The Alien and Sedition Acts were a series of laws passed by Congress in 1798 when there was fear of war with France. These acts limited freedom of the press and speech as well as restricting the activities of foreign residents. The Sedition Act of 1917 imposed harsh penalties to anyone who insulted the Constitution, flag, the government, or the American uniform. Schenck v. U.S. (1919) was a case where the Supreme Court rules that freedom of speech, as protected by the First Amendment, could be restricted if the words presented a clear and present danger to society. The Smith Act of 1940 was a law that made it a crime to advocate or be a member of a group that advocated overthrowing the government. Miller v. California (1973) was a case which upheld the prosecution of a publisher who published obscene materials. In its ruling, the court redefined the definition of obscenity. Near v. Minnesota (1931) was a case which the Supreme Court ruled that restraints in place on publications violated the First Amendment right to freedom of the press. N.Y. Times v. U.S. (1971) was a case involving the NY Times being prevented from publishing materials related to the Vietnam War. The Supreme Court defended the freedom of the press right granted by the First Amendment. Branzburg v. Hayes (1972) was a case which the Supreme Court ruled that reporters may not use the First Amendment right to freedom of the press to avoid testifying before a grand jury. Tinker v. Des Moines (1969) was a case which the Supreme Court ruled that freedom of speech must be protected in schools as long as it does not disrupt learning. Texas v. Johnson (1989) was a case which the Supreme Court ruled that the burning of the U.S. flag was a protected form of freedom of speech from the First Amendment.