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Age of Absolutism Study Guide

Age of Absolutism Study Guide
Absolute Monarchs Study Guide
11.1 Conditions of Absolute Monarchs
1. What conditions led them to the rise of absolute monarchs?
4 conditions or origins that led to absolute monarchs
a.) The decline of feudalism - local rulers(lords or knights) became weak, destroyed old
social systems and classes
Kings come and take over
b.) Protestant Reformation - Catholic Church’s authority declining, monarchs rising in
c.) Colonial wealth - Age of Exploration - more colonies/land - more trade - more money build more armies
d.) Religious/Territorial conflicts - citizens willing to give monarchs more power in return
for stability
Catholics vs Protestants
Disagreements over land
2. Define absolute monarchs.
Kings or queens that held ALL power within their state boundaries
Goal to control every single aspect of society
3. What is Divine Right? How does it apply to monarchs?
God created the monarchy
Monarchy acts as God's representative on Earth
Monarch answers only to God***
Because it is *Justification that they can do whatever they want*
4. Define dynasty.
A family that governs a country based on the idea of divine right passed down from one
generation to the next
11.1 Spain
5. Where did Spain’s wealth come from?
Colonies from the new world - gold and silver
6. How did Philip II gain more power for the Spanish monarchy?
Control over the government, economy, religion, and military
Nobles took actions only from his nobles
7. Define inflation.
The value of silver dropped, Spain not as wealthy anymore
8. What caused inflation in Spain?
So much silver in the economy the value of it dropped
Raised taxes 430%
Took ¼ of bullion for himself
1500s was Spains Golden Age
9. What factors caused the decline of the Spanish Empire?
a.) Spanish armada - lost their entire fleet of warships, too expensive to fix, a serious
military blow to Spain
b.) Inflation - the value of silver dropped, spain not as wealthy anymore
c.) Heavy taxes in Spanish empire - to pay for costly wars, only lower class paid
11.2 France - guide reading question sheet
10. Describe Henry IV as a leader. Why wasn’t Henry well liked?
Wasnt Catholic, he was a Hugenots
11. Define Huguenots
French protestants
12. What was the Edict of Nantes?
Allowed Huguenots places of worship in certain cities in France, they could live in peace
in France
13. Define skepticism.
Questioning ideas, nothing can be known for certain, expressed doubt to Church
***Laid the foundation for Scientific Revolution/Enlightenment
14. Who was Cardinal Richelieu? How does he increase the power of the Bourbon
Minister Louis XIII, de facto ruler of France
He moved against Huguenots to eliminate conspiracies against Catholic King, used faith
as an excuse to break away from King
Forbade Hugeunots cities to have walls, did not want them to defy King and hide behind
Increased power of government agents so King would not need/rely on nobles
15. Who is the Sun King?
Louis XIV = best example of an absolute monarch, the most powerful king
16. Who was Cardinal Mazarin? How does he increase the power of the Bourbon monarchy?
Minister to Louis XIV, de facto ruler of France
1661 = Mazarin dies, 22 years old Louis XIV assumes full control of the monarchy
Raised taxes and strengthened central government
***nobles have realized their power is decreasing
Nobles rebellion against him fail
****convinced the people of France that an absolute monarchy was better than the chaos
of a rebellion
17. In what specific ways did Louis XIV increase the power of the French Monarchy?
a.) Gave responsibilities to intendants - increased power
All reported to him, centralized power
b.) Excluded nobles from his councils
c.) Made nobles live at the palace of Versailles with him
Watch over and distract them
18. Define intendants
government officials
19. Explain the symbolic purpose of Versailles.
To show his wealth and power, to impress foreign governments
20. How did Louis XIV affect the economy?
Left france in massive debt
**Increased taxes - left a huge burden on the poor/middle class - which made up most of
the population
Revolked the Edict of Nantes - many skilled workers (hugenots) fled France
Strong military won wars and battle bringing in wealth and goods
21. Define tariff
A tax on imports/exports
22. Who was Jean Baptiste Colbert and how did his economic policies affect France?
23. What was the League of Augsburg and what impact France did it have on France?
24. What were the legacies of Louis XIV? (positive and negative)
11.3 Central Europe - short power point on 30 years war
25. Summarize the causes of the Thirty Years War (short term and long term)
26. Summarize the effects of the Thirty Years’ War. (short term and long term)**more
27. Explain factors that led to Central European states being weak
11.4 Russia - video questions, and short power point
28. What are the major events or accomplishments that took place during Ivan’s rule?
29. In what ways did Ivan the Great strengthen the Russian monarchy?
30. Define boyars
31. How did Peter the Great try to westernize Russia?
32. What did Peter learn while he was in Western Europe? What aspects of Western Europe
did he not like?
33. Describe Peter the Great’s legacy.