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4TH GRADING PERIOD Practical Research 1

4TH GRADING PERIOD Practical Research 1: Notes #4: Research problem versus Research question
The ultimate goal of the research is not only to propose ways of studying things, people, places, and events, but also
to discover and introduce new practices, strategies, or techniques in solving problem. The word “problem” makes you
worry and pushes you to exert considerable effort in finding a solution for it.
When you decide to do research, you begin with a problem that will lead you to a specific topic to focus on. For instance,
you are beset by a problem of year-by-year flash floods in your community. This problem drives you to think of one
topic you can investigate or focus on for the solution to your community’s flood problem. Perhaps you can research only
one aspect of the flood problem, like examining only the neighborhood lifestyle in relation in the area, the need to
construct anti-flood structures, or the practicability of more footbridges in the area (Gray 2013).
Background of the Problem
You may not rush into gathering ideas and information about your topic. First, spend time getting background knowledge
about the problem that triggered off your research topic to discover its relation to what the world, particularly the
experts, professionals, and learned people know about your topic. Also, reading for rich background ideas about the
problem is also another way to discover some theories or principles to support your study. (Braun 2014; Woodwell
Research Questions
The research problems enable you to generate a set of research questions. To get a good idea of the problem, you
must have a rich background knowledge about the topic through the RRL (Review of related Literature), which requires
intensive reading about your topic.
A research problem serving as impetus behind your desire to carry out a research study comes from many sources.
Difficulties in life are arising from social relationship, governmental affairs, institutional practices, cultural patters,
environmental issues, marketing strategies, etc.
To give your study a clear direction, you have to break this big, overreaching general question into several smaller or
specific research questions. The specific questions are also called sub problem, identify or direct you to exact aspect
of the problem that your study has to focus on.
Research Problem: The need to have a safer, comfortable, and healthful walk or transfer of students from place to
place in the UST campus.
Research Topic: The construction of a Covered Pathway in the UST Campus
General Questions: What kind of covered path should UST construct in its campus?
Specific Questions:
1. What materials are needed for the construction of the covered pathway is the UST campus?
2. What roofing material is appropriate for the covered path?
3. In what wat can the covered pathway link all buildings in the campus?
4. What is the width and height of the covered Path?
5. How can the covered path realize green architecture?
Guidelines in Formulating Research questions
1. Establish a clear relation between the research questions and problem or topic
2. Base your research questions on your RRL or Review of Related Literature because existing published works
help you get good background knowledge of the research problem and help you gauge the people’s current
understanding or familiarity about the topic, as well as the extent of their knowledge and interest in it.
3. Formulate the research questions that can arouse your curiosity and surprise you with your discoveries or
4. State our research questions in such a way that they include all dependent and independent variables referred
to by the theories, principles, or concepts underlying your research work.
5. Let the set of research questions or sub problems be proceeded by one questions expressing the main problem
of the research.
6. Avoid asking research questions that are answerable with “yes” or “no” and use the “how” questions only in a
quantitative research.
7. Be guided of the acronym SMART (specific, measurable, attainable, realistic, time-bound) in formulating the
research questions.
Engage yourself in a conversation with some of your teachers. Ask them what research problem they worked on in
their graduate studies, the research questions they formulated, and their reasons for engaging themselves in such kind
of academic work. Keeping in mind what make people carry out research studies, describe or comment on their
justifications for conducting the research. Subject the result of your inquiry to critical evaluation based on what you
have learned about research problem, research questions, and research goals or objectives.
Notes #5: Literature – is an oral or written record of man’s significant experiences that are artistically conveyed in
a prosaic manner. Embodied in any literary work like essay, novel, journal, story, biography is man’s thought and
feelings about the world. Direct expression of man’s knowledge of the world are in books, periodicals, and online
reading materials. Indirect expressions are his inferences or reflections of his surroundings that are not written or
spoken at all.
A review of related literature is an analysis of man’s written or spoken knowledge of the world. Yu
examine representations of man’s thinking about the world to determine the connection of your research with what
people already know about it. In your research paper, but also interpret them or merge your thinking with the
author’s ideas. Hence, I doing the RRL, you deal with both formal or direct ad informal or indirect expressions of
man’s knowledge. Fusing your world understanding with the author’s world perceptions enables you to get a good
analysis of existing written works that are related to your research study.
Purpose of Review of Related Literature.
1. To obtain background knowledge of your research
2. To relate your study to the current condition or situation of the world
3. To show the capacity of your research work to introduce new knowledge
4. To expand, prove, disprove the findings of previous research studies
5. To increase your understanding of the underlying theories, principles, or concepts of your research.
6. To explain technical terms involved in your research study
7. To highlight the significance of your work with the kind of evidence gathered to support the conclusion of
your research.
8. To avoid repeating previous research studies
9. To recommend the necessity of further research on a certain topic.
Style or Approaches of RRL or Review of Related Literature
Tradition Literature – is to summarize present forms of knowledge on a specific subject. Your aim here is to
give an expanded or new understanding of an existing work. Being necessarily descriptive, interpretative,
evaluative, and methodically unclear and uncertain, a traditional view is prone to your subjectivity. This kind of
review does not require you to describe your method of reviewing literature but expects you to state your
intentions in conducting the review and the name of the sources of information.
Traditional review is of different types that are as follows:
1. Conceptual view – analysis of concepts or ideas to give meaning to some national or world views.
2. Critical review – focuses on theories or hypotheses and examines meanings and results of their application
to situations.
3. State-of-the art review – makes the researcher deal with the latest research studies on the subject
4. Expert review – prepares a situation for a future research work in the form of project making about
community development, government policies, health services among others.
Systematic Review of Literature
Means methodological, is a style of RRL that involves sequential acts of a review of related literature. Unlike the
traditional review that has no particular method, systematic review requires you go through the following RRL steps.
1. Have a clear understanding of the research questions. Serving as the compass to direct your research
activities, the research questions tell you what to collect and where to obtain those data you want to collect
2. Plan your manner of obtaining the data. Imagining how you will get to where the data are you will come to
think also od what keywords to use foe easy searching and how to accord courtesy and respect to people or
institutions form where the data will come such as planning how to communicate your request to these
sources of data.
3. Do a literature search. Using keywords, you look for the needed information from all sources of knowledge:
Internet, books, journals, periodicals, government publications, general references and the like.
4. Using a certain standard, determine which data, studies or sources of knowledge are valuable or not to
warrant the reasonableness of your decision to take some data and junk the rest.
5. Determine the methodological soundness of the research studies. Use a checklist or a certain set of criteria in
assessing the ways researchers conduct their studies to arrive at a certain conclusion
6. Summarize what you have gathered from various sources of data. To concisely present a synthesis of your
report, use a graph such as a table and other presentation formats that are not prone to verbosity.
The following table shows the way several books on RRL compare and contrast the two styles
Traditional Review
Systematic Review
To have a thorough and clear understanding To meet a certain objectiveness based
of the field.
on specific research questions
Comprehensive, wide picture
Restricted focus
Review design
Indefinite plan, permits creative and
Viewable process and paper trail
exploratory plan
Choice of studies
Purposeful selection by the reviewer
Prepared standards for studies selection
Nature of studies
Inquiry-based techniques involving several
Wide and thorough search for all studies
Quality appraisal
Reviewer’s views
Assessment checklists
Graphical and short summary answers
Structure of RRL
The structure of RRL of the whole literature review indicates that organized pattern or order of the
components of the summary of the RRL results. For the traditional review, the structure of the summary resembles
that of an essay where series of united sentences presents the RRL results. However, this structure of traditional
review, the structure is based on the research questions; so much so, that, if your RRL does not adhere to a certain
method to make you begin your RRL with research questions, your RRL is headed toward a traditional literature
review structure.
Individual Activity. Direction: Choose the correct answer from the parenthesis.
1. (gesture, books, words, sentences) an informal or indirect expression of knowledge happens
2. (summary, linker, conclusion, symbol) the second consideration for RRL which is between world knowledge
and RRL.
3. ( data, design, problem, question) is the direction in our RRL.
4. (dual, plural, specific, singular) the purpose in doing RRL
5. (traditional, optional, systematic, structural) research questions is a must in literature review.
6. (scoping, statistical, systematic, scientific) subjective literature review takes place that is
7. (critical and conceptual, scoping and expert, start of the art and scoping, critical and expert) among the types
of traditional reviews, these two share some similarities.
8. (scoping, state-of-the-art, systematic, traditional) a year from now, I will start my thesis writing for my MA
degree. I must then look forward to doing this RRL style.
9. (systematic and traditional, multi system, systematic, traditional) begin a first BA student, I can conduct a
literature review using this style.
10. (narrative, statistical, outline, tabular) without research questions, our RRL structure can appear in a form
Individual Activity: Explain each expression the way you understood them in relation to research.
1. Related Literature
2. Review of Related Literature
3. Traditional Review of Related Literature
4. Systematic Review of Related Literature
5. Structure of Literature review results
The process of Review of Related Literature
Stage 1: Search for Literature – this is a stage where you devote much of your time in looking for sources
of knowledge, data, or information to answer your research questions or to support your assumptions about your
research topic. Generally, there are three basic types of literature sources: general references that will direct you to
the location of other sources: primary sources that directly report or present a person’s own experience; and
secondary sources that reports or describe other people’ experiences or worldviews. Secondary sources of knowledge
give the most number of materials such as the internet, books, peer reviewed articles in journals, published literary
reviews of a field. Grey literature or unpublished and non-peer review materials like theses, dissertations, conference
proceedings, leaflets and posters, research studies in progress and other library materials.
You can have an access to these various sources of data in two methods: manually or getting hold of the
printed form of the material, and electronically or having a computer or online reading of the sources of knowledge.
Regardless of which method you use, all throughout your literature search, your mind must be focused on the
essence and purpose of the library because most of the data you want to obtain are in this important section of your
school. Having familiarity with the nature of your library will facilitate your literature search.
Here are some pointers you have to remember in searching for the best sources of information or data
1. Choose previous research findings that are closely related to your research.
2. Give more weight to studies done by people possessing expertise or authority in the field of knowledge to
which the research studies belong.
3. Consider sources of knowledge that refer more to primary data than to secondary data
4. Prefer getting information form peer reviewed materials than from general reading materials.
Stage 2: Reading the source materials – you can benefit much from your reading activities if you confront the
reading materials with the help of your HOTS. In understanding the sources of knowledge with your HOTS, you need
to think interpretatively through these ways of inferential thinking: predicting, generalizing, concluding and assuming.
Stage 3: Writing the review – you do a great deal of idea connection and organization in this last stage of RRL to
form an overtake understanding of the material by paraphrasing or summarizing it. In doing either of these two, you
get a change the arrangement of ideas, structure of the language, and the format of the text using appropriate
organizational techniques of comparison-contrast, chronological order, spatial relationship, inductive-deductive order,
and transitional devices.
A simple presentation of the findings or argumentations of the writers or a particular topic with no
incorporation of your own inferential, analytical and comparative-contrastive thinking about other people’s ideas
indicates poor literature review writing. This mere description, transfer or listing of writer’s ideas that is devoid of or
not reflective of your thinking is called dump or stringing method. Good literature review writing shuns presenting
ideas in serial abstracts, which means every paragraph merely consists of one article. This is a sources by source
literature writing that fails to link, compare, and contrast series of articles based on a theory or a theme around which
the research questions revolve (Remlen 2017)
Another goo approach to writing an excellent review is adopting good opening sentences of articles that
should chronologically appear in the paper. Opening article with bibliographical list that begins with the author’s name
like the following examples is not good.
Aquino (205) said,,,
Roxas (2016) stated…
Perez (2017) wrote…
Mendoza (2018) asserted…
Examples of better article openings manifesting critical thinking through analysis, comparison and contrast of
ideas and findings are as follows:
One early work by (Castro, 2017) proves that…
Another study on the topic by (Torres, 2017) maintained that…
The latest study by (Gomez, 2018) reveals that….
A research study by (Rivera, 2017) explains that …
Coming from various books on literature review writing are the following transitional devices and active verbs
to link or express authors ideas in your paper. Using correct words to link ideas will make you synthesize your
literature review, in a way that evidence coming from various sources of data, will present an overall understanding of
the context or of the present circumstances affecting the research problem.
Transitional devices – also, additionally, again, similarly, a similar opinion, however, conversely, on the
other hand, nevertheless, a contrasting opinion, a different approach, etc.
Active verbs – analyze, argues, assess, assume, claim, compare, contrast, conclude, criticize, debate,
define, demonstrate, discuss, distinguish, differentiate, evaluate, examine, emphasize, expand, explain, exhibit,
identify, illustrate, imply, indicate, judge, justify, narrate, outline, persuade, propose, question, relate to, report,
review, suggest, summarize.
Individual Activity. Match Column A with Column B. Write the letter only
1. Theme or theory
a. Some paragraphs but one article per
2. Wikipedia
b. Lacking in well learned ideas
3. Websites
c. Compare-contrasting two findings
d. Elicits opinions on the topic
5. Dump method
e. Biographical list
6. Serial abstract
f. Inferring, criticizing, applying, creating
7. Juxtaposing ideas
g. Dependent on readers for quality
8. Argumentative review
h. Basis of linking authors; ideas
9. Aquino (2018) suggested…
i. Reading comprehension
10. Grey literature
j. Thesis, dissertations, posters
k. Plain union of authors’
Individual work. Using contextual clues, give the meaning of the underlined word in sentence.
1. Those are my words that you want to appear in your book. Hence, you must give them the proper citation n
your work to tell the readers of my ownership of the ideas behind the language structures.
2. Refusing to acknowledge the presence of the Iranian guest, he turned the microphone to somebody and then
left the stage.
3. People, topic, place and time, among others, make up the context of communication.
4. Judiciously, the buyer analyzes and criticizes the item before he decides to say yes to the seller.
5. A flower is generally known as a part of a plant, but varied connotations by every individual have been given
of this blossom.
Standard Style in Related Literature Citations or References
In reviewing related literature, you come to read varieties of reading materials containing knowledge related
to your research. It is a fact that these ideas, including the language structures to express these ideas, belong to
other people. They are not yours. One cardinal principle in research is acknowledging or recognizing the owners of
any form of knowledge you intend to include in your research paper. Doing this practice signal not just honesty and
courtesy to learned people whose ideas lend information to your paper, but also indicates your appreciation for their
contribution to the field. (Hammersely, 2013)
The following are the three terms used to express your appreciation for or recognition of people’s ownership
of borrowed ideas (Sharp 2013).
1. Acknowledgement – the beginning portion of the work that identifies individuals who have contributed
something for the production of the paper.
2. References or bibliography – a complete list of all reading materials, including books, journals, periodicals,
etc. from where the borrowed ideas came from,
3. Citation or in-text citation – references within the main body of the text, specifically in review or related
Purpose of Citation
1. To give importance and respect to other people for what they know about the field
2. To give authority, validity, and credibility to other people’s claims and conclusions, and arguments
3. To prove your broad and extensive reading of authentic and relevant materials about your topic
4. To help readers find or contract the sources of ideas easily
5. To permit readers to check the accuracy of your work
6. To save yourself form plagiarism
Style of Citation
1. Integral citation – this is one way of citing or referring to the author whose ideas appear in your work. You do
this by using active verbs like claim, assert, state. Etc. to report the author’s ideas. Using these types of verbs
somehow expresses the author’s mental position, attitude, stand, or opinion in relation to the information referred
to. This is the reason why integral citation is often used in social sciences or any subjects belonging to the soft
Examples of integral Citation:
On study by Manalo (2015) reveals..
One study By (Manalo 70)
The latest work by (Lee, 2015) asserts that…
The latest work by (Lee 123)
According to Abad et al. (2015) context is…
According to (Abad et al.: 54)
2. Non-integral citation – in contrast to integral citation that reflects the author’s personal inclinations to a certain
extent, this second citation style downplays any using the words of the original text in expressing your
understanding of the reading material. The right way to avoid plagiarism is to express the borrowed ideas in your
own words (Ransome 2013).
Taking ownership of what do not belong to you is a criminal act that is punishable by imprisonment and
indemnity or payment of money to compensate for any losses incurred by the owners of expressions that that you
copied without their permission. The safest way to avoid plagiarism is to be aware of the fact that copied words are
not yours. If want these words to appear in your paper, you must reveal the name of the author in your paper,
including the pieces of information (title, date, place of publication, publisher, etc.) about the book form where you
copied the words.
Nowadays, due to the proliferation of “Grey literature” or unpublished reading materials or non-peer reviewed
online publications, many reading materials as sources of information for research studies appear questionable as to
how qualitative, credible, and authoritative they are. Notwithstanding, the doubtful reputation of these grey
literature, to free yourself form any guilt of plagiarism, you must identify in your paper the owners of an idea, word,
symbol that you quoted or copied verbatim, summarized or paraphrased. (Sharp 2012; Gray 2012).
Individual Work. Based on what you have finished reading, explain or clarify what you mean about the
following lines
Be judicious in quoting words
Apply honesty and courtesy in Literature review writing.
A stanza-like part of a text possibly appears in your paper.
You can’t personally say, “Thank you” to the authors, but can have other ways to express your gratitude to
Quotation indicate lack of paper’s originality.
You don’t have an absolute freedom to quote the words of the author.
Produce a condensed form of the reading material.
Citation is just one of the many ways to acknowledge the sources of information.
Integral citation has a personal touch.
There’s a limit to your act of quoting words.
Individual Work. Identify the citation style used; second, comment on the accuracy of each text based
on what you learned about in0text citation. Write your answers on the paper.
1. Many gave their comments about the medicinal powers of amplaya. For instance, the latest study by Santos
and Gomez revealed that the juice of this vegetable can be a good cure against diabetes.
2. De Jesus and Roces felt that one research study by (Collanto and Fernandez p 88) and Vallejo, 2015 validated
Meneses findings on the Ebola virus.
3. A number of medicinal plants can be found in one’s family’s backyard. Fruit trees like santol mango, guava
tamarind, atis, and guyabano, among others. Grow robustly in any spacious area in a yard. Needing no
regular watering, these plants always make themselves available to people believing in their medical qualities
(Rafael Corpuz).
4. One study by Laguardia (2015) has identified the seven components of intercultural competence that
according to Florentino (2015, p.45) are likewise the leading elements of one “contemporary language theory
called systematic functional Grammar.”
5. According to William smith, the K to 12 curricula is the key to the Philippines success I this era of
globalization. Agreeing on this, Mariano (2016) in his latest book said, “any opposition against the immediate
implementation if K-12 curriculum must not be entertained by the government agencies in charge of
monitoring the operation of this educational program.”
Individual Work.
Pick out one newspaper (i.e. Philippine Star, Manila Bulletin, Philippine Daily inquirer, the manila Times). Go to the
editorial page and focus on one column. Read this thoroughly, and then using one citation, pattern a particular
citation style and apply the concepts you have learned in-text citation.
Notes #6: Qualitative Research Designs
Design – is a word means a plan or something that is conceptualized by the mind. As a result of a mental activity
characterized by unfixed formation of something but an extensive interconnection of things, a design in the field of
research serves as a blueprint or a skeletal framework of your research study.
Five types of Qualitative research designs
Types of quantitative Research
1. Case study – it usually takes place in the field of social care, nursing, psychologoy, rehabilitation center,
education. This involves a long-time study of a person, group, organization or situation. It seeks to find answers
to why such thing occurs to the subject. Finding the reason/s behind such occurrence drives you to also delve
into relationship of people related to the case under study.
2. Ethnography – it usually takes place in the field of anthropology, ethnography that centers on a particular
group to get a clean understanding of its organizational set-up, internal operation, and lifestyle. A particular
group reveals the nature and characteristics of their own culture through the world perceptions of the cultural
group’s members.
3. Phenomenology – coming from the word “phenomenon” which means something known through the sensory
experience, phenomenology refers to the study of how people find their experiences meaningful. Its primary
goal is to make people understand their experiences about death of loved ones, care for handicapped persons,
friendliness of people, etc.
4. Historical Analysis – the examination of primary documents to make you understand the connection of past
events to the present time. The results of your content analysis will help you specify phenomenological changes
in unchanged aspects of society through the years.
5. Grounded Theory - takes place when you discover a new theory to underlie you’re your study at the time of
data collection and analysis. Through your observation to your current study. Interview, observation, and
documentary analysis are the data gathering techniques for this type of qualitative research. A return to the
previous data to validate a newly found theory is a zigzag sampling. Moving for category to category, a study
using a grounded theory design is done by a researcher wanting to know how people fair up in a process bound
activity such as writing.
Individual Work. Choose the correct answer.
1) A research design is made up of things indicating (a. separation b. relationship c. singularity d.craftsmanship)
2) Wanting to increase your understanding of the burial practices of the Mangyans, you choose the qualitative
research design called (a. historical b. ethnographical c. phenomenological d. grounded theory).
3) Grounded theory involves a series of (a. theories b. books c. design d. instructions).
4) A great degree of man’s emotionality surfaces in a research design called (a. case study b. ethnography
c. historical d. phenomenology).
5) Determining what makes an individual distinct from others is the goal of (a. case study b. historical
c. phenomenology d. ethnography).
6) No research design means no research (a. motivation b. title c. direction d. data).
7) This cliché – when you are in Rome, do what the romans do – is true for (a. case study b. historical study
c. phenomenology d. ethnography).
8) The who, what, why, how of your research study are determined your research (a. data b. title
c. question d. design).
9) Zigzag sampling requires data (a. analysis b. accumulation c. recording d. review).
10) A researcher’s personal participation in people’s activities is necessary in (a. historical b. phenomenological
c. ethnography d. case study).
- Is a word that refers to your method or process of selecting respondents or people to answer questions meant
to yield data for a research study. The chose pone constitutes the sample through which you will derive facts
and evidence to support the claims or conclusions propounded by your research problems. The bigger the group
from where you choose the sample is called population, and sampling frameis the term used to mean the
list of the members of such population form where you will get the sample (Paris 2013).
Probability Sampling or unbiased sampling
Probability sampling – involves all members listed in the sampling frame representing a certain population focused
on by your study. An equal chance of participation in the sampling or selection process is given to every member listed
in the sampling frame.
A sampling error crops up if the selection does not take place in the way it is planned. Such sampling error is
manifested by strong dissimilarity between the sample and the ones listed in the sampling frame.
The smaller the sample is, the bigger the number of sampling errors. Thus, choose to have a bigger sample of
respondents to avoid sampling errors.
Types of probability sampling
1. Simple random sampling – is the bet type of probability sampling through which you can choose sample
form a population. Using a pure-chance selection, you assure the member the same opportunity to be in the
sample. Here, the only basis of including and excluding a member is by chance or opportunity, not by any
occurrence accounted by the cause-effect relationship. Simple random sampling happens through any of these
two methods:
Have all the list of members of population; write each name on the card, and choose cases through
chance selection.
Have a list of all members; give a number to a member then used the randomized or unordered
in selecting names from the list.
2. Systematic sampling – for this kind of probability sampling, chance and system are the ones to determine
who should compose the sample. For instance, if you want to have a sample of 150, you may select set of
numbers like 1 to 15, and out of a list of 1500 students, take every 15 th name on the list until you complete the
total number of respondents to constitute your sample.
3. Stratified sampling – the group comprising the sample is chosen in a way that such group is liable to
subdivision during the data analysis stage. A study needing group by group analysis finds stratified sampling
the right probabilitiy sampling to use.
4. Cluster sampling – this is a probability sampling that makes you isolate a set of persons instead of individual
members to serve as sample members. For example, if you want to have a sample of 120 out of 1ooo students,
you can randomly select three sections with 40 students each to constitute the sample.
Non probability sampling
- Non probability sampling disregards random of subjects. The subjects are chosen based on their availability or
the purpose of the study, and in some cases, o the sole discretion of the researcher. This is not a scientific way
of selecting respondents. Neither does it offer a valid or an objective way of detecting sampling errors (Edmond
Types of non probability sampling
1. Quota sampling – you resort of quota sampling when you think you know the characteristics of the target
population very well. In this case, you tend to choose sample members possessing or indicating the
characteristics of the target population. Using a quota or a specific set of persons whom you believe to have
the characteristics of the target population involved in the study of showing that the sample you have chosen
closely represents the target population as regards such a characteristics.
2. Voluntary sampling – since the subject you expect to participate in the sample selection are the ones
volunteering to constitute the sample, there is no need for you to do any selection process.
3. Purposive or judgmental sampling – you choose whom you are sure could correspondent to the objectives
of your study of your study, like selecting those with rich experience or interest in your study.
4. Availability sampling - the willingness of a person as your subject to interact with you counts a lot in this
non probability sampling method. If during the data-collection time, you encounter people walking on a school
campus, along corridors, and along the park or employees lining up at an office, and these people show
willingness to respond to your questions, then you automatically consider them as your respondents.
5. Snowball sampling – similar to snow expanding widely or rolling rapidly, this sampling method does not give
a specific samples. This is true for a study involving unspecified group of people. Dealing with varied groups of
people such as street children, mendicants, drug dependents, call center agents, informal settlers, street
vendors, and the like is possible in this kind of non probability sampling. Free to obtain data from any group
just like snow feely expanding and accumulating at a certain place, you tend to increase the number of people
you want to form the sample in your study.