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Earth's Layers

Layers of the Earth
Quick Facts
• The earth is mostly made up of rock
• 75% of the earth’s surface is covered by a thin layer of
• Some of this water is frozen in the form of glaciers, ice, or
• The entire planet is surrounded by a thin layer of gas
called the atmosphere
• Thinnest of all the layers
• Land: continental crust, 8-70km thick, granite
• Ocean: oceanic crust, 8km thick, basalt
• Solid
• 22℃
Upper Mantle
• 670 km below the Earth’s surface
• 1,400-3,000 ℃
• The lower part of the upper mantle is both solid
and liquid (melted) rock.
• Iron, oxygen, silicon, magnesium, aluminum
• The rock in the upper region is stiffer due to
colder temperatures
• Two distinct regions: Lithosphere and
• Includes the crust and the upper
portion of the mantle
• Coolest and most rigid
• All tectonic activity occurs here
• Tectonic plates
• The movement of tectonic plates
causes volcanoes, earthquakes,
mountain formation
• Mountains form from continental
crust hitting continental crust or
oceanic crust
• A denser, weaker layer beneath
the lithosphere
• 110-410km below earth’s
• 300-500 ℃
• Rock is partially melted: semimolten
• The lava that erupts in
volcanoes comes from here
Lower Mantle
• 3,000 ℃
• 670-2,890 km below the surface
• Solid rock: iron, oxygen, silicon, magnesium, and
• Hot enough to melt, but is solid due to the
pressure pushing down on it
Outer core
• Liquid layer of the core that is composed of
iron, nickel, sulphur, and oxygen
• 5,150km deep
• Flows around the center of the earth
• The movement of the metals creates our’
planets magnetic field
• 4,000-6,000℃
Inner core
• A huge metal ball
• 2,500 km wide
• Made mainly of iron with traces of nickel
• 5,000-6,000 ℃
• Up to 6,000 times hotter than our atmosphere and hot enough to
melt metal!
• The metal stays solid due to the pressure surrounding
• https://www.natgeokids.com/uk/discover/geography/physicalgeography/structure-of-the-earth/
• https://www.nationalgeographic.org/encyclopedia/mantle/