Religious Fundamentalism The reassertion of fundamental principles of a faith that rejects modern principles in some form or manner. Relatively recent development Prevalent in all major religions Political Cleaveages When a political allegiance or policy is affected by a National, Ethnic, Linguistic, and Religious Devision When a Political System is affected by more than one, it can be defined as a Cumulative or Crosscutting Cleavage. If Cumulative, the same groups of people are against each other on a multitude of issues If Cross-cutting, said groups may have a common interest in one issue but are against eachother in others. Gross National Product (GDP) Th total economic output per person. Purchasing Power Parity (PPP) An alternative to using an exchange rate to compare the economies of countries that use different currencies. Takes into account the differences in price levels from one country to another. Undeveloped Countries have been often shown to have a higher PPP than their exchange rate, and some developed countries have the opposite. Economic Inequality When there is a large division in economic standing between two groups in a country Can be a cause of Social Conflict and Political Cleaveage. Democracy A political system in which citizens enjoy a number of basic civil and political rights. Political leaders are elected and accountable by law. Authoritarian Government Defined as any form of government that lacks the features of democracy. Oligarchy lit. meaning: Rule by the few Form of government in which political rights are witheld from the majority of the population. Totalitarianism A form of government in which constricts the rights and privacy of its citizens in a particularly severe manner. Democratization A trend indicating a large number of countries moving towards a democratic form of government during the past Century. Trend has had peaks and recessions, and more economically unstable countries have a greater tendency to fall during recession periods.