Uploaded by c-rine

Emotional Intelligence Customer Oriented Behavior

advertisement
中華民國品質學會第 42 屆年會暨第 12 屆全國品質管理研討會
Factors that Influence Customer-Oriented Behavior of
Customer-Contact Employees
1
2
Wen-hai Chih
Ci-Rong Li
1
Professor, Department of Business Administration, National Dong-Hwa University
2
PhD student, Department of Business Administration, National Dong-Hwa University
E-mail: [email protected]
Abstract
Customer-oriented behavior of customer-contact employees is important
during customer decision making process in service industry. In light of
research void, this research investigates 520 customer-contact employees
across 6 life insurance companies in Taiwan. Empirical data is used to
examine the effects of job satisfaction, job involvement and job stress on
customer-oriented behavior as well as the moderated effect of emotional
intelligence on the relationship between job stress and customer-oriented
behavior. Significant findings are: (1) job satisfaction and job involvement
positively affect customer-oriented behavior; (2) job stress negatively affects
customer-oriented behavior; (3) emotional intelligence positively moderates
the relationship between job stress and customer-oriented behavior.
Keywords: customer-contact employee, Customer-oriented behavior, emotional
intelligence
摘要
在服務產業中,第一線員工之顧客向導行為在顧客決策過程中是相
當重要的。本研究調查 520 位來自於 6 家台灣壽險公司的第一線員工。
實證工作滿足、工作投入與工作壓力對於顧客導向行為之影響,同時亦
驗證情緒智力在工作壓力與顧客導向行為之間的調節效果。本研究提出 3
項重要發現,包括(1)工作滿足與工作投入均會正向影響顧客導向行為;
(2)工作壓力對顧客導向行為則產生反向影響;(3)情緒智力則會正向調節
工作壓力對顧客導向行為之影響。
關鍵字:第一線員工、顧客導向行為、情緒智力
1
中華民國品質學會第 42 屆年會暨第 12 屆全國品質管理研討會
1. Introduction
Since the intangible and interactive characteristics through service delivering
process, customer-c
ont
a
c
te
mpl
oy
e
e
s
’be
ha
vi
orpl
a
y
sake
yr
ol
edur
i
ngc
us
t
ome
r
s
’
decision making process. In fact, the customer-oriented behavior of customer-contact
employees is important for service firms to make long-term profit [2, 37]. In recent
years, the number of the companies which invested programs for enhancing
customer-oriented behavior of customer-contact employees is growing rapidly [10, 35].
The boundary-spanning nature of service employees often results in some emotional or
affective reactions during service delivering [29]. As the result, it is important to study
the factors that can influence customer-oriented behavior of customer-contact
employees.
Previous researches have indicated that emotional or affective responses (e.g., job
satisfaction, job stress) of customer-contact employees will influence their
customer-oriented behavior [12, 17]. Furthermore, the extent to which employees show
the customer-oriented behavior relies on the efforts that customer-contact employees
engage in [34]. It is known that job-related factors would influence customer-oriented
behavior. In addition, since customer-contact employees are emotional labors, the
moderated effect of emotional intelligence is discussed in this research. Thus, in light of
this research void, the two questions are examined: First, the test of the effects of job
satisfaction, job involvement and job stress on customer-oriented behavior is validated.
Second, the moderated effect of emotional intelligence on the relationship between job
stress and customer-oriented behavior is further discussed.
2. Literature review and hypotheses
In this section we will briefly review the literature concerning customer-oriented
behavior. We will then discuss the effects of job satisfaction, job involvement and job
stress on customer-oriented behavior as well as the moderated effect of emotional
intelligence.
2.1 Customer-oriented behavior
Our conceptualization of customer-oriented behavior is consistent with three works.
First, Saxe and Weitz [34] suggest that customer-orientation is the degree to which an
organization or its employees focus their efforts on understanding and satisfying
customers. Second, Stock and Hoyer [41] view customer-oriented behavior as the extent
to which service employees use their marketing concepts for helping customers to make
purchase decisions as well as satisfying their needs. Third, Brown et al. [3]
2
中華民國品質學會第 42 屆年會暨第 12 屆全國品質管理研討會
operationalize customer-oriented behavior in terms of a tendency of employees to meet
customer needs in job-related environment. Consistent with these views, we define
customer-oriented behavior as the extent to which customer-contact employees use their
ma
r
ke
t
i
ngc
onc
e
pt
sf
ors
a
t
i
s
f
y
i
ngc
us
t
ome
r
s
’ne
e
ds
.
2.2 Job satisfaction and its effect on customer-oriented behavior
We define job satisfaction as an extent of affective reaction to which
customer-contact employees like their jobs [4, 11]. The affect theory of social exchange
contends that emotions is a core feature of social exchange process, which individuals
engage in to show reciprocal behaviors and support parties from whom they benefit [19].
The application of this theory can range from support among co-workers, information
flows among firms as well as the relationships between customer-contact employees
and customers [38]. Furthermore it is widely accepted that job satisfaction is a positive
emotion [1, 39]. Since customer-contact employees can be benefited for salary or bonus
from satisfying customers. According to the affect theory of social exchange, we believe
that job satisfaction of customer-contact employees would have a positive effect on
customer-oriented behavior. Therefore, the following hypothesis is proposed:
H1: Job satisfaction would positively affect customer-oriented behavior.
2.3 Job involvement and its effect on customer-oriented behavior
We define job involvement as the extent to which customer-contact employees
consider their job to be an essential part of their lives [15, 18]. We argue that job
involvement positively affect customer-oriented behavior. Our rationales are as follows:
Higher job involvement will lead to higher tendency of workaholic [25], and will be an
effective predictor of higher job performance [16]. One might expect that
customer-contact employees who have higher job involvement will tend to focus on
job-related activities such as thinking of ways to service customers better rather than
wasting time on non job-related activities [5, 31]. Thus we believe that higher job
involvement would lead to higher customer-oriented behavior. Thus, we proposed
H2: Job involvement would positively affect customer-oriented behavior.
2.4 Job stress and its effect on customer-oriented behavior
We define job stress is an extent of harmful affective reaction to which service
employees do not match the job requirement with their capabilities or resources
themselves [22, 26].We expect job stress will negatively affect customer-oriented
behavior. It is widely accepted that job environments of customer-contact employees are
full of job stress [24], and it follows that job stress will decrease some job outcomes
3
中華民國品質學會第 42 屆年會暨第 12 屆全國品質管理研討會
performance such as productivity [33]. When job stress takes places, it means there is a
poorf
i
tbe
t
we
e
nj
obr
e
qui
r
e
me
nta
nds
e
r
vi
c
ee
mpl
oy
e
e
s
’c
a
pa
bi
l
i
t
i
e
sorr
e
s
our
c
e
s
.Si
nc
e
that, one might expect that job stress will deprive customer-contact employees of
normal behavioral patterns, thereby in turn negatively affects job-related behavior such
as the interactions between customers and themselves [13]. Therefore, we proposed
H3: Job stress negatively affects customer-oriented behavior.
2.5 Emotional intelligence and its moderated effect
Emotional intelligence can be defined as the abilities concerning the recognition
and regulation of emotion in the self and others [23, 40]. We argue that
customer-contact e
mpl
oy
e
e
s
’e
mot
i
ona
li
nt
e
l
l
i
g
e
nc
ewoul
dmode
r
a
t
et
her
e
l
a
t
i
ons
hi
p
between job stress and customer-oriented behavior. Specifically, customer-contact
e
mpl
oy
e
e
swhos
ee
mot
i
ona
li
nt
e
l
l
i
g
e
nc
e
sa
r
ehi
g
he
rt
ha
not
he
r
s
’woul
dha
vel
i
g
ht
e
r
negative effect from job stress to customer-oriented behavior. Our rationales are as
follows: Emotional intelligence is a psychological mechanism that can prevent
individuals from a harmful stress condition [23]. Some evidences revealed that the
higher customer-c
ont
a
c
te
mpl
oy
e
e
s
’emotional intelligence, the lower job stress they
have [6, 27, 28].
Otherwise, emotional intelligence can be an important adaptive mechanism for
helping individuals to adjust the interactions with their environment [28]. Thus, we
expect that customer-contact employees with higher emotional intelligence would adjust
the harmful affections to a good way, and would eventually diminish the influence from
job stress to customer-oriented behavior.
H4: Emotional intelligence would positively moderate the relationship between job
stress and customer-oriented behavior.
3. Research method
3.1 Procedure and participants
According to the typology developed by [21], life insurance sales personnel are
characterized by the one of high degree of customer-contact employee types. So we
chose life insurance sales personnel as the sample in this research, and then selected the
top 6 life insurance companies which accounted for approximately 70% market shares
in Taiwan. Questionnaires were then mailed to these companies. With the cooperation,
life insurance personnel among these companies were asked to fill out the
questionnaires with voluntary. Overall, of the 2000 questionnaires distributed, 858 were
returned. Of the 858 questionnaires 520 were found to be valid, for a useable response
4
中華民國品質學會第 42 屆年會暨第 12 屆全國品質管理研討會
rate of 26%.
3.2 Measures
All measures were 7-point Likert-t
y
pes
c
a
l
e
s
,r
a
ng
i
ngf
r
om “
s
t
r
ong
l
ydi
s
a
g
r
e
e
”
va
l
uea
s“
1”t
o“
s
t
r
ong
l
ys
a
gr
e
e
”va
l
uea
s“
7”
.Ea
c
hoft
heva
r
i
a
bl
e
sus
e
dt
oa
c
c
e
s
swa
s
based on the measurement as follows:
Customer-oriented behavior. Participants were asked to complete 6 items
regarding their customer-oriented behavior. These items which used to access
customer-oriented behavior of the extent to which customer-contact employees satisfy
c
us
t
ome
r
s
’ne
e
dswe
r
ede
ve
l
ope
dba
s
e
don Brown et al. [3]. Job Satisfaction. 6 items
from Lichtenstein et al. [20] and Wolniak and Pascarella [42] were the measurement of
job satisfaction. Three items were selected from each of their proposed subfacets (i.e.,
job autonomy and co-worker satisfaction). Job involvement. 6 items evaluating job
involvement of participants were adopted from Lassk et al. [18]. The subfacets are time
involvement and relationship involvement. Job stress. There were 6 items used to
measure job stress of participants. These items were modified from Gellis, Kim and
Hwang [8], Joiner [14] and Rothmann, Steyn and Mostert [32]. The subfacets are job
demand and lack of support. Emotional intelligence. 12 items from Rahim and Minors
[30] and Schutte et al. [36] were used to measure the emotional intelligence of
participants. Four items were selected from each of the subfacets (i.e., self-awareness,
self-regulation and others-awareness).
4. Results
4.1 Reliability and Validity
We examined a 36-item, 5-construct questionnaire in t
hi
sr
e
s
e
a
r
c
h.Cr
onba
c
h’
s
alphas for these variables are presented in ta
bl
e1a
ndwe
r
es
a
t
i
s
f
a
c
t
or
y(
α> .70). We
then conducted factor analysis for convergence validity testing. There are three
criterions as follows: First, eigenvalues of factors should be greater than 1. Second, the
loadings should be grater than 0.6. Third, the average proportions of variance explained
must be greater than 60%. The results are displayed in table 2. It shows that the
convergence validities of customer-oriented behavior, job satisfactory, job involvement,
job stress and emotional intelligence are satisfactory.
For the test of discriminate validity, we conducted two criterions proposed by
Gaski and Nevin [7]. First, the correlation coefficient of any two variables must
significantly lower than 1. Second, the correlation coefficient of any two variables
s
houl
dl
owe
rt
ha
nt
heCr
onba
c
h’
sa
l
pha
soft
he
ms
e
l
ve
s
.Ther
e
s
ul
t
sa
r
es
howe
di
nt
a
bl
e
5
中華民國品質學會第 42 屆年會暨第 12 屆全國品質管理研討會
1, and the discriminate validities among these were satisfactory.
Table 1: Correlation matrix and descriptive statistics
Measure
1.COB
2.JSA
3.JIV
4.JSS
5.EI
Mean
4.18
3.91
2.61
3.55
3.47
1
.96
2
.72**
.94
3
.65**
.55**
.89
4
-.59**
-.50**
-.47**
.89
5
.46**
.35**
.36**
-.60**
.94
Note. Coefficient alpha reliability estimates are presented in bold along the diagonal. Customer-oriented behavior
(COB), job satisfaction (JSA), job involvement (JIV), job stress (JSS) and emotional intelligence (EI).
*p<0.05, **p<0.001
Table 2: Factor matrix and proportions of variance explained
items
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
Variance
explained
COB
.913
.925
.912
.884
.892
.896
JSA
.854
.867
.877
.846
.895
.879
JIV
.737
.850
.812
.859
.819
.788
JSS
.752
.835
.780
.839
.825
.807
EI
.721
.791
.878
.847
.830
.844
.819
.833
.830
.721
.791
.878
81.69%
75.68%
65.89%
65.09%
67.67%
4.2 Hierarchical moderator regression analysis
Means and the correlation among variables are shown in table 1. We examined the
data for potential systematic differences because of characteristics of life insurance
personnel across 6 companies. Across 6 companies, participants were not different in
t
e
r
msofge
nde
r
,χ
2(
5,N=520)=4.
97,p=.
419;a
g
e
,χ
2(
15,N=520)=19.
85,p=.
178;
j
obt
e
nur
e
,χ
2(
25,N=520)=33.
60
,
p=.
1
17.
Given the no significant difference in terms of gender, age and job tenure, we then
performed the hierarchical moderator regression analysis to test our hypotheses. It was
conducted by entering the dependent variables (job satisfaction, job involvement and
job stress) into model 1. The moderated term, created as the multiplication of job stress
and emotional intelligence, was then entered into model 2. The results are displayed in
Table 3.
As we predicted, independent variables influenced customer-oriented behavior
(R2= .648, p<0.001). Consistent with hypothesis 1, job satisfaction significant
positively affects customer-or
i
e
nt
e
dbe
ha
vi
or(
β=.
499,t=13.
603,p<0.
001)
.
Anda
swe
expected, job involvement significant positively influences customer-oriented behavior
(
β=.
292,t=8.
995,p
<0.
001)
.Fur
t
he
r
mor
e
,j
obs
t
r
e
s
ss
i
g
ni
f
i
c
a
ntne
ga
t
ively affects
6
中華民國品質學會第 42 屆年會暨第 12 屆全國品質管理研討會
customer-or
i
e
nt
e
dbe
ha
vi
or(
β=-.228, t = -7.287, p<0.001). Therefore, H1, H2 and H3
were supported.
Table 3: Results of hierarchical moderator regression analysis
Independent Variables
R2
ΔR2
.648
Model 1
(Constant)
JSA
JIV
JSS
.655
.007
Model 2
ANOVA
F
Sig.
316.212
.000
243.916
10.169
B
Coefficients
Beta
t
Sig.
2.094
.539
.437
-.328
.449
.292
-.228
7.537
13.603
8.995
-7.287
.000
.000
.000
.000
1.911
.531
.429
-.370
.032
.422
.287
-.258
.086
6.793
13.490
8.883
-7.956
3.189
.000
.000
.000
.000
.002
.000
.002
(Constant)
JSA
JIV
JSS
EI*JSS
In support of H4, emotional intelligence was found to be a significant moderator
between job stress and customer-oriented behavi
or(
ΔR2= .
0.
007,p<0.
05)
.The
regression model can be written as COB = .442*JSA + .287*JIV - .258*JSS
+ .086*EI
*J
SS.Emot
i
o
na
li
nt
e
l
l
i
g
e
nc
e(
β= .
086,t= 3.
189,p= 0.
02)pos
i
t
i
ve
l
y
moderates the relationship between job stress and customer-oriented behavior. H4 was
supported.
We then conducted the partial differential of COB on JSS. Then the regression
mode
lc
a
nbewr
i
t
t
e
na
sδ
COB/
δ
J
SS=-.258 + .86EI. Thus, when emotional intelligence
increased, the effect of job stress on customer-oriented behavior was decreased.
Furthermore, given the inherent correlation between dependent variables,
multicollinearity is tested by examining the variance inflation factor (VIF). It revealed
that all VIF were lower than 10 (through 1.09 to 1.60). Multicollinearity, therefore, was
not an issue in the preceding analysis [9].
5. Conclusions
5.1 Discussions and implications
Consistent with the affect theory of social exchanges, in this study we found that
job satisfaction and job involvement can positively enhance customer-oriented behavior
of customer-contact employee; job stress can negatively affect customer-oriented
behavior. We also found evidence supporting an adaptive mechanism to explain why
some customer contact employees may react more favorable customer-oriented
behavior than others. That is, emotional intelligence was a significant moderator of the
relationship between job stress and customer-oriented behavior. As the emotional
intelligence increased, the higher emotional intelligence customer-contact employees
7
中華民國品質學會第 42 屆年會暨第 12 屆全國品質管理研討會
have the lighter influence of job stress on customer-oriented behavior. Because higher
emotional intelligence affords them the ability to adjust their harmful affections (e.g.,
job stress), and thereby show the better customer-oriented behavior than others.
Alternative, this study provides salient implications for service firms for
developing customer-oriented behavior programs. More specifically, job satisfaction,
job involvement, job stress and emotional intelligence play important role in
customer-oriented behavior of service employees. This suggests that service firms can
create favorable customer-oriented behavior employees through these variables. From
this perspective, a program that can enhance job satisfaction, job involvement, and
emotional intelligence as well as can diminish job stress will be a good instrument for
service firms. We believe that this study provides meaningful insights into how affective
responses affect customer-c
ont
a
c
te
mpl
oy
e
e
s
’be
ha
vi
ora
swe
l
la
shows
e
r
vi
c
ef
i
r
msc
a
n
shape more favorable customer-contact employees.
Furthermore, this research represents the first study to investigate the relationship
between job involvement and customer-oriented behavior, and we further discuss the
moderation effect of emotional intelligence on the relationship between job stress and
customer-oriented behavior. We also believe that the results and practices of this study
are valuable for service firms to adopt in the future.
5.2 Future research and study limitations
There are other important customer-oriented behavior related variables apart from
those investigated in our study that warrant future study. For example, personality of
customer-contact employees should be investigated to access the effect or moderation
effect on customer-oriented behavior. One limitation of this study was the cross-section
survey; we suggest future research can conduct a longitude investigation to verify the
casual relationship between job related variables and customer-oriented behavior.
1.
2.
3.
4.
REFERENCES
Bateman, T. S. and Org
a
n,D.
W.
,1983,“
J
obs
a
t
i
s
f
a
c
t
i
ona
ndt
heg
oods
ol
di
e
r
:The
r
e
l
a
t
i
ons
hi
pbe
t
we
e
na
f
f
e
c
ta
nde
mpl
oy
e
ec
i
t
i
z
e
ns
hi
p,
”Ac
a
de
myofMa
na
ge
me
nt
Journal, Vol.26, No.4, pp.587-595.
Bove
,L.L.a
ndJ
ohns
on,L.
W.
,2000,“
Ac
us
t
ome
r
-service worker relationship
model
,
”I
nt
e
r
na
t
i
ona
lJ
ou
r
na
lo
fSe
r
vi
c
eI
ndus
t
r
yMa
na
g
e
me
nt
, Vol.11, No.5,
pp.491-511.
Br
won,
T.F
.
,Mowe
n,J
.C.
,Dona
va
n,D.
T.a
ndLi
c
a
t
a
,J
.
W.
,2002,“
Thec
us
t
ome
r
orientation of service workers: Personality trait effects on self-and supervisor
performanc
er
a
t
i
ng
s
,
”J
our
na
lofMa
r
ke
t
i
ngRe
s
e
a
r
c
h, Vol.39, No.1, pp.110-119.
Bui
t
e
nda
c
h,J
.H.a
ndDeWi
t
t
e
,H.
,2005,“
J
obI
ns
e
c
ur
i
t
y
,e
xt
r
i
ns
i
ca
ndi
nt
r
i
ns
i
c
8
中華民國品質學會第 42 屆年會暨第 12 屆全國品質管理研討會
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
job satisfaction and affective organizational commitment of maintenance workers
i
napa
r
a
s
t
a
t
a
l
,
”Sout
hAfrican Journal of Business Management, Vol.36, No.2,
pp.27-37.
Co
h
e
n,
A.
,1995,“
Ane
xa
mi
na
t
i
onoft
her
e
l
a
t
i
ons
hi
psbe
t
we
e
nwor
kc
ommi
t
me
nt
a
ndnonwor
kdoma
i
ns
,
”Huma
nRe
l
a
t
i
ons
, Vol.48, No.3, pp.239-263.
Ga
r
dne
r
,L.J
.a
ndSt
ough,C.
,
2003,“
Expl
or
a
t
i
on of the relationships between
wor
kpl
a
c
ee
mot
i
ona
li
nt
e
l
l
i
g
e
n
c
e
,oc
c
upa
t
i
ona
ls
t
r
e
s
sa
nde
mpl
oy
e
ehe
a
l
t
h,
”
Australian Journal of Psychology, Vol.55, 181.
Ga
s
ki
,J
.F
.a
ndNe
vi
n,J
.R.
,1985,“
Thedi
f
f
e
r
e
nt
i
a
le
f
f
e
c
t
sofe
xe
r
c
i
s
e
da
nd
unexercised power sourc
e
si
nama
r
ke
t
i
ngc
ha
nne
l
,
”J
our
na
lofMa
r
ke
t
i
ngRe
s
a
r
c
h,
Vol.22, No.2, pp.130-142.
Ge
l
l
i
s
,Z.D.
,Ki
m,J
.a
ndHwa
ng
,S.C.
,2004,“
Ne
wYor
ks
t
a
t
ec
a
s
ema
na
ge
r
survey: Urban and rural differences in job activities, job stress, and job
s
a
t
i
s
f
a
c
t
i
on,
”Thej
ournal of Behavioral Health Services and Research, Vol.31,
No.4, pp.430-440.
Hair, J. T., Anderson, R. E., Tatham, R. L. and Black, W. C., 1995, Multivariate
Data with Readings (4th Ed.), Prentice-Hill, Englewood Cliffs.
Hallowell, R., Schlesinger, L. A. andZor
ni
t
s
ky
,J
.
,1996,“
I
nt
e
r
na
ls
e
r
vi
c
equa
l
i
t
y
,
c
us
t
ome
ra
ndj
obs
a
t
i
s
f
a
c
t
i
on:l
i
nka
g
e
sa
ndi
mpl
i
c
a
t
i
onsf
orma
na
g
e
me
nt
,
”Huma
n
Resource Planning, Vol.19, No.2, pp.20-31.
Hi
r
s
c
hf
e
l
d,R.R.
,2000,“
Doe
sr
e
vi
s
i
ngt
hei
nt
r
i
ns
i
ca
nde
xt
r
i
ns
i
cs
ubs
c
a
l
e
soft
he
Mi
n
ne
s
ot
as
a
t
i
s
f
a
c
t
i
onque
s
t
i
o
nna
i
r
es
hor
tf
or
m ma
keadi
f
f
e
r
e
nc
e
?
”Educ
a
t
i
ona
l
Psychological Measurement, Vol.60, No.2, pp.255-270.
Hof
f
ma
n,D.K.a
ndI
ngr
a
m,
T.N.
,1991,“
Cr
e
a
t
i
ngc
us
t
ome
r
-oriented employees:
Thec
a
s
ei
nhomehe
a
l
t
hc
a
r
e
,
”J
our
na
lofHuman Capacity Management, Vol.11,
No.2, pp.24-32.
J
a
ma
l
,M.
,1990,“
Re
l
a
t
i
ons
hi
pofj
obs
t
r
e
s
sa
ndt
y
pe
-a behavior to employees' job
satisfaction organizational commitment, psychosomatic health problems, and
t
ur
nove
rmot
i
va
t
i
on,
”Huma
nRe
l
a
t
i
ons
, Vol.43, No.8, pp.727-738.
J
oi
n
e
r
,
T.
A.
,2001,“
Thei
nf
l
u
e
nc
eofna
t
i
ona
lc
ul
t
ur
ea
ndor
g
a
ni
z
a
t
i
ona
lc
ul
t
ur
e
a
l
i
g
nme
ntonj
obs
t
r
e
s
sa
ndpe
r
f
or
ma
nc
e
:Evi
de
nc
ef
r
omGr
e
e
c
e
,
”J
our
na
lof
Managerial Psychology, Vol.16, No.3, pp.229-242.
Ka
nung
o,R.N.
,1982,“
Me
a
s
ur
e
me
ntofj
oba
ndwor
ki
nvol
ve
me
nt
,
”J
our
na
lof
Applied Psychology, Vol.67, No.3, pp.341-349.
Ke
l
l
e
r
,R.
T.
,1997,“
J
obi
nvol
ve
me
nta
ndor
g
a
ni
z
a
t
i
ona
lc
ommi
t
me
nta
s
l
ong
i
t
udi
na
lpr
e
di
c
t
or
sofj
obp
e
r
f
or
ma
nc
e
:
As
t
udyofs
c
i
e
nt
i
s
t
sa
nde
ng
i
ne
e
r
s
,
”
Journal of Applied Psychology, Vol.82, No.4, pp.539-545.
9
中華民國品質學會第 42 屆年會暨第 12 屆全國品質管理研討會
17. Ke
l
l
e
y
,S.
W.
,1992,“
De
ve
l
opi
ngc
us
t
ome
ror
i
e
nt
a
t
i
ona
mongs
e
r
vi
c
ee
mpl
oy
e
e
s
,
”
Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, Vol.20, 27-36.
18. Lassk, F. G., Marshall, G. W., Cravens, D. W. and Moncrief, W. C., 2001,
“
Sa
l
e
s
pe
r
s
onj
obi
nvol
ve
me
nt
:
Amode
r
npe
r
s
pe
c
t
i
vea
ndane
ws
c
a
l
e
,
”Thej
our
na
l
of Personal Selling and Sales Management, Vol.21, No.4, pp.291-302.
19. La
wl
e
r
,E.J
.
,2001,“
Ana
f
f
e
c
tt
he
or
yofs
oc
i
a
le
xc
ha
ng
e
,
”TheAme
r
i
c
a
nJ
our
na
l
of Sociology, Vol.107, No.2, pp.321-353.
20. Li
c
h
t
e
ns
t
e
i
n,R.
,
Al
e
xa
nde
r
,J
.
A.
,Mc
Ca
r
t
hy
,J
.F
.a
ndWe
l
l
s
,R.
,2004,“
St
a
t
us
differences in cross-functional teams: Effects on individual member participation,
j
obs
a
t
i
s
f
a
c
t
i
on,a
ndi
nt
e
ntt
oqui
t
,
”J
our
na
lofHe
a
l
t
ha
ndSoc
i
a
lBe
ha
vi
or, Vol.45,
No.3, pp.322-335.
21. Love
l
oc
k,C.H.
,1983,“
Cl
a
s
s
i
f
y
i
ngs
e
r
vi
c
e
st
oga
i
ns
t
r
a
t
e
g
i
cma
r
ke
t
i
ngi
ns
i
g
ht
s
,
”
Journal of Marketing, Vol.47, No.1, pp.9-20.
22. Lu,J
.L.
,2005,“
Pe
r
c
e
i
ve
dj
obs
t
r
e
s
sofwome
nwor
ke
r
si
ndi
ve
r
s
ema
nuf
a
c
t
ur
i
ng
i
ndus
t
r
i
e
s
,
”Human Factors and Ergonomics in Manufacturing, Vol.15, No.3,
pp.275-291.
23. Mayers, J. D. and Salovery, P., 1997, Emotional Development and Emotional
Intelligence: Educational Implications, Basic Books, New York.
24. Mont
g
ome
r
y
,D.C.a
ndBl
odg
e
t
t
,F
.G.
,1996,“
Amodel of financial securities
s
a
l
e
s
pe
r
s
ons
'
j
obs
t
r
e
s
s
,
”J
our
na
lofSe
r
vi
c
e
sMa
r
ke
t
i
ng
, Vol.10, No.3, pp.21-38.
25. Mudr
a
c
k,P
.E.a
ndNa
ught
on,
T.J
.
,2001,“
Thea
s
s
e
s
s
me
ntofwor
khol
i
s
ma
s
behavioral tendencies: scale development and preliminary empirical test
i
ng,
”
International Journal of Stress Management, Vol.8, No.2, pp.93-111.
26. Ne
t
e
me
y
e
r
,R.G.
,Ma
xha
m,J
.G.a
ndPul
l
i
g
,C.
,2005,“
Conf
l
i
c
t
si
nt
he
work-family interface: Links to job stress, customer service employee performance,
and customer purchase intent
,
”J
our
na
lofMa
r
ke
t
i
ng
, Vol.69, No.2, pp.130-143.
27. Ni
kol
a
ou,L.a
ndTa
s
ous
i
s
,L.
,2002,“
Emot
i
ona
li
nt
e
l
l
i
g
e
nc
ei
nt
hewor
kpl
a
c
e
e
xpl
or
i
ngi
t
se
f
f
e
c
t
sonoc
c
upa
t
i
ona
ls
t
r
e
s
sa
ndor
g
a
ni
z
a
t
i
ona
lc
ommi
t
me
nt
,
”
International Journal of Organizational Analysis, Vol.10, No.4, pp.327-342.
28. Oginska-Bul
i
k,N.
,2005,“
Emot
i
ona
li
nt
e
l
l
i
g
e
nc
ei
nt
hewor
kpl
a
c
ee
xpl
or
i
ngi
t
s
e
f
f
e
c
t
sonoc
c
upa
t
i
ona
ls
t
r
e
s
sa
ndhe
a
l
t
hout
c
ome
si
nhuma
ns
e
r
vi
c
ewor
ke
r
s
,
”
International journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health, Vol.18,
No.2, pp.167-175.
29. Pa
r
ki
ng
t
on,J
.J
.a
ndSc
h
ne
i
de
r
,B.
,1979,“
Somec
or
r
e
l
a
t
e
sofe
xpe
r
i
e
nc
e
dj
ob
s
t
r
e
s
s
:
Abounda
r
yr
ol
es
t
udy
,
”Ac
a
de
myofMa
na
g
e
me
ntJ
our
na
l
, Vol.22, No.2,
pp.270-281.
30. Ra
hi
m,M.
A.a
ndMi
nor
s
,P
.
,2003,“
Ef
f
e
c
t
sofe
mot
i
ona
li
ntelligence on concern
10
中華民國品質學會第 42 屆年會暨第 12 屆全國品質管理研討會
31.
32.
33.
34.
f
orqua
l
i
t
ya
ndpr
obl
e
ms
ol
vi
n
g
,
”Ma
na
g
e
r
i
a
l
Audi
t
i
ngJ
our
na
l
, Vol.18, No.2,
pp.150-155.
Ro
s
i
n,H.a
ndKor
a
bi
k,K.
,1995,“
Or
ga
ni
z
a
t
i
ona
le
xpe
r
i
e
nc
e
sa
ndpr
ope
ns
i
t
yt
o
l
e
a
ve
:
Amul
t
i
va
r
i
a
t
ei
nve
s
t
i
g
a
t
i
onofme
na
ndwome
nma
na
g
e
r
s
,
”J
ournal of
Vocational Behavior, Vol.46, No.1, pp.1-16.
Ro
t
hma
nn,S.
,St
e
y
n,L.J
.a
ndMos
t
e
r
t
,K.
,2005,“
J
obs
t
r
e
s
s
,s
e
ns
eofc
ohe
r
e
nc
e
a
ndwor
kwe
l
l
ne
s
si
na
ne
l
e
c
t
r
i
c
i
t
ys
uppl
yor
g
a
ni
z
a
t
i
on,
”Sout
hAf
r
i
c
a
nJ
our
na
lof
Business Management, Vol.36, No.1, pp.55-63.
Sa
g
e
r
,J
.K.
,1994,“
As
t
r
uc
t
ur
a
lmode
lde
pi
c
t
i
ngs
a
l
e
s
pe
opl
e
'
sj
obs
t
r
e
s
s
,
”J
our
na
l
of the Academy of Marketing Science, Vol.22, No.1, pp.74-84.
Sa
xe
,R.a
ndWe
i
t
z
,B.
A.
,198
2
,“
TheSOCOs
c
a
l
e
:
Ame
a
s
ur
eoft
hec
us
t
ome
r
orientationofs
a
l
e
s
pe
opl
e
,
”J
our
na
lofMa
r
ke
t
i
ngRe
s
e
a
r
c
h, Vol.19, No.3,
pp.343-351.
35. Sc
hl
e
s
i
ng
e
r
,L.
A.a
ndZor
ni
t
s
ky
,J
.
,1991,“
J
obs
a
t
i
s
f
a
c
t
i
on,s
e
r
vi
c
ec
a
pa
bi
l
i
t
y
,a
nd
c
us
t
ome
rs
a
t
i
s
f
a
c
t
i
on:
Ane
xa
mi
na
t
i
onofl
i
nka
g
e
sa
ndma
na
g
e
me
nti
mpl
i
c
a
t
i
ons
,
”
Human Resource Planning, Vol.14, No.2, pp.141-149.
36. Schutte, N. S., Malouff, J. M., Hall, L. E., Haggerty, D. J., Copper, J. T., Golden, C.
J
.a
ndDor
nhe
i
m,L.
,1998,“
De
ve
l
opme
nta
ndva
l
i
da
t
i
onofame
a
s
ur
eof
e
mo
t
i
ona
li
nt
e
l
l
i
g
e
nc
e
,
”Pe
r
s
ona
l
i
t
ya
ndI
ndi
vi
dua
lDi
f
f
e
r
e
nces, Vol.25, No.2,
pp.167-177.
37. Se
r
g
e
a
nt
,
A.a
ndFr
e
nke
l
,S.
,2
0
00,“
Whe
ndoc
us
t
ome
rc
ont
a
c
te
mpl
oy
e
e
ss
a
t
i
s
f
y
c
us
t
ome
r
s
?
”J
our
na
lofSe
r
vi
c
eRe
s
e
a
r
c
h, Vol.3, No.1, pp.18-34.
38. Si
e
r
r
a
,J
.J
.a
ndMc
Qui
t
t
y
,S.
,
2
005,“
Se
r
vi
c
epr
ovi
de
r
sa
ndc
us
t
ome
r
s
:Soc
i
a
l
exc
ha
nget
he
or
ya
nds
e
r
vi
c
el
oy
a
l
t
y
,
”J
our
na
lofSe
r
vi
c
e
sMa
r
ke
t
i
ng
, Vol.19, No.6,
pp.392-400.
39. Smi
t
h,C.
A.
,Or
ga
n,D.
W.a
n
dNe
a
r
,J
.P
.
,1983,
“
Or
g
a
ni
z
a
t
i
ona
lc
i
t
i
z
e
ns
h
i
p
be
ha
vi
or
:I
t
sna
t
ur
ea
nda
nt
e
c
e
de
nt
s
,
”J
our
na
lofAppl
i
e
dPs
y
c
hol
ogy
, Vol.68, No.4,
pp.653-663.
40. Spe
c
t
or
,P
.E.
,2005,“
I
nt
r
oduc
t
i
on:Emot
i
ona
li
nt
e
l
l
i
g
e
nc
e
,
”J
our
na
lof
Organizational Behavior, Vol.26, No.4, pp.409-410.
41. St
o
c
k,R.M.a
ndHoy
e
r
,
W.D.
,2002,“
Le
a
de
r
s
hi
ps
t
y
l
ea
sdr
i
ve
rofs
a
l
e
s
pe
opl
e
'
c
us
t
ome
ror
i
e
nt
a
t
i
on,
”J
our
na
lofMa
r
ke
t-Focused Management, Vol.5, No.4,
pp.355-376.
42. Wol
ni
a
k,G.C.a
ndPa
s
c
a
r
e
l
l
a
,E.T.
,2005,“
Thee
f
f
e
c
t
sofc
ol
l
e
g
ema
j
ora
ndj
ob
f
i
e
l
dc
ongr
ue
nc
eonj
obs
a
t
i
s
f
a
c
t
i
on,
”J
our
na
lofVoc
a
t
i
ona
lBe
ha
vi
or
, Vol.67, No.2,
pp.233-251.
11
Download