ASSIGNMENT - 1 What are Renewable and Non-Renewable Resources? 1. Renewable Resources - Natural resources that have the capacity to be naturally replenished despite being harvested (e.g., forests, fish). The supply of natural resources can, in theory, never be exhausted, usually because it is continuously produced. 2. Non-Renewable Resources - Resources that are in limited supply, such as oil, coal, and natural gas 1. Renewable Resources 1) the resources that can be renewed by reproduction are called renewable resources. 2) Renewable resources are inexhaustible. 3) Renewable resources are not affected by the human activities. 4) All biotic resources are renewable. 5) For example: air and water. 2. Non-Renewable Resources 1) the resources that are present in fixed quantities are called non-renewable resources. 2) Non-renewable resources are inexhaustible. 3) Non renewable resources are affected by human activities. 4) Some abiotic resources are non-renewable. 5) For example- fossil fuels and minerals. 1. Renewable Resources Resources which are inexhaustible and can be replenished by nature are called renewable resources. For example, water, sunlight etc. 2. Non-Renewable Resources Resources which are in limited quantity and cannot be replenished by nature are called non-renewable resources. For example, Coal and petroleum 1. Renewable Resources - the resources which can be renewed and reproduced by physical, chemical or mechanical processes are known as renewable or replenishable resources. These resources are able to increase their abundance through reproduction and utilization of simple substances. Examples of such resources are water, forests and wildlife, plants etc. 2. Non-Renewable Resources - this process takes place over a long geological time. Examples of such resources are minerals and fossil fuels. This may take millions of years in their formation. Some of the resources like metals are recyclable and some like fossils fuels cannot be recycled and as such they get exhausted with their use. 1. Renewable resource These resources are used over and over as they are’ flow’ in nature. The perpetual of these dynamic resources are dependent upon proper planning and management. They include water, soil, fertility, forest, wild animal’s human beings etc, Renewable resources are those that can be replenished or reproduced easily. Some of them, like sunlight, air, wind, etc., are continuously available and their quantity is not affected by human consumption. Many renewable resources can be depleted by human use, but may also be replenished, thus maintaining a flow. Water in its cycle –begins with rainfall, runoff, circulating ground water, rivers, lakes, oceans, and atmospheric moisture constitute an inexhaustible supply of water. Soils are indispensable to life. They are replaced very slowly in nature but to some extent can be “rebuilt” and “maintained” in quality and fertility by human efforts. It is maintainable rather than replaceable, therefore more accurately characterized as renewable resources. Forests if left in their natural state or helped out by good management, forest usually renew themselves. . Some of these, like agricultural crops, take a short time for renewal; others, like water, take a comparatively longer time, while still others, like forests, take even longer. Almost every form of animal life is subject to capture or controlled by man. By protecting the animal world man can renew the animal resources. 2. Non-renewable Resources Non-renewable resources are formed over very long geological periods. Minerals and fossils are included in this category. Since their rate of formation is extremely slow, they cannot be replenished once they are depleted. Out of these, the metallic minerals can be re-used by recycling them, but coal and petroleum cannot be recycled. These are finite in nature and their exploitation lead to exhaustion of supplies. There is no hope for replacement of the materials. They include minerals, fossil fuels, and species of wildlife etc., However, the forests and soil, if left to nature, are renewable: but, if use carelessly, they can be destroyed (deforestation, soil erosion). The natural resources conservation started mainly for the non-renewable resources. Renewable Resources 1) Oxygen in the air, which is replenished through photosynthesis. 2) Fresh water, which is replenished through the water cycle. 3) All biological products (food, fishes, timber, etc.,) which are replenished through natural cycles of growth and reproduction. 4) Solar energy is also considered as renewable as on a human time scale and it is inexhaustible. It is expected that sun will last at least 6.5 billion years. 5) Some other renewable resources that can be renewed (hours to several decades) through natural processes include forests, grassland grasses, wild animals, fresh air and fertile soil. However, potentially renewable resources can be depleted when resources utilization rate exceeds the natural replacement rate. Non-renewable Resources 1) Fossil fuels such as coal, petroleum oil and natural gas are derived from photosynthesis of early geological times, deposits are limited and they are used and gone forever. 2) Uranium that is used for generating power in nuclear reactor. ASSIGNMENT - 2 Explain Hydrological Cycle? The hydrological cycle is a continuous natural process which helps in exchange of water between the atmosphere, the land, the sea, living plants and animals. About one-third of the solar flux absorbed by the earth is used to drive the hydrological cycle-massive evaporation of water from the oceans, cloud formation and precipitation which provide us with our supply and reserves of fresh water. The hydrological cycle consists of five parts which provide the global water supply. About onethird of the solar flux absorbed by the earth’s surface is used to drive the hydrologic cycle, massive evaporation of water from the oceans, cloud formation and precipitation which provides us with our supply and reserves of fresh water. ASSIGNMENT - 3 Explain the Components of Soil? Mineral matter Organic matter Soil water Soil air 1. Mineral matter - The mineral are extremely variable in size. Some are as large as the smaller rock fragments, other such as colloidal clay particles are so small that they cannot be seen without the aid of an electron microscope. 2. Organic matter - It represents partially synthesized plant and animal residues. Such material is continuously being broken down by the action of soil micro- organism. Organic matter influences soil properties and consequently on plant growth. It improves the physical condition of the soil; it increases the water holding capacity of the soil and is a measure source of nutrient for the plants. It is also a main source of energy for soil microorganism. 3. Soil water - It is a major component of the soil in relation to plant growth. The water is held within the soil pores, if the moisture content of the soil is optimum then the plants can readily absorb the soil water. Not all the water which soil holds is available to plants. Much of the water remains in the soil as a thin film. Soil water dissolves salts and make up the soil solution which is an important medium for the supply of nutrients to the plants. There is an exchange of nutrients between the soil solids and the soil solution and then between soil solution and plants. 4. Soil air - A part of the soil volume that is not occupied by soil particles known as pore space is filled partly with soil water and partly with soil air. The pore space is occupied by both air and water. Volume of the air varies inversely with that of water. As the moisture content of the soil increases, the air content decreases and vice-versa ASSIGNMENT - 4 What are the types of minerals? Explain Metallic Minerals Non-metallic Minerals Mineral fuels 1. Metallic minerals Metallic minerals are minerals that when refined from the group of materials we know as metals. Some of these metals are mined for their beauty and rareness. These are known as precious metals. They include: gold, silver, bronze, platinum and so on. Secondly, metals are mined for their strength such as iron. Finally, other metals are mined for their unique properties. Copper, for example, is mined for its unique quality of being an excellent conductor or electricity 2. Non-metallic minerals Non-metallic minerals are a more difficult type of mineral to define. These are minerals that are not metallic but possess other useful qualities. Often non-metallic minerals are also referred to as Industrial minerals. This group of minerals includes gravel, potash, soapstone, salt, asbestos and diamonds. Each of these minerals has a unique quality that makes them useful. 3. Mineral fuels Mineral fuel is a carbonaceous fuel mined or stripped from the earth, such as petroleum, coal, peat, shale oil, or tar sands. 1. Metallic minerals Metallic minerals are those from which we get metals such as iron, copper, gold and lead. These minerals are basically found in the form of ores. These ores also contain several impurities. 2. Non-metallic minerals Non-metallic minerals include a number of minerals, e.g. Nitrate, sulphur, potash, salts, coal and petroleum. Coal and petroleum are used as fuel; hence they are also known as mineral fuel. ASSIGNMENT - 5 Various initiates by the world community in safeguarding natural resources 1) Conservation agriculture can be used to prevent soil erosion and land degradation 2) Manage watersheds and water use more efficiently 3) Protect wildlife habitat and biodiversity through an integrated ecosystems approach 4) Provide incentives for improving ecosystem services 5) Promote a sound management of chemical substances, including through the improvement of health and safety conditions for agricultural workers. ASSIGNMENT – 6 Write a short note on renewable and non renewable energy 1. Renewable Energy - These are those natural resources which are inexhaustible (can be replaced as we use them) and can be used to produce energy again and again. These are available in unlimited amount in nature and develop in a relatively short period of time. These include energy resources such as solar, wind, water, geothermal, ocean, and biomass energy. Nuclear energy may also be regarded as inexhaustible. 2. Non-Renewable Energy - These are the resources which are exhaustible and cannot be replaced once they are used. These are available in limited quantity and are of greatest practical significance. These include fossil fuels (such as coal, natural gas, oil, etc} nuclear energy and all of which are mixtures of compounds containing carbon and hydrogen. 1. Renewable Energy Renewable sources of energy are those that we can use and still continue to obtain them such as the heat from the sun and wind energy. 2. Non-Renewable Energy Non-renewable sources of energy are those that we can use only once and we cannot be able to use them again such as petrol, coal and diesel. ASSIGNMENT – 7 What is Geographical Area, explain with examples? Geographical Area: The latest figures of geographical area of the State/Union Territories are as provided by the Office of the Surveyor General of India The forest cover, in India, is 67.71 Million Hectares, which is 20.60% of its geographic area. Of this, 5.46 Million Hectares (1.66%) is very dense forests, 33.26 Million Hectares (10.12%) is moderately dense and the rest 28.99 Hectares (8.82%) is open, including 0.44 Million Hectares Mangroves. The percentage of forest cover in the hilly region of the country is 38.85% and, by excluding areas unavailable for plant growth (snow clad area), it comes to 52.40%. In India, the forest resources are well distributed across the country. The State of Madhya Pradesh has the largest area of 7.6 m ha under forest cover constituting 11.22% of the total forest cover followed by “Arunachal Pradesh (10.01%), Chhattisgarh (8.25%), Orissa (7.15%) and Maharashtra (7.01%). In general, the Northeastern Himalayan states alone maintain over 75% forest cover, in India. Mizoram (88.63%) Nagaland (82.75%) Arunachal Pradesh (80.93%) Tripura (77.77%) Manipur (76.53%) The term Forest Cover refers to all lands, more than one hectare in area, with a tree canopy density of more than 10 percent irrespective of ownership and legal status. Such lands may not necessarily be a recorded forest area. It also includes orchards, bamboo and palm. The word Canopy in forests refer to ha cover of branches and foliage formed by the crowns of trees. The Canopy Density relates to the Percent are of land covered by the canopy of trees. It is expressed as a decimal coefficient, taking closed canopy as unity. The Culturable Non Forest Area (CNFA) is the net geographical area, lying outside recorded forest and forest cover, which can support tree vegetation. Forest Inventory is the measurement of certain parameters of forests to assess the growing stock and other characteristics of forests. The term Moderately Dense Forest refers to the lands with forest cover having a canopy density between 40 to 70 percent. The Non Forest Land is the land without forest cover. The term Open Forest refers to the lands with forest cover having a canopy density between 10 to 40 percent. In India, the protected Forest (PF) is the area notified under the provisions of the Indian Forest Act or other State Forest Acts, having limited degree of protection. In protected forest all activities are permitted unless prohibited. The term Scrub is used to denote a degraded forest land having the canopy density of less than 10 percent Trees are large woody perennial plants having a single well defined stem (bole or trunk) and a more or less definite crown. It also includes bamboos, palms, fruit trees, etc and excludes nonperennial non-woody species like banana and tall shrubs or climbers. The term Very Dense Forest is used to refer the lands with forest cover having a canopy density of 70 percent and above. For example:-1 has a geographical area of 191, 791 km2 constituting 5.83% of the total area of the country. It lies between latitude 110 30’ to 18°25' N and longitude74°1 0' to 78°35' E. It has a coastline of approximately 400 km. The State can be divided into two distinct physiographic regions viz. the 'Maland' or hilly region comprising of Western Ghats and the ‘Maidan’ or the plain region comprising the inland plateau of varying heights. Geographical Area An area of land that can be considered as a unit for the purposes of geographical classification. The plain of the ganges is one of the most significant geographical area in india ASSIGNMENT – 8 Methods of Soil Conservation? SOIL CONSERVATION Soil conservation is a set of management strategies for prevention of soil being eroded from the Earth’s surface or becoming chemically altered by overuse, acidification, salinization, soil erosion or other chemical soil contamination to retain the fertility of soil. Methods of Soil Conservation TERRACE FARMING: This method of farming uses "steps", called andenes that are built into the side of a mountain or hill. On each anden, various crops are planted, and when it rains, instead of washing away all of the nutrients in the soil, the nutrients are carried down to the next level. Additionally, these "steps" prevent a free flowing avalanche of water that would take plants with it and destroy the all of the crops on the hillside. This system also allowed them to build aqueducts, which carried water to each andenes CONTOUR PLOUGHING Contour farming is the farming practice of ploughing across a slope following its elevation contour lines. The rows form slow water run-off during rainstorms to prevent soil erosion and allow the water time to settle into the soil. In contour ploughing, the ruts made by the plough run perpendicular rather than parallel to slopes, generally resulting in furrows that curve around the land and are level. CROP ROTATION It refers to different crops from the same field in regular recurrent succession. Such a crop rotation generally recommended includes a cultivated crop, a small grain; grass-legume or legume-grass mixture. This type of rotation is recommended because the cultivated crops cause maximum exposure of the soil; smaller grains allow comparatively less erosion and grass or legume grass can control soil erosion most effectively is preserved and crop yields are maintained. SHELTER BELTS Shelterbelt is a plantation usually made up of one or more rows of trees or shrubs planted in such a manner as to provide shelter from the wind and to protect soil from erosion. They are commonly planted around the edges of fields on farms. If designed properly, windbreaks around a home can reduce the cost of heating and cooling and save energy. Windbreaks are also planted to help keep snow from drifting onto roadways and even yards. Other benefits include providing habitat for wildlife and in some regions the trees are harvested for wood products. STRIP CROPPING Strip cropping is a method of farming used when a slope is too steep or too long, or when other types of farming may not prevent soil erosion. Striely sowed crops such as hay, wheat, or other small grains with strips of row crops, such as corn, soybeans, cotton, or sugar beets. MULTIPLE CROPPING In agriculture, multiple cropping is the practice of growing two or more crops in the same space during a single growing season. In which a second crop is planted after the first has been harvested, in which the second crop is started amidst the first crop before it has been harvested. A related practice, companion planting, is sometimes used in gardening and intensive cultivation of vegetables and fruits. ASSIGNMENT - 9 Write a note on effects and causes of Air Pollution Effects of Air pollution 1. Respiratory and heart problems The effects of air pollution are alarming. They are known to create several respiratory and heart conditions along with Cancer, among other threats to the body. Several million are known to have died due to direct or indirect effects of Air pollution. Children in areas exposed to air pollutants are said to commonly suffer from pneumonia and asthma. 2. Global warming Another direct effect is the immediate alterations that the world is witnessing due to global warming. With increased temperatures worldwide, increase in sea levels and melting of ice from colder regions and icebergs, displacement and loss of habitat have already signaled an impending disaster if actions for preservation and normalization aren’t undertaken soon. 3. Acid rain Harmful gases like nitrogen oxides and sulfur oxides are released into the atmosphere during the burning of fossil fuels. When it rains, the water droplets combine with these air pollutants becomes acidic and then falls on the ground in the form of acid rain. Acid rain can cause great damage to human, animals, and crops. 4. Eutrophication Eutrophication is a condition where a high amount of nitrogen present in some pollutants gets developed on sea’s surface and turns itself into algae and adversely affect fish, plants and animal species. The green colored algae that are present on lakes and ponds is due to the presence of this chemical only. 5. Effect on wildlife Just like humans, animals also face some devastating effects of air pollution. Toxic chemicals present in the air can force wildlife species to move to a new place and change their habitat. The toxic pollutants deposit over the surface of the water and can also affect sea animals. 6. Depletion of the ozone layer Ozone exists in the Earth’s stratosphere and is responsible for protecting humans from harmful ultraviolet (UV) rays. Earth’s ozone layer is depleting due to the presence of chlorofluorocarbons, hydro chlorofluorocarbons in the atmosphere. As the ozone layer will go thin, it will emit harmful rays back on earth and can cause skin and eye related problems. UV rays also have the capability to affect crops. Causes of Air pollution 1. The burning of fossil fuels Sulfur dioxide emitted from the combustion of fossil fuels like coal, petroleum and other factory combustibles are one the major cause of air pollution. Pollution emitting from vehicles including trucks, jeeps, cars, trains, airplanes cause an immense amount of pollution. We rely on them to fulfill our daily basic needs of transportation. But, their overuse is killing our environment as dangerous gases are polluting the environment. Carbon Monoxide caused by improper or incomplete combustion and generally emitted from vehicles is another major pollutant along with Nitrogen Oxides, that is produced from both natural and man-made processes. 2. Agricultural activities Ammonia is a very common byproduct from agriculture-related activities and is one of the most hazardous gases in the atmosphere. Use of insecticides, pesticides, and fertilizers in agricultural activities has grown quite a lot. They emit harmful chemicals into the air and can also cause water pollution. 3. Exhaust from factories and industries Manufacturing industries release a large amount of carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons, organic compounds, and chemicals into the air thereby depleting the quality of air. Manufacturing industries can be found at every corner of the earth and there is no area that has not been affected by it. Petroleum refineries also release hydrocarbons and various other chemicals that pollute the air and also cause land pollution. 4. Mining operations Mining is a process wherein minerals below the earth are extracted using large equipment. During the process dust and chemicals are released in the air causing massive air pollution. This is one of the reasons which is responsible for the deteriorating health conditions of workers and nearby residents. 5. Indoor air pollution Household cleaning products, painting supplies emit toxic chemicals in the air and cause air pollution. Have you ever noticed that once you paint the walls of your house, it creates some sort of smell which makes it literally impossible for you to breathe? Suspended particulate matter popular by its acronym SPM, is another cause of pollution. Referring to the particles afloat in the air, SPM is usually caused by dust, combustion, etc. ASSIGNMENT – 10 Define the concept of Sustainable development The concepts of sustainable development can be listed as below: Use renewable resources at a rate that can be maintained over time. Gradually reduce reliance on and limit the release of toxic substances that do not readily break down in nature Use all resources as efficiently and fairly as possible so that present and future generations can meet their needs. Reflect the inter dependence of social, economic and environmental conditions. Preserve the integrity of ecological process and biological diversity. Use land, air and water in ways that meet people’s diverse needs and preserve land’s ability to meet future needs. Reduce the amount of materials and energy used to produce goods and services. Promote the use of recyclable / reusable products and services. ASSIGNMENT – 11 What is a Joint Forest Management practice? Explain. ASSIGNMENT – 12 What will be the future trend of world population growth?