNING • Lab Report or Lab Presentation (video, PPT, Poster) • Artist Statement • Criteria: • Knowledge/Understanding • Demonstrate understanding of enzyme action mechanism • Thinking/Inquiry • Design of lab is well-thought out and thorough (IP, PR, AI) • Application • Discussion of lab makes connections to real-world • Communication • Report, Presentation or Statement are wellorganized and presented well • Use of proper scientific vocabulary - ACCOMMODATIONS • IEP: • Students with Giftedness • Extensions • Concept map can be more extensive including industrial uses of enzymes • FNMI connections can be further investigated • Given the option to create a 3D model of enzyme function • Students with Learning Disabilities (LDs) • More time given • Ensure all documents are available on Google Classroom • Chunking – splitting readings into smaller parts • Provide more one-on-one support • ELL: • Provide graphic organizers that use their L1 (home language) • Provide technology that allows for translation (e.g. Google Translate) • Pair with other students that are fluent in their L1 and English • Have a Word wall in classroom • Provide word bank SAFETY CONSIDERATIONS Lock and Key Art Activity • Remind students to be careful when using sharp tools and to not point the sharp end outwards H2O2-catalase Lab Activity • Put on safety goggles • In case of H2O2 spill, clean with paper towel • In case of skin exposure, rinse thoroughly with water FNMI and Science: Picnic • Be aware of any student allergies and remind students to be hygienic ANNOTATED REFERENCES Enzymes. Khan Academy. Retrieved from https://www.khanacademy.org/science/high-school-biology/hs-energy-andtransport/hs-enzymes/v/enzymes This site provides a comprehensive database on various subjects covering most, if not all, curricular topics. For this video, the topic of enzymes is discussed including energy, terminology, and mechanism of action. Kahoot (n.d.). Retrieved from https://kahoot.com/ Kahoot is an interactive website that allows for the creation and tracking of quizzes that can be used by students and educators for free. For the purposes of this Concept Presentation, it is mostly used as an Assessment for Learning. Labos, C (2018, November 22). Digestive Enzymes: Weight Loss Supplement? Retrieved from https://www.mcgill.ca/oss/article/health/digestive-enzymes-weight-loss-product-will-probably-produce-opposite-results This article discusses the use of digestive enzymes, a nutritional supplement, to help with weight loss and delves into situations where the supplement would be beneficial. Mader, S. Laboratory Exercise #6 Factors that affect enzyme activity. Stuyvesant High School. Retrieved from https://studylib.net/doc/7557918/laboratory-exercise-%236---stuyvesant-high-school This link provides a laboratory outline and worksheet for the investigation of how pH effects enzyme activity. This was modified to better fit the lesson sequence. ANNOTATED REFERENCES Mindomo (n.d.). Retrieved from https://www.mindomo.com/ Mindomo provides an easy-to-use platform to collaboratively create mind maps, concept maps, and outlines that can be saved online. For the purposes of this Concept Presentation, it is used as an Assessment for Learning to allow students to collaboratively create a concept map about enzymes. O’Grady, N (2019, March 1). Do Digestive Enzymes Help with Weight Loss? Retrieved from https://www.woodpath.com/guide/do-digestive-enzymes-help-with-weight-loss This article discusses the use of digestive enzymes, a nutritional supplement, to help with weight loss and provides extensive information about specific enzymes and their effects. Simple Tek. (2019, September 5). $3 Steak Tenderizing Pineapple Sous Vide Experiment (2019) [Video file]. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RAOyI3L3mN4 This Youtube video briefly discusses an experiment of using pineapple puree to marinate a steak to make it more tender. The George Mateljan Foundation (n.d.). Sage. Retrieved from http://www.whfoods.com/genpage.php?pfriendly=1&tname=foodspice&dbid=76 This article provides information about the herb sage including health benefits and history (more from a non-Indigenous perspective). Students can use this to gain further information about comparing Indigenous knowledge to Western knowledge. ANNOTATED REFERENCES THYATT (2018, May 14). Using ClassPace™ in a Flipped Classroom. Retrieved from https://www.odysseyware.com/blog/using-classpace-flipped-classroom This article provides background information about the teaching approach of flipped classrooms with a visual representation using Bloom’s Taxonomy. While ClassPace was not used in this Concept Presentation, the article is informative and beneficial for educators to read. Vitalitytv (2010, February 7). Picking Sage and Great Advice from an Elder [Video file]. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zzysDb4pVco This video provides background information about sage being one of the traditional herbs used in Indigenous ceremonies and medicine. It delves into the practice of smudging (burning of sage) for physical and mental health benefits.