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natural disasters and human impact study guide key

8th Grade Natural Disasters and Human Impact Study Guide
Where’s is most of Earth’s water located? In the oceans
What are meterologists? Scientists who study the atmosphere and weather
What are droughts? A prolonged period of abnormally low rainfall, resulting in drying out of
plant life and can contribute to wildfires
What are tornados? A violently rotating column of air that is in contact with the ground
Where do climate conditions cause hurricanes to become larger and more powerful? Over
warm water
What contributes to the formation of hurricanes during the late summer? The interaction
between ocean water temperatures and warm air masses
7. What happens to the water when fertilizer runs off into a lake or pond? Eutrophicationovergrowth of algae in the lake or pond, resulting in death of underwater plants, decomposition
of those dead plants by bacteria, leading to lack of oxygen in the water and death of aquatic life
(such as fish)
8. Where does water vapor come from in the atmosphere? Mostly from evaporation of surface
9. ¾ of Earth’s surface is covered by water. Describe nearly 97% of the water on Earth’s surface?
It is saltwater.
10. Where is most of Earth’s freshwater? Frozen in the polar ice caps and glaciers
11. Which technology best monitors temperature changes in Earth’s ocean? Satellites
12. Humans throughout the world compete with other organisms for water resources. Why would
restricting irrigation be a good way to manage water resources and allow all components of the
environment to share them? It allows us to conserve water so that there will be enough
freshwater for humans as well as other animals and plants in the environment.
13. Why are industrial factors a major source of air pollution created by humans? Because the
burning of fossil fuels by industry (such as factories and vehicles) results in the production of
poison gases and particulate matter that are the major kinds of air pollution
14. What is an earthquake? What piece of technology is used to measure earthquakes? The
shaking and trembling that results from movement of rock (plates) beneath Earth’s surface
15. Why would an uplifted mountain be a feature most likely formed at converging continental
tectonic plate boundaries? Because the two continental plates are of similar density, neither
plate subducts. Instead, the crust just piles up and forms mountains.
16. Why would a volcanic island arc be a landform most likely created when two oceanic plates
converge? Because one of the oceanic plates will subduct under the other and melt to form
magma. This magma will then erupt onto the ocean floor. This magma builds up n the ocean
floor over time, until it rises above the water, forming a volcanic island. There are usually many
of these islands formed as chains and so they are called island arcs.
17. What evidence do we have that the Earth’s continents were once in vastly different positions
than they are today? Evidence such as fossils of the same species being found on two totally
different continents with different climates oceans apart.
18. Why is sea-floor spreading evidence of plate tectonics? Because the fact that the sea floor is
getting wider as it spreads is evidence that the plates must be moving apart, allowing magma to
reach the surface of the sea floor and form new sea floor, which is what causes the sea floor
spreading to occur
19. What does the Richter scale measure in regards to earthquake characteristics ( energy,
magnitude, frequency, or probability)? Energy and magnitude
20. What causes the movement of Earth’s tectonic plates (think about the layers of the Earth)?
Convection currents in the mantle
21. What are convection currents? Where do they occur? Hot magma at the bottom of the mantle
rises because it is less dense. It cools when it gets to the top of the mantle and falls again
because it becomes denser when it gets cooler. This creates circular currents that are like liquid
“wheels” that move the tectonic plates. These currents occur in the mantle, specifically the
middle mantle, also called the asthenosphere.
22. Earthquake waves are recorded by seismometers. What does an earthquake wave transmit that
is recorded by the seisometer? Energy
23. Two plates composed of rock that has similar density meet along a convergent boundary. What
will happen where the two plates meet? Because they have similar density, neither will
subduct. Instead, the crust will fold and pile up, forming mountains.
24. What happens at the mid-ocean ridge? Oceanic plates are diverging, or pulling apart, which
allowing magma to rise to the ocean floor, where it hardens and forms underwater mountains
called the mid-ocean ridge
25. How do earthquakes tell scientists about the history of the planet? They tell us that the Earth’s
lithospheric plates are constantly moving
26. What are Earth’s five spheres? Hydrosphere (frozen part called cryosphere), geosphere,
biosphere, atmosphere
27. What is included in the Atmosphere? Biosphere? Geosphere? Hydrosphere? Cryosphere?
Atmosphere-air, wind, lightning
Biosphere- all living things including plants, animals, fungi, as well as organic matter that has not yet
Geosphere- rocks, soil, minerals, all of earth’s layers from core to crust, magma
28. Which scale is used to determine the strength of a tornado? Fujita scale
29. Which two elements primarily make up the atmosphere? Nitrogen (78%) and oxygen (21%)
30. What happens to the Earth’s pressure and temperature as you move from the crust to the core?
As you move from crust to core, the pressure and temperature increase.
31. What is Pangea? Supercontinent that existed long ago in which all continents were together as
one big land mass
32. What is subduction? When an ocean plate (more dense) converges with a continental plate
(less dense). The ocean plate goes under the continental plate and melts and turns back into
33. Why do earthquakes occur more frequently in California than Kentucky? Because there is an
active fault line in California and there is not one in Kentucky. Slipping and sliding of crustal
paltes along this transform boundary is what causes the earthquakes that occur so frequently in
34. How do natural disasters interact with Earth’s spheres? Natural disasters can affect all four of
Earths spheres. They can cause flooding and fires, which affect the hydrosphere, geosphere,
and atmosphere. They can kill people and animals and plants, which affects the biosphere.
Natural disasters such as volcanoes and earthquakes are part of the geosphere. Natural
disasters such as tornadoes and hurricanes, lightning, and thunderstorms are part of the
atmosphere. Flooding and hurricanes are part of the hydrosphere that can affect the geosphere
and biosphere. The list and discussion could go on and on.