Age of Absolutism Study Guide Name:______________________________Period:___________Date:_____________________ Absolute Monarchs Study Guide 11.1 Conditions of Absolute Monarchs 1. What conditions led them to the rise of absolute monarchs? 4 conditions or origins that led to absolute monarchs a.) The decline of feudalism - local rulers(lords or knights) became weak, destroyed old social systems and classes Kings come and take over b.) Protestant Reformation - Catholic Church’s authority declining, monarchs rising in power c.) Colonial wealth - Age of Exploration - more colonies/land - more trade - more money build more armies d.) Religious/Territorial conflicts - citizens willing to give monarchs more power in return for stability Catholics vs Protestants Disagreements over land 2. Define absolute monarchs. Kings or queens that held ALL power within their state boundaries Goal to control every single aspect of society 3. What is Divine Right? How does it apply to monarchs? God created the monarchy Monarchy acts as God's representative on Earth Monarch answers only to God*** Because it is *Justification that they can do whatever they want* 4. Define dynasty. A family that governs a country based on the idea of divine right passed down from one generation to the next 11.1 Spain 5. Where did Spain’s wealth come from? Colonies from the new world - gold and silver 6. How did Philip II gain more power for the Spanish monarchy? Control over the government, economy, religion, and military Nobles took actions only from his nobles 7. Define inflation. The value of silver dropped, Spain not as wealthy anymore 8. What caused inflation in Spain? So much silver in the economy the value of it dropped Raised taxes 430% Took ¼ of bullion for himself 1500s was Spains Golden Age 9. What factors caused the decline of the Spanish Empire? a.) Spanish armada - lost their entire fleet of warships, too expensive to fix, a serious military blow to Spain b.) Inflation - the value of silver dropped, spain not as wealthy anymore c.) Heavy taxes in Spanish empire - to pay for costly wars, only lower class paid 11.2 France - guide reading question sheet 10. Describe Henry IV as a leader. Why wasn’t Henry well liked? Wasnt Catholic, he was a Hugenots 11. Define Huguenots French protestants 12. What was the Edict of Nantes? Allowed Huguenots places of worship in certain cities in France, they could live in peace in France 13. Define skepticism. Questioning ideas, nothing can be known for certain, expressed doubt to Church doctrines ***Laid the foundation for Scientific Revolution/Enlightenment 14. Who was Cardinal Richelieu? How does he increase the power of the Bourbon monarchy? Minister Louis XIII, de facto ruler of France He moved against Huguenots to eliminate conspiracies against Catholic King, used faith as an excuse to break away from King Forbade Hugeunots cities to have walls, did not want them to defy King and hide behind walls Increased power of government agents so King would not need/rely on nobles *****DECREASED POWER OF NOBLES 15. Who is the Sun King? Louis XIV = best example of an absolute monarch, the most powerful king 16. Who was Cardinal Mazarin? How does he increase the power of the Bourbon monarchy? Minister to Louis XIV, de facto ruler of France 1661 = Mazarin dies, 22 years old Louis XIV assumes full control of the monarchy Raised taxes and strengthened central government ***nobles have realized their power is decreasing Nobles rebellion against him fail ****convinced the people of France that an absolute monarchy was better than the chaos of a rebellion 17. In what specific ways did Louis XIV increase the power of the French Monarchy? a.) Gave responsibilities to intendants - increased power All reported to him, centralized power b.) Excluded nobles from his councils c.) Made nobles live at the palace of Versailles with him Watch over and distract them 18. Define intendants government officials 19. Explain the symbolic purpose of Versailles. To show his wealth and power, to impress foreign governments 20. How did Louis XIV affect the economy? Left france in massive debt **Increased taxes - left a huge burden on the poor/middle class - which made up most of the population Revolked the Edict of Nantes - many skilled workers (hugenots) fled France Strong military won wars and battle bringing in wealth and goods 21. Define tariff A tax on imports/exports 22. Who was Jean Baptiste Colbert and how did his economic policies affect France? 23. What was the League of Augsburg and what impact France did it have on France? 24. What were the legacies of Louis XIV? (positive and negative) 11.3 Central Europe - short power point on 30 years war 25. Summarize the causes of the Thirty Years War (short term and long term) 26. Summarize the effects of the Thirty Years’ War. (short term and long term)**more important 27. Explain factors that led to Central European states being weak 11.4 Russia - video questions, and short power point 28. What are the major events or accomplishments that took place during Ivan’s rule? 29. In what ways did Ivan the Great strengthen the Russian monarchy? 30. Define boyars 31. How did Peter the Great try to westernize Russia? 32. What did Peter learn while he was in Western Europe? What aspects of Western Europe did he not like? 33. Describe Peter the Great’s legacy.