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Water Consumption

Water As a Scarce Resource:
Local, Regional & Trans-Boundary Water Issues
Approach to water governance
Water in India has become a critical factor affecting development and
Current approach to manage water is ‘engineering’ dominated one, which
treats water as a ‘homogenous’ resource
Water is a ‘heterogeneous resource’ and it generates multiple benefits to
the society.
These benefits are called ‘ecosystem services’.
What are ecosystem services?
• Ecosystem services: benefits generated by the environment that
are both directly and indirectly contributing to human well-being
(MEA, 2005; TEEB, 2010).
• Environment is treated as ‘natural capital’ and flow of ecosystem
services as ‘income’
• If the capital shrinks, the ecosystem services will shrink but,
Ecosystem Services of Water (e.g. Wetlands)
• Wetlands: "areas of marsh, fen, peatland or water, whether natural
or artificial, permanent or temporary, with water that is static or
flowing, fresh, brackish or salt, including areas of marine water
the depth of which at low tide does not exceed six metres” Ramsar Convection.
Ecosystem Services of Water , e.g. - Wetlands
• Water in a wetland, for example, generates four types of
ecosystem services (MEA, 2005; TEEB, 2010):
• Various Ecosystem Services of Water Resources (see the
photographs in supplementary file to session 3)
I -Production/Provisioning Services
• Production services include goods and services produced in the
• Provision of:
– Food
– Water (drinking, irrigation, etc)
– Fodder (including grass from pastures)
– Fuel (including wood and dung)
– Timber, fibers and other raw materials
– Biochemical and medicinal resources
– Genetic resources
– Ornamentals benefits
II-Regulation Services
• Regulation services result from the capacity of ecosystems to
regulate climate, hydrological and bio-chemical cycles, earth
surface processes, and a variety of biological processes.
• Air quality regulation
• Carbon sequestration
• Climate regulation through regulation of albedo, temperature and
rainfall patterns
II-Regulation Services
• Gas regulation/air quality regulation
• Filtering service that removes organic materials and chemicals
from water
• Regulation of the timing and volume of river and ground water
• Protection against floods by coastal or riparian systems (both
upstream and downstream flood)
II-Regulation Services
• Regulation of erosion and sedimentation
• Regulation of species reproduction (nursery function)
• Breakdown of excess nutrients and pollution
• Pollination
• Regulation of pests and pathogens
II-Regulating Services
• Protection against storms
• Protection against noise and dust
• Biological nitrogen fixation (BNF)
• Waste treatment
• Nutrient regulation
• Biological control
III-Cultural Services
• Cultural services relate to the benefits people obtain from
ecosystems through recreation, cognitive development,
relaxation, and spiritual reflection
• Nature and biodiversity (provision of a habitat for wild plant
and animal species)
• Provision of cultural, historical and religious heritage
• Provision of scientific and educational information
III-Cultural Services
• Provision of opportunities for recreation and tourism
• Provision of attractive landscape features enhancing housing
and living conditions (amenity service)
• Provision of other information (e.g., cultural or artistic
IV-Supporting Services
• Soil formation, photosynthesis and nutrient recycling
• Maintenance of biodiversity
• Primary production
• Water cycling
• What about ecosystem benefits of other forms of
environmental resources such as, forests?
• Why despite multiple ecosystem values generated by
environmental resources, the resources are getting
depleted and degraded?
Economic value of ecosystem services: Global level
• Costanza et al. (1997). ‘The value of the world’s ecosystem
services and natural capital’, Nature, 387: 253 – 260.
• Value of 17 ES of 16 biomes was estimated using ‘benefit transfer
• Annual value of US$16–54 trillion per year with an average of
US$33 trillion per year (this figure was revised to US$125 trillion
in 2011)
• Global GNP was: US$18 trillion per year in 1997.
• What lesson that you learn from the above estimation?
Economic Value of ecosystem services
World Ecosystem Services -Supplementary Session 2.xls
Total Economic Value (TEV) of Water:
An alternative Classification of Water Services
• Total Economic Value (TEV):
a) Direct Use Value (e.g. water for drinking purpose)
b) Indirect Use Value (e.g. biodiversity)
c) Option Value – People’s willingness to pay for future use
of the value
Total Economic Value (TEV) of Water:
An alternative Classification of Water Services
d) Existence Value – People’s willingness to pay for mere
existence of water (holiness of Ganga water)
* While a) and b) are already there in the four types of
ecosystem services we discussed in the previous slides, c)
and d) are additional values identified by the
environmental economists
Why water is a unique resource?
• Water-based ecosystem services are heterogeneous in nature:
– Some are visible and some are invisible
– Some are quantifiable and some are non-quantifiable
– Some are direct and some are indirect
– Some are objective and some are subjective
– Some occur at local level and some are global in nature
– Some are short-lived and some are enduring
• Can you give examples for all the above services?
Non-Linear Impact
• Since water generates innumerable ecosystem benefits which
are consumed in numerous consumption and production
activities in an economy, even a small reduction will cause a
larger reduction in human welfare –which is called ‘non-linear
• In other words, economic welfare in an economy can improve
tremendously even with small improvement in water resources.
Water Management can achieve multiple objectives
• Water management in India is based mainly on a narrow,
engineering approach that treats water as homogenous resource
• Under the engineering approach, the surplus and deficit are
measured in terms of physical units (litres, cubic feet, etc).
• But, the ecosystem services approach suggests that water should
be measured in terms of the value of ecosystem services foregone
• Based on the ecosystem services approach, how do you critically
assess the national river-linking project?
Floods in Chennai (Dec. 2015)
• Loss of infrastructure – Rs. 26000 crore
• Loss of properties and lives (Non - Quantifiable)
• Loss of MSME (Rs, 17,000 crore; 50,000 job lost)
• Real-Estate business has been drastically affected
• Business firms moving away from Chennai
Chennai floods…
• Torrential rains occurred in the northern districts of Tamil Nadu
towards end of November and first week of December, 2015.
• Some 329 TMCft (thousand million cubic feet -1 cubic feet = 26.3168
litres) of fresh water was drained into the ocean in 5 days.
• 329 TMC of water is sufficient to meet the water requirement of
Chennai city for the next 30 years!
• In a state which is always reeling under water scarcity problem, can
we drain a huge quantity of fresh water into the ocean?
An ecosystem approach would lead to the following
– What would have been the value of agricultural output that we
could have produced in case the 329 TMC of water had been
used in the agriculture sector?
– What would have been the household benefits in case the water
had been used in the household sector?
– What would have been the value of the industrial output if we had
used this water in the industry sector?
– What would have been the value of milk, meet and organic
manure in case it had been used in the livestock sector?
– -What would have been the value of recreational, religious and
cultural benefits if we could have produced with that water?
– What would have been the value of biodiversity that could
have been supported with that water?
– So, drinking water in a bottle contains food grains, fodder,
milk, meat, industrial output, recreational benefits, and so on.
If we adopt ecosystem approach for the following
• Land acquisition for infrastructure –what happens to the water
and various agriculture ecosystems?
• Water transfer from rural to urban areas –how to compensate the
users for ecosystem services for their losses?
• Does Environmental Impact Assessment to be done for
development and infrastructural projects take into account the
loss of ecosystem services?
Water Scarcity- Problem of Mismanagement leads to,
• Depletion (Quantity-based)
• Degradation (Quality -based)
Factors influencing depletion and degradation of water
• Population growth
• Urbanization (increase in water use –LPCD)
• Income growth (garden, car washing, etc) –up to certain level, it
is income inelastic and after that level, it becomes highly elastic
• Intensive agriculture (GW exploitation, water quality)
• Industrialization (water intensive industries, pollution)
Degradation –Water Quality Issues
• Point-source pollution (industrial) and non-point source pollution
(urban, agriculture)
• We have some policy on point-source pollution but, no policy on
non-point source pollution
• Non-point source pollution –rapid urbanisation in India –
increased quantity of urban sewage –carries harmful toxic wastes,
hospital wastes, waste from meat shops, carcasses of animals, etc
Food for thought
• Do you know where does your wastewater go from your
• Do you know where is your solid waste being dumped?
• What happens to the hospital waste and e-waste?
• Where is the septic tank waste being dumped?
• What happens to the carcasses of animals?
Food for thought
• Around 65% percent of the people in India practice opendefecation. Where does the excreta go?
• Most of the above end up mainly in waterways which provide
raw water for drinking purpose!
• What is the implication of all the above on the health status of
the people? Who are the most affected ones? What is the
economic loss of mortality and morbidity caused by
environmental problems?
Economic Loss of Health Impact
• Mortality (death) and Morbidity (illness)
– Income lost/savings lost
– Output/service produced lost
– Medical Expenses
– Income and output lost of relatives
More than 40 per cent of the environmental damage cost in
India is caused by water-borne diseases (Mani, 2013)
Status of Surface Water
• Surface water sources are shirking due to problems such as
encroachment, sand mining, improper maintenance, etc
• E.g. TN state had 42,000 water bodies which generated
irrigation benefits, groundwater recharge, etc
• At present, there are only 19000 water bodies!
• What is the quantum of loss of ecosystem services?
GW Exploitation: e.g. Tamil Nadu
• Total Blocks in TN: 239
• Safe – GW development less than 70% of replenished water) - NIL
• Critical – (70 % and below 100% development) - 67 blocks
• Semi-Critical – (90% -100% development) - 33 blocks (13.85%)
• Over-exploited – (above 100%) - 139 blocks (58.15%)
Case of Depleting Groundwater Levels
• Dramatic increase in groundwater exploitation in post-
independent India
– Emergence of tube well technology
• 70% of India’s irrigation need is met by groundwater sources
• 80% of domestic water supplies is met by groundwater
• Groundwater is a capital asset. Its depreciation is not
accounted for in the GDP estimation!
Case of Depleting Groundwater Levels
• Why overdependence on groundwater?
– Low water storage capacity
• India can barely store about 30 days of rainfall compared to as
much as 900 days in the major river basins abroad (USA,
– Sheer lack in piped delivery in everyday supply
• On supply side, two source of financing – budgetary & user
charges have been declining & falling
Depleting Groundwater Levels in India
• Groundwater levels sunk by more than half in many parts
– e.g., One foot a year in Punjab, Rajasthan, Haryana & Delhi
• Loss of 109 cubic km of groundwater during 2002–2008
– e.g., Bangalore: Over 2 lakh bore-wells pumping between
100–400 million liters per day
Traditional Water Management Systems in India
• e.g., Tank irrigation in South India
– Chola, Pandya, Vijayanagra & Kakatiya Kingdoms
– “Virtue & prosperity will increase only when tanks and
irrigation canals are constructed and favour shown to
poor cultivators in the matter of taxation and services”
– Emperor Krishnadevaraya of Vijanagaram
Water Tank in Kerala
Water Tank in Tamil Nadu
Depleting groundwater levels
Policy failures: Artificially under-pricing of key agri-inputs like power
• Shift in irrigation pattern
• Private use (tube-wells – ground-water) over collective use
(tanks, ponds, etc. – surface-water)
Water Tank in Tamil Nadu
• Do we have efficient institutions to monitor & regulate
groundwater extraction?
• Why not establish water markets for efficient allocation of
water resources?
• Are there well defined property rights in water resources?
A rural scenario –
Natwargadh village in Gujarat
An urban Scenario –
A parched Delhi slum
Water scarcity: Implications
Water scarcity – Equity implications
Sugar farmers diverting water in Maharashtra
• Maharashtra - A Land of Sugar Barons
– Sugarcane cultivated on 3% of irrigated land
but consumes 80% of irrigated water
– State’s 2nd biggest dam Ujani built in 1980 supplies 117 TMC
of water
Water scarcity – Equity implications
Sugar farmers diverting water in Maharashtra
– 60 TMC illegally diverted to 6 lakh hectares sugarcane fields spread
across 3 districts with 50 sugar factories run on cooperatives basis –
Politicians are shareholders
– Creating acute water shortage in hundreds of villages located
in eight taluks of Solapur district
– Water supply from dam is meant to be reserved for crops like
Chillies, Jowar, Bajra, Groundnut, Maize, Tur, Wheat & vegetables -
Less water-intensive crops compared to Sugarcane
Another face of corruption
Water scarcity – Equity implications
Rural vs. Urban - Water diverted from rural to urban areas
– e.g., Delhi's Might, Renuka's Plight
• Renuka Dam on Giri River in Himachal Pradesh
– A solution for Delhi’s water scarcity
Site of Renuka Dam
“People in Delhi need to realize that dams are short-term solutions.
This is not a problem of supply, but of wastage and poor
management." An NGO activist
Water scarcity: Political
• River water sharing
– Cauvery River: Karnataka & Tamilnadu
– Palar river –Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu
– Mullai Periyar –Kerala and Tamil Nadu
Water sharing – Bilateral level
• Indus Water Treaty 1960 – India (the
land beyond the Indus) & Pakistan
Under supervision of World Bank
• Rights of lower riparian states
• Ravi, Beas, Sutlej: India
Eastern flowing rivers
• Indus, Jhelum, Chenab: Pakistan
Western flowing rivers
• Limited general storage–, power Storage– &
flood storage–capacity given to India
• India provides hydrological data
 Average rainfall less than 240 mm
 Only one-quarter of the land is
The most effective treaty
• Permanent Indus Commission (> 100 meetings)  90% of fresh water used for irrigation
& agriculture
• An illustration of cooperation between two
 World’s largest contiguous irrigation
hostile nations
Water sharing – Bilateral level
• The onset of water war
• Construction of dams upstream by India
• India accused of stealing water
• Indus has about 10 times more water than Colorado River
in US & 3 times more water than Nile in Egypt
• Need for megadams – Punjab province or Sindh province
• Wastage of Indus water in sea by Pakistan
• Intensive irrigation & poor drainage practices
• Water supplies around cities are unaccounted for–leaked
or stolen
Global warming: Reduced snowfall &
receding glaciers in Western Himalayas
Depleting groundwater levels in
• The Economist, ‘Pakistan, Water – Going with
the flow’ (February 11th, 2012)
“Without some drastic action, Quetta [in
Balochistan] , with more than 1 million people,
may have to close down. Quetta’s thirst could
become a national phenomenon.” “Around
Quetta… water table is now 330-340 m below
surface & estimated to be falling by 3.5 m a
year. Over 2,000 tube wells have dried up.”
Implications for India?
China begins building dam on its side of the Brahmaputra
• China has more than half of 50,000 dams in the world, Only 22 dams
in 1949
– Planning a mammoth $635 Bill. investment in water infrastructure over
next decade
– Ignoring social costs – Affecting natural ecosystem, Displacement of poor
Middle East – Water related conflicts
Israel vs. Palestine, Israel vs. Syria
Israel: “Water is the blood in our veins” – Former PM Levy Eshkol declared
in 1962
6 Days 1967 Arab-Israel War led to Israeli occupation of West Bank in
Palestine & Golan Heights in Syria
– 2/3rd of Israel’s water comes from these occupied territories
– 42 deep wells in West Bank aquifers supply 25% to 40% of
Israel’s water
– West Bank Palestinians prevented from digging deep wells for their own
(only upto 140 m in depth); Israel wells up to 800 m
– Purchase water from Israel when their shallow wells run dry in summer
– Golan Heights (13–29 miles wide)
Vantage point for monitoring Syrian movements
Catchment area for Jordan River (200 miles) – provides 30% of Israel’s
Water sharing – Continental level
• Tributaries in 10 countries: Riparian states
The Nile politics
• 300 million dependent
• Egypt, Sudan, Ethiopia, Eritrea
• Burundi, Rwanda, Congo, Tanzania,
Kenya, Uganda
• The Great Lake States facing
severe water scarcity
• Use of Nile’s water for
development a bone of
Egyptian Civilization & Nile
1959 Treaty: Egypt (87%) & Sudan
• All rights over river’s use
97% of Egypt’s water requirement
95% of Nile’s runoff originates outside
Blue Nile in Ethiopia provides 85% of
Nile’s flow
• Ethiopia & Eritrea
• Nile Basin Initiative with support
of international institutions
Water sustainability
Small & decentralized water harvesting structures
Water sustainability initiatives at IIM Kozhikode
Onset of Monsoon
After two weeks
How Kunnamangalam panchayat benefited
from this water conservation endeavour?
After monsoon
Water catchment area
Water channel
around pond
Successful intervention for water conservation
e.g., ‘National Rural Employment Guarantee Act
Successful intervention for Water
A farm pond in a village in Dharwad district, Karnataka
A farm pond
constructed in
Hadmatiya village,
Jamnagar district,
Gujarat, ensures
water for irrigation
Successful intervention for Water Conservation
Gujarat Governments’ Multi-fold Water Conservation
• 1999 Election, A drought year: “Pehle paani, phir Advani”
• Construction of 10,700 check-dams up to 2000
• Construction of > 1 lakh check-dams during the last decade
– Farmers contribute 5% initially; state-owned agency provides 50% as
subsidy & arranges a bank loan for the balance of 45%;
– NGOs play an important role
Check-dam on Seasonal River in Kasargod district
in Kerala
Successful Intervention for Water Conservation
‘Economic Impact’
• Groundwater recharge
• Recharging dry rivers
– Boosted agricultural growth in Saurashtra & Kutch region (70% of
area in Gujarat is semi-arid & arid)
• Agriculture growth rate in Gujarat around 11% vs. around
3% in India
• Water conservation & management dams one of the
contributing factor111
Benefits of check-dams vis-à-vis big dams
7 wells in surrounding are recharged by each check-dam
10 hectare of land is benefited by each check-dam
Require less operation & maintenance vis-à-vis big dams
No question of ‘Acquisition of Land’
Do we require National River Linking Project?
Hiware Bazar – A village with 54 Millionaires
Located in Nagar Taluka of Ahmednagar in Maharashtra
 Watershed Development Program
 Miracle of Water – Transformation of a drought-prone
For details See Hiware Bazar at http://hiwarebazar.epanchayat.in/
See ‘From Rags to Riches – Hiware Bazaar Village’ on
Development in Hiware Bazara
Water scarcity – industry vs. locals
– Coca-cola vs. Locals in Plachimada in Palaghat District, Kerala
• Commissioned bottling plant in 2000
• Plant in 34 acres, drawing water from 6 bore wells & 2 open
– Extracted around 6.35 lakh liters/day
• By 2002 local water supply depleted and polluted
• Agitation by local people – Brand erosion – Coca Cola closed
the plant in 2004
• Govt. of Kerala asking for a compensation of around Rs. 216.26
Crores for the effected local people
– Compensation for: Agricultural loss; Health damages; Cost of providing
water; Wage loss & opportunity cost; Cost of pollution of water resources
Payment of environmental services
What the companies are doing…..?
– Coco-cola: Rain water harvesting structures, construction of checkdams, restoration of ponds & traditional water bodies
– Positive water balance in 2010
– Over 6 billion litres of water being conserved through 700
structures in 300 communities
– PepsiCo: Well recharge, check dam building & drip irrigation in
Aurangabad, Neelamangala, Panipat & Sangareddy
– Positive water balance in 2009
– Recharged 2 billion litres of water and benefitted 41,000
community members
What the companies are doing…..?
– Hindustan Unilever: Check-dam building, building bunds on
agricultural lands etc.
• Saved 50 billion litres of water in 180 villages across 17
• 2015 target: Water conservation activities across 1,000 villages
– Criticism: Recycling of waste-water missing???
Can we categorize these initiatives as
‘Corporate Social Responsibility’ ?
Integrated Watershed Development in Semi-arid regions
Water conservation & soil enrichment, enabling farmers to extend
the cultivation cycle and return to multiple cropping
“Water Boots”, by Roman
Signer, makes a splash and
a point : Without water, We
are nothing.