Uploaded by Clare Clayton


Year 9 – Biology
The Brain
Students will be able to describe the major parts and functions
of the brain.
The Brain:
There are 3 major regions of the brain:
• The Cerebrum
• The Cerebellum
• The Brain Stem
The cerebrum is the largest region of the brain. It is divided
into a left and right hemisphere. Each side controls functions of
the opposite side of the body. The cerebrum controls voluntary
and conscious activities of the body. It also coordinates
intelligence, learning and judgment.
The two hemisphere are connected by the corpus callosum.
The corpus callosum allows the left and right hemispheres to
communicate with each other.
Each hemisphere of the cerebrum is divided into 4 lobes:
Frontal lobe: located at the front of brain, stores long-term memories,
controls movements, help you make decisions and problem-solve
Parietal lobe: located behind the frontal lobe, helps you interpret
sensory information, pain, movement and orientation
Temporal lobe: located below frontal lobes on the side of the brain,
processes sensory information, language, new memories and
emotions, helps you recognize faces/objects
Occipital lobe: located in the back of the brain, receives and processes
visual information from the eyes
The cerebellum is located at the back of the brain. It controls
coordination and balance of the body’s muscles. However, the
command to move muscles comes from the cerebrum.
Brain Stem
The brain stem is located below the cerebrum. It connects the
brain to the spinal cord.
It regulates the flow of information between the rest of the
brain and the body.
The brain stem is separated into three regions:
Pons: in front of the midbrain, relays signals from the front of
the cerebrum to the cerebellum, controls sleep, respiration,
swallowing and urination.
Midbrain: helps relay information for vision and hearing and
helps with motor control, alertness and temperature regulation.
Medulla oblongata: directly connected to the spinal cord,
controls autonomic functions such as heart rate, blood pressure
and respiration rate and reflexes such as vomiting, coughing,
sneezing and swallowing.
Other Structures in the Brain
Meninges: The brain is encased in membranes called meninges.
Between the meninges and brain is fluid called cerebral spinal
fluid (CSF). Together, the meninges and CSF cushion and
protect the brain.
Pituitary Gland: a small pea-sized structure in front and above
the brain stem, the “master gland” of the endocrine system,
secretes hormones that regulate growth, puberty and water
balance and controls many endocrine glands.
Hypothalamus: connects the pituitary gland to the brain (thus,
linking the nervous system to the endocrine system), controls
the function of the pituitary gland and thus, the endocrine
system, also helps control body temperature, hunger, thirst and
the sleep-wake cycle.
Thalamus: located behind the hypothalamus, major “relay
center” because it receives sensory information and relays it to
the proper area of the brain, also plays an important role in
controlling consciousness and works with the hypothalamus to
regulate the sleep-wake cycle.
Parietal Lobe
Frontal Lobe
Occipital Lobe
Temporal lobe
Brain stem
Corpus callosum
Pituitary gland
Medulla oblongata