On a Direct Mercator chart, a rhumb line appears as a? a) Curve concave to the nearest poles. b) Curve convex to the nearest pole. c) Straight line d) Curve convex to the equator. On a Lambert conformal conic projection, with two standard parallels the scale is? a) Correct only along the parallel of origin. b) Correct only at the poles. c) Correct only along the standard parallels. d) Correct at all points on the chart. On a Lambert conformal conic chart, with the two standard parallels, the scale is correct? a) Midway between the two standard parallels. b) Only along the two standard parallels. c) Only at the parallel of origin. d) Only at the centre of the chart. On a Direct Mercator chart a great circle will be represented by a? a) Straight lines. b) Curves convex to the equator. c) Curve concave to the equator. d) Curves concave to the nearest pole. On a Lambert Conformal conic chart earth convergency is most accurately represented at the? a) Standard parallels. b) Outside the standard parallels. c) At all points between the standard parallels. d) Parallel of origin. On a Direct mercator chart, meridians are? a) Parallel, equally spaced, horizontal straight lines. b) Converging curved lines. c) Parallel, equally spaced, vertical straight lines. d) Diverging curved lines. On which of the following chart projections is it not possible to represent the north or south poles? a) Polar Stereographic. b) Transverse Mercator. c) Lambert’s Conical. d) Direct Mercator. Which one of the following, concerning great circles on a Direct mercator chart, is correct? a) With the exception of meridians and the equator, they are curves concave to the equator. b) Straight lines. c) Curves concave to the nearest pole. d) With the exception of meridians and the equator, as curves convex to the equator. On a Lambert conformal conic chart, the distance between parallels of latitude spaced the same number of degrees apart? a) Increases between the reduced outside of the standard parallels. b) Reduces between, and expands outside, the standard parallels. c) Is constant between the standard parallels. d) Is constant outside of the standard parallels. A straight line drawn on a chart measures 4.63 cm and represents 150 NM. The chart scale is? a) 1: 6 000 000. b) 1: 5 000 000. c) 1: 4 500 000. d) 1: 6 500 000. In a navigation chart a distance of 49 NM is equal to 7 cm. The scale of the chart is approximately? a) 1: 2 000 000. b) 1: 2 300 000. c) 1: 1 600 000. d) 1: 1 300 000. At 60 N the scale of a direct Mercator chart is 1 : 3 000 000. What is the scale at the equator? a) 1: 5 000 000. b) 1: 4 500 000. c) 1: 12 000 000. d) 1: 6 000 000. Approximately how many nautical miles correspond to 12 cm on a map with a scale of 1 : 2 000 000? a) 130 nm b) 130 nm c) 200 nm d) 240 nm What is the reason for seasonal changes in climate? a) Because the Earth’s spin axis is inclined to the plane of its orbit round the Sun. b) Because the distance between the Earth and the Sun varies over a year. c) Because the Earth’s orbital speed round the Sun varies according to the time of the year. d) Because of the diﬀerence between the Tropical Year and the Calendar year. How would you define standard time in relation to UTC? a) It is local time. b) It is local time adjusted to whole or half hours diﬀerence from UTC. c) It is based on local sunrise and sunset. d) It is another term for UTC. A time diﬀerence of 5 hours 20 minutes and 20 seconds is equivalent to which change of longitude? a) 81°30’. b) 78°15’. c) 79°10’. d) 80°05’. The main reason that day and night, throughout the year have diﬀerent duration, is due to the? a) Relative speed of the sun along the ecliptic. b) Inclination of the ecliptic to the equator. c) Earth’s rotation. d) Gravitational eﬀect on the sun and moon on the speed of rotation of the Earth. The angle between the plane of the ecliptic and the plane of equator is approximately? a) 27.5°. b) 66.5°. c) 23.5°. d) 25.3°. AT what approximate date is the earth furthest from the (aphelion)? a) Beginning of July. b) End of September. c) Beginning of January. d) End of December. What is the highest latitude on the Earth at which the sun can be vertically overhead? a) 23.2°. b) 66.2°. c) 45.0°. d) 90.0°.