Name: _______________________________________________ Per: ________ TYPE THE QUESTIONS AND YOUR COMPLETE ANSWERS ON SEPARATE SHEETS OF PAPER. DRAW DIAGRAMS WHEN REQUESTED. DOWNLOADED DIAGRAMS WITH OR WITHOUT LABELS WILL NOT BE ACCEPTED. DO YOUR OWN WORK! 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. 34. 35. 36. 37. 38. 39. 40. 41. 42. 43. 44. 45. 46. What are the major components of the lymphatic system? What is the function of the lymphatic system? Name the 4 major anatomical regions/areas where large concentrations of lymph nodules are found within the human body. What is interstitial fluid? Explain! Compare hydrostatic with osmotic pressure and how it relates to intracellular and extracellular fluid. Diagram lymphatic fluid flow from a capillary to a large vein, making sure to indicate where the pressures are highest and lowest. Explain the general flow of lymph through the human body. Where are lymphatic vessels absent? Now that you know more about the lymphatic vessels, what actually leads to inflammation? What are the three main cells of the lymphatic system? What are the main differences between B-cells and T-cells? Diagram the anatomy of a lymph node and the flow of lymphatic fluid through a lymph node. Explain how this setup allows the body to “scan” for pathogens. Outline the development of the different types of lymphocytes. Diagram the role of macrophages in producing immunity. Compare and contrast humoral immunity and cell mediated immunity. B-cells mature into _?_ Compare and contrast an antigen and an antibody. List and describe the ways that antigens are eliminated from the body. Compare and contrast a primary and secondary immune response. Describe how vaccinations result in long term immunity. Compare and contrast active immunity and passive immunity. List AND describe some common immune system “failures.” Explain how the HIV virus affects the immune system and how this ultimately leads to an individual’s death. How do lymph nodes and lymph organs differ? What are the four major anatomical locations of the tonsils and what is their functions. List AND describe the functions of the spleen. What is the difference between splenic white pulp and splenic red pulp? What is splenomegaly? What is a splenectomy? List AND describe the functions of the thyums. What is the fate of the thymus as we age? List AND describe the four processes of the respiratory system, making sure to compare and contrast internal and external respiration. Name the basic functions of the respiratory system. What is pulmonary ventilation? Describe the structure AND functions of the nose. What are defensins? Explain why your nose drips when it is cold outside. Describe the locations AND function of the sinuses. What is the pharynx? What is another name for the voice box? What are the three functions of the larynx? What is the functional difference between the nasopharynx, oropharynx, and laryngopharynx? What is the epiglottis? How does it “work?” What is the significance of the trachea having cartilaginous rings? Compare and contrast the respiratory and conducting zones of the bronchial tree. How do bronchioles and terminal bronchioles differ? Describe or draw, in detail, the bronchiole tree. Describe the differences (in structure and function) between bronchi, bronchioles, and alveoli? If a person were to aspirate (inhale) a hot dog, which lung would it be more likely to enter? Why? 47. 48. 49. 50. 51. 52. 53. 54. 55. 56. How many lobes are there in each lung? Name them. What are the gases exchanged at the alveoli? What is the mechanism that allows gas to be exchanged at the level of the alveoli? What role does surfactant play? Where is it found? What is the major muscle associated with gas exchange? What are the accessory muscles? Draw and label the pleural layers in the lung. What is happening when a person has a pneumothroax? In terms of pressure, explain how lung volume decreases and increases. What is the normal volume of inspiration? What is anatomical dead space in regards to the respiratory system? 58. 59. 60. 61. 62. 63. 64. 65. 66. 67. 68. 69. 70. What happens to a person’s CO2 level in the blood when they hyperventilate? What is pneumonia? What is asthma? List some symptoms. What is emphysema/COPD? What happens to the total surface area of the lungs in a person with emphysema? What is dyspnea? What is bronchitis? List some symptoms. What is the major cause of chronic bronchitis? What is cyanosis? What is hypoxia and what are some conditions which could cause it? Which type of cancer accounts for 1/3 of all cancer deaths in the United States? List some symptoms of lung cancer? What is SIDS? What is thought to cause it? 57. List AND describe ALL of the respiratory volumes AND respiratory capacities.