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Global History and Geography 2

Global History and Geography
Regents Review
Introduction to Global
Part 1
Social Scientists
Historians: research, analyze, and study written records of the past
Geographers: study Earth’s surface & climate and its impact on humans
Economists: study how societies use available resources and goods
Anthropologists: study past and present human cultures and behaviors
Archeologists: study physical artifacts, fossils, and remains of cultures
Sociologists: study society and social behavior by examining groups,
cultures, organizations, and institutions that people form
Historical Sources
Primary Sources
Firsthand record of a historical event by an eyewitness who
experienced the event (i.e. diaries, photographs,
Secondary Sources
Secondhand record by a person who did not experience the
event (i.e. textbooks, encyclopedias)
Paleolithic Age (Old Stone Age)
• Began more than two million years ago
• People were nomads (hunter/gatherer) – traveling in small
groups from place to place, hunting and gathering food
• Adapted to their environment - Made simple tools/weapons
and developed language
• Developed minor spiritual beliefs; believed in afterlife
• Migration into Europe, Asia. Migrated to North America over
a land bridge.
Neolithic Age/New Stone Age (8000-3000 BC)
Neolithic Revolution – People made two
important discoveries; they learned how
to plant seeds to grow food (agriculture),
and they learned to domesticate animals
(domestication of animals).
Results of Neolithic Revolution:
1. Nomads became settled farmers
2. People no longer had to wander in
search of food (agriculture/farming)
3. People lived in permanent settlements
4. Food surplus – steady supply of food
population grow, and led to
the emergence of social classes
5. Technology – people developed tools
like the wheel, metal weapons, and
plows to meet their basic needs
6. Domestication of animals – people
used animals for protection,
transportation, and to work in the
Ancient Civilizations
Early Civilizations:
A.The first civilizations developed near river valleys. River valleys offered:
w fertile soil for farming w
irrigation w source of transportation w
B. Features of Early Civilizations:
• Cities and Central Government – food surplus meant a growth in
population (development of cities), and the need for a governing body
beyond a chief or tribe leader (central government).
• Traditional Economy – barter system (trading goods), subsistence
agriculture (people lived off of their own land).
• Job Specialization & Social Classes – people began to specialize in
certain jobs because no one person could master all the skills necessary
to survive. People became ranked in classes based on their jobs (nobles
and priests were usually at the top, followed by warriors, merchants,
peasant farmers, and slaves)
• Organized Religion – early civilizations practiced polytheism (the belief
in many gods)
• Roads, bridges, and public works – created to increase ease of
transportation, and increase trade
• System of Writing – early writing systems consisted of picture writing
and symbol drawings
Ancient River Valley Civilizations
Major River
Nile River
water for
Polytheism (Amon- Hieroglyphics,
Re sun god, Osiris Social classes,
water god)
Belief in after-life
Polytheism –
(pyramid like
structure for
Cuneiform, Code
of Hammurabi
social classes,
wealth from trade
Indus River
Harappa &
grid pattern cities,
invaded by Aryans
-Middle Kingdom
deserts, jungles,
Huang He
social classes,
Yangzi River
spirits: YinYang)
Middle East
-Fertile Crescent
-Cradle of
Tigris &
- Peninsula
Irrigation, fertile
soil, trade,
Classical Civilizations
Ancient Greece (1750 BCE - 133 BCE)
•Peninsula – land surrounded by water on three sides
•Archipelago – a chain of small islands
•Aegean and Mediterranean Seas were a link to the rest of the world – Greeks
became skilled sea traders
•Mountainous terrain served as a natural barrier that prevented unity of Greece
City States
•Instead of a large, unified nation, Greece was divided into smaller city-states (polis)
because of mountainous terrain
•Polis were made up of two parts; Hilltop acropolis (contained temples), and the main
city (homes, marketplace, theater, etc.)
•Aristocracy – government ruled by landholding elite
•Two most powerful city-states: Sparta & Athens
•Monarchy with two kings
•Military society – boys trained from a young age for a lifetime in the army, girls trained
to be mothers of soldiers
•Women can own land (men died in battle)
•Sparta was a very strong military state
•Athens had a direct democracy (laws are created by a general vote of society)
•Male citizens took part in the government (assembly)
•Conducted trade with other city-states
•Women were inferior
•Education given to boys
•Shared a common language
•Shared heroes
•Olympic Games
•Believed in same gods and same religious beliefs
Alexander the Great
• Son of Philip of Macedonia who conquered Greece
• Alexander went on to build a large empire (Nile Valley,
Persia, parts of India)
• Hellenistic culture blended aspects of Greek, Persian,
Egyptian, and Indian life (CULTURAL DIFFUSION)
• Hellenistic culture gave more rights and opportunities to
people including women
• Empire fell shortly after his death
Greek & Hellenistic Contributions
• Philosophy: Greek thinkers used observation to understand why
things happened. These people were called philosophers, which
means lovers of wisdom (Socrates, Plato, Aristotle)
• Literature: Greek plays, stories of the gods, Greek poetry (Homer:
The Odyssey)
• Art & Architecture: Greeks believed in beauty and balance. Greek
paintings, statues, and architecture reflected those ideas. Used
columns in their buildings (famous Greek building: The Parthenon)
• Science: Astronomer Aristarchus discovered that the earth moves
around the sun. Hippocrates, Greek physician, studied causes of
illness and looked for cures (Hippocratic Oath)
• Math: Greek & Hellenistic thinkers made great strides in
mathematics. Pythagoras developed a formula to measure the sides
of a right angle. Euclid wrote a book that became the basis for
modern geometry.
Ancient Rome (509 BCE – 476 CE)
Ancient Rome
•Rome is located near the center of Italy. Italy is a peninsula in the
Mediterranean Sea, which helped the Romans conquer lands surrounding
the Mediterranean Sea, and conduct trade.
•Unlike Greece, Rome’s geography helped the people unite. Low mountains
and fertile plains supported a growing population.
Roman Republic
•Romans established a form of government called a republic (officials were
chosen by the people)
•The governing body of the Roman Republic was called the Senate.
Senators were members of the upper class, patricians (business
supervisors, army commanders). Most of the population was made up of
plebeians (farmers, merchants, traders), who had very little power and were
not part of the Senate.
•Under Roman law, the males was head of the household, and had authority
over women. During the later years of the Roman Republic women gained
freedom, and had prominent public roles, and owned businesses.
The Roman Empire
• By 270 BCE, Rome conquered all of Italy
• Romans conquered Carthage, Macedonia, Greece, parts of Asia Minor
• Expansion of Rome led to a widening gap between upper and lower
classes, as well as increased corruption among government officials
• In the year 48 BCE Julius Caesar came to power. He conquered more
lands, and made government reforms to prevent civil wars and corruption
• Julius Caesar was murdered by his own people
• Octavian, later called Augustus, came to power after Caesar died. He
was Julius Caesar’s grand-nephew
• Augustus was an absolute monarch, and did not share his power with the
Senate. Augusts brought an end to the Roman Republic
• Augustus brought about a 200 year period of peace, wealth, and stability
known as Pax Romana (Roman Peace). During this time the Roman
Empire expanded to more lands in Europe, as well as North Africa, and
Southwest Asia
• Roman civilization spread to other lands, and the Romans also absorbed
the ideas of other cultures (CULTURAL DIFFUSION)
Roman Contributions
• Law: Roman law was one of Rome’s greatest achievements. Rome set
precedents with ideas like equality under the law, right of the accused to
face the accuser, innocent until proven guilty.
– Twelve Tables – in 450 BCE the plebeians demanded that the
laws be written. They were inscribed on twelve tablets, and
placed in the marketplace. Later the plebeians won the right to
elect their own officials and serve in government jobs.
• Art & Architecture: Rome borrowed many Greek concepts. They used
Greek style in their statues and public buildings. Roman writers used
Latin language to write poetry, history, and philosophy.
• Engineering: Rome built an extensive system of roads, as well as
bridges, harbors, and aqueducts (bridge-like stone structures that
channeled water from the hills to the cities).
• Trade: During Pax Romana, trade flowed freely among the lands of the
Roman empire, and other parts of the world. Egypt supplied grains,
Africans supplied ivory, and gold. Indians exported cotton and spices.
China supplied silk and other goods.
Ancient India (1500 BCE – 185 BCE)
Ancient India
•India is a subcontinent that juts out of the Asian continent. India
includes three major geographic regions:
• Northern Plain – fertile land that is well watered by the Indus
and Ganges Rivers
• Deccan Plateau – high land that is dry and sparsely populated
• Coastal Plains – flat land along the east and west coasts of
India where farming, fishing, and trading occurs
Mauryan Empire (321 BCE – 185 BCE)
Rise to Power
• Chandragupta Maurya first conquered land in the Ganges Valley, and
then conquered most of Northern India.
• Chandragupta was a very strong leader. He ruled by enforcing strict law,
harsh punishment, and instituting a secret police to monitor the people.
• After Chandragupta Maurya died, his descendants continued conquering
land southward to the Deccan Plateau.
• The Maurya Dynasty had a strong government that was run as a
bureaucracy (system of managing government where officials are
appointed; these officials are not appointed based on skill and/or ability).
• Government officials collected taxes, oversaw building of roads and
harbors, and managed government factories.
A New Ruler
•Chandragupta’s grandson, Asoka, came to power after Chandragupta.
•Unlike Chandragupta, he rejected all forms of violence & harsh punishment.
•Asoka ended the conquest for more land.
•Asoka turned to Buddhism, and ruled by moral example rather than fear and
•Asoka sent Buddhist missionaries across India to promote Buddhist beliefs.
Despite his desire to promote Buddhism, Asoka was tolerant of other beliefs.
Effects of Asoka’s Rule
•Under Asoka’s rule, the people of India were united and experienced peace
and prosperity.
•After Asoka died the Mauryan Empire declined, and rival kingdoms once
again competed for power as they did before Chandragupta Maurya
Mauryan Contributions
• United most of India for the first time.
• Brought about a period of peace, prosperity, and increased trade.
• Built the capital city of Pataliputra; one of the largest & wealthiest
cities at the time. Pataliputra had schools, a library, and advanced
• Buddhism spread throughout India through the use of missionaries.
Ancient China (1027 BCE – 220 CE)
Ancient China
• China developed separately from Egypt, the Middle East,
Indian, and Europe.
• China was separated from other civilizations by long
distances and physical barriers
– High mountains in the west and southwest
– Gobi Desert in the north
– Pacific Ocean in the east
Four Chinese Dynasties
Shang Dynasty (Early Civilization)
Rise of the Shang Dynasty
• About 1650 BCE, the Shang gained control of northern China.
• The king split up the territory among groups of families to control the land.
• The Shang setup the first dynasty in China.
Social Structure
• Shang had social structure; noble warriors owned the land, merchants &
craftsmen worked in the cities, peasants lived in farming villages.
• The Shang Chinese worshipped many gods and spirits (polytheistic), and
prayed to dead ancestors to intercede on their behalf.
• Ancient Chinese people believed in a delicate balance of two forces
known as Yin and Yang. When the forces are balanced there is peace
and prosperity.
• Written Chinese was developed about 4,000 years ago.
• Ancient Chinese used a system of pictographs and ideographs (only the
upper class were able to read and write)
Zhou Dynasty (1027 BCE – 221 BCE)
Rise of the Zhou Dynasty
•Between 1100 BCE and 1000 BCE the Zhou overthrew the Shang and
began a dynasty that lasted about 800 years.
•The Zhou believed they had divine right to rule (Mandate of Heaven).
•Zhou kings granted control of large land areas to local lords. The
government ruled through the use of feudalism (local lords controlled their
own territory, and provided the king with military service in return).
•Over time the lords held most of the power in China.
•Chinese people began using iron tools. This made field work more efficient
and the Chinese were able to produce more food.
•The Feudal lords built new roads, and canals to expand trade.
•Chinese began using money for the first time – this helped develop trade.
•Made the first books, studied planet movement, created an accurate
calendar, discovered how to make silk from the silkworm (silk became one of
the most valuable Chinese exports)
Qin Dynasty (221 BCE – 206 BCE)
Rise of the Qin Dynasty
•In the year 221 BCE, a leader of the Qin people proclaimed himself as the
First Emperor of China (Shi Huangdi).
•After conquering the Zhou empire, Shi Huangdi centralized the government
and abolished feudalism. He divided the country into military districts, ruled
by appointed officials
Uniformity in China under the Qin
•Standardized measurements
•National coins
•Uniform Chinese writing
•Repaired canals and roads to unite people
Great Wall of China
•Shi Huangdi’s greatest accomplishment was the Great Wall of China. The
wall was built to keep out invaders. Thousands of workers worked for years
to build the wall.
Han Dynasty (206 BCE – 220 CE)
Rise of the Han Dynasty
• After Shi Huangdi died the people revolted against the Qin Dynasty.
• A peasant leader, Liu Bang, took control of China. He reduced taxes, and
eased harsh policies.
• In 141 BCE Emperor Wudi came to power (began a Golden Age).
• Han Dynasty (Emperor Wudi) established the civil service exam.
• CSE were based on the teachings of the Chinese philosopher Confucius,
and determined who would get government jobs based on ability and skill
(unlike a bureaucracy where family influence determined these positions)
• Confucianism explained proper behavior for all parts of society.
• Men were superior to women (women were not able to take CSE, and
could not hold govt positions)
• Inventions: paper from wood pulp, wheelbarrow, fishing reel, rudder
• Medicine: acupuncture, anesthesia, books on chemistry, zoology, botany.
Global Trade
Phoenician Trade
• Phoenicians were the earliest trading empire of the ancient Middle East.
• Phoenicia is where modern day Syria and Lebanon are located.
• Made glass from sand, manufactured a purple dye from sea snails,
created scrolls from papyrus.
• Phoenicians invented the alphabet (the words phonics comes from
Indian Trade
• India was involved in global trade as far back as the Indus Valley
civilization (traded with Ancient Mesopotamia).
• Alexander the Great opened a trade between India and Mediterranean.
• Throughout history Europeans were always seeking Indian natural
resources (spices).
China / Silk Road
• The Han Dynasty opened a trade route called the Silk Road.
• The Silk Road linked China with lands as far west as Mesopotamia.
• Silk Road eventually stretched 4,000 miles.
• Most trade was conducted in various markets across the Silk Road.
• The Silk Road served as a source of cultural diffusion, as people from
many different cultures traded goods and ideas along the Silk Road.
Roman Trade
• During Pax Romana trade flowed freely between Rome and other parts
of the world.
• Rome used the Mediterranean Sea as a means to trade with other lands
surrounding the Mediterranean Sea.
• Rome also trade with India seeking their spices/ Rome traded with
China seeking silk.
Belief Systems
• Monotheism – the belief in ONE god
• Polytheism – the belief in many gods
• Codes of Conduct – codes of behavior
issued by god (i.e. Ten Commandments,
Five Pillars of Islam, Eightfold Path)
• Animism is the belief that every living and non-living thing in
nature has a spirit.
• Animism was a feature of the belief systems of many early
peoples (Stone Age)
• Animism was a popular belief system associated with
Africa (African Tribes)
Universal Spirit
• Hindus believe in a unifying spirit, brahman. Humans do not understand
brahman so Hindus worship gods that provide a simpler form of brahman.
• The three most important Hindu gods are:
s Brahma the Creator s Vishnu the Preserver s Shiva the Destroyer
• The goal of life is to achieve union with brahman.
• Achieving union with brahman occurs when people free themselves from
selfish desires. This union cannot occur in one lifetime. Ending the cycle
of reincarnation is known as Moksha.
• Reincarnation is the idea of rebirth of the soul into a new body so that
people can continue their journey toward achieving union with brahman.
Karma and Dharma
•Karma is the accumulation of all deeds in a person’s life that affect his/her
existence in the next life. Good deeds result in being reborn at a higher level
in the next life. Evil deeds result in being reborn at a lower level in the next
•Dharma is the moral and religious obligations that are expected of an
individual based on their: gender, class, age, and occupation.
Caste System
•Castes are social groups that people are born into, and they cannot move
out of their caste during their lifetime.
•A person may be born into a higher caste in the next life with good karma.
•The caste system includes 4 basic groups, and an additional group that
ranks at the bottom of the caste system called the Untouchables.
Brahmins (priests)
Kshatriyas (warriors)
Vaisyas (herders, farmers, merchants)
Sudras (servants, peasants)
Untouchables (street cleaners, garbage cleaners)
Sacred Texts
•Vedas (prayers, sacred verses), Upanishads (Hindu philosophy)
Hindu Caste System
Untouchables were so low that they did not even rank in the caste
system hierarchy
•Buddhism developed in India, and spread into other areas in Asia (China).
•Buddhism was founded by Siddhartha Gautama (born a Hindu).
•Siddhartha Gautama was a wealthy prince. He left his home to find the
meaning of life. He found the answer while meditating under a sacred tree.
He was named Buddha, which means the Enlightened One.
Four Noble Truths
•The central philosophy of Buddhism:
All life is suffering
Suffering is caused by desire
Eliminate suffering by eliminating desire
Follow the Eightfold Path to overcome desire
Eightfold Path
•Following the Eightfold Path will lead to Nirvana (union with the universe
and release from the cycle of death and rebirth)
•Eightfold Path: right views, right intentions, right speech, right conduct, right
livelihood, right effort, right mindfulness, right meditation.
Sacred Texts
•Tripitaka (Three Baskets of Wisdom) – a collection of Buddha’s teachings
Hinduism VS Buddhism
• Both religions accept the idea of karma, dharma,
and reincarnation
• Both religions seek union with the universe
– Hinduism: Moksha
– Buddhism: Nirvana
• Buddhism rejects the many Hindu gods
• Buddhism does not believe in the Caste System
Chinese Philosophies
•Confucius was China’s most influential philosopher and thinker.
•Confucius’ teachings were collected in The Analects.
•People were taught to accept their place in society.
•People’s place in the society was based on the Five Relationships (ruler to
subject, father to son, husband to wife, elder brother to younger brother,
friend to friend).
•Other Teachings: people are naturally good, education is the road to
Taoism (Daoism)
•Laozi (founder) taught people to contemplate the Tao – which means the
way of the universe.
•Taoism’s goal is to help people live in harmony with nature.
•Taoists believe in the balance of Yin and Yang; Yin is earth, darkness,
female forces - Yang is heaven, light, male forces. The peace of the universe
depends on the balance of Yin and Yang.
•Two main Taoist texts are: The Way of Virtue (written by Laozi), and
Zhuang-zi (written centuries later and contains fables, sayings, dialogues)
• Legalism was a philosophy / ruling method practiced by the Qin Dynasty.
• Legalism emphasizes the need for order above all human concerns.
• People need a strong government and a carefully devised code of law,
along with a policing force that would stringently and impartially enforce
the rules, and punish harshly for even minor infractions.
• The main idea of legalism is that humans are inherently evil and inclined
toward criminal and selfish behavior.
• The government must prevent people from giving in to their natural ways
by enforcing strict laws and harsh punishments.
• First religion to teach MONOTHEISM
• The Jewish book of law and holy book is the Torah
• Judaism teaches that a person serves God by studying the Torah
and living by its teachings
• The father of Judaism is Abraham
• The Jewish people were enslaved by the Egyptians, and became a
nation after their liberation
• The Jews were led by Moses for 40 years in the desert, upon which
they reach the land of Israel
• The Jewish people believe that their homeland is Israel, given to
Abraham by the Jewish god Hashem (known as yah-weh)
• Jewish holidays include:
– Passover – the holiday of freedom (celebrating the Jewish liberation
from Egyptian slavery)
– Rosh Hashanah – the Jewish New Year
– Yom Kippur – the day of atonement
Islam is a religion based on the teachings of the prophet Muhammad
Followers of Islam are known as Muslims
Muslims believe that God revealed his teachings to Muhammad through the angel
Muslims are concentrated from southwest Asia, parts of Africa, and southeast Asia
Sunni Muslims believe that their leaders should follow Muhammad’s example
Shiite Muslims believe that their leaders should be Muhammad’s descendants
Islam is MONOTHEISTIC and believe in the God known as Allah
The predominant Muslim language is Arabic (Middle Eastern Muslims are often referred
to as Arabs)
The Muslim holy book is known as the Qur’an
The Muslim calendar is strictly a lunar calendar
The most notable Muslim holiday is Ramadan
The Five Pillars of Islam
– Faith
– Prayer (5 times daily)
– Charity
– Fasting (Ramadan is a month of 30 days of fasting)
– Hadj – pilgrimage to Mecca
Christianity is the largest religion of the world with over 2 billion followers
Christianity is based off of the teachings of Jesus Christ
Most Christian are members of one of three major groups: Roman
Catholic, Protestant, or Eastern Orthodox
Christianity teaches the belief in one god, and regard Jesus Christ as the
son of god
Jesus died to save humanity from sin
The sign of Christianity is the Cross. The Cross symbolizes the crucifixion
of Jesus by the Romans
Christians believe that they reach salvation by following the teachings of
Jesus Christ
The book of the Christians is the Holy Bible, also known as the New
400 CE  1500 CE
The Byzantine Empire
The Byzantine Empire
• The Byzantine Empire also known as the Eastern Roman Empire began
around 330 CE
• Primary Language: Greek
• Religion: Eastern Orthodox (a branch of Christianity)
• Capital City: Constantinople
– A powerful center of trade
• The greatest Byzantine Emperor was Justinian (527 CE)
Justinian recognized that Roman law was unorganized
He gathered together a group of people to sift through ancient law and codify them
The new codified laws were known as The Justinian Code
The Justinian Code was an organized collection of Roman Laws with explanations
The new code of laws provided for a democracy and a law making process
The Justinian Code was used by modern European countries as the basis for their own
legal systems
• Justinian was also a great conqueror. His conquests included: Italy, North
Africa, Israel, and Syria
• The Byzantine Empire became too large to protect, and by the 600’s, with
the growth of Islam, parts of the Byzantine Empire fell to Arab groups
Decline of the Byzantine Empire
• By the 700’s a big portion of the Byzantine Empire fell to Muslim nations
• The Byzantine Empire was now a Greek and Christian state
• The Christian Church became known as the Eastern Orthodox Church,
and the primary language of the church was Greek (not Latin)
• The Eastern Orthodox Church, along with Byzantine Emperors, made
changes to Christianity over a span of several centuries.
• The Pope (of the Roman Catholic Church) banned the Byzantine Empire
from the church, thereby splitting Christianity
– The West: Roman Catholic Church
– The East: Eastern Orthodox Church
• By the 12th Century the Byzantine Empire expanded again, and became
Europe’s greatest center of commerce
• At the peak of the renewed Byzantine Empire, the Crusades tore through
Byzantine lands for a period of 200 years. Simultaneously, the Ottoman
Empire weakened the Byzantine through conquest of lands in the East.
• By 1453 the Byzantine Empire was taken over by the Turks and ceased
to exist
Golden Age of Islam
Rise of Islam
• Islam arose as a new religion around 610 CE
• The religion of Islam was born in the Arabian Peninsula
• According to Islamic belief, Muhammad (born in Mecca) the prophet
heard a message from god through the angel Gabriel. Muhammad was
instructed to be god’s messenger and spread the teachings of Islam
• In 656 CE, Uthman Ibn Affan, the third leader of Islam following
Muhammad, was killed.
• The death of Uthman Ibn Affan led to a split of Muslims into 2 groups:
Shiites and Sunnis (today roughly 85% of Muslims are Sunni)
The Beginning of the Golden Age
• The Golden Age of Islam lasted from 786 CE to about 1258 CE
• After Muhammad’s death, leaders of Islam, known as Caliphs, spread the
word of Islam and began a conquest that included: Syria, Egypt,
Mesopotamia and Persia,
• Harun Al Rashid, the Abbasid Caliph, was credited with beginning the
Golden Age of Islam, when he gathered scholars from various parts of the
world with different cultural backgrounds, and mandated that they
translate all of the classical works from around the world into Arabic
Islamic Contributions During The Golden Age
• ART: Arabesque – intricate floral designs used to decorate pottery,
buildings, manuscripts, and textiles
• LITERATURE: short stories, poems, translations of important works,
introduction of new writing styles and calligraphy
– Rumi, a Muslim poet, wrote poems that expressed love and devotion to his faith
– Ibn Rushd, also known as Averros, translated the works of Aristotle
– Arabian Nights (One Thousand and One Nights), a collection of Arab folk tales compiled
during the Golden Age
• ARCHITECTURE: Islamic architecture is known for archways and domes.
Famous buildings include the Alhambra, the Ummayad Palace in Spain,
and the Dome of the Rock in Jerusalem.
• SCIENCE and MATH: perhaps the biggest contribution during the Islamic
Golden Age is the development of Algebra. Arabic numerals adapted from
Hindu, and the creation of the concept of zero, made Algebra possible.
• MEDICINE: hundreds of hospitals were established during this time.
Muslim doctors contributed hundreds of books on medicine. Most notably,
Al Zawhri wrote a text on the anatomy of the human body, that was later
translated to Latin, and used as a basis for the study of anatomy for
centuries to come.
Quick Recap of Islam
Beliefs of Islam
A. Believe in one god, Allah
B. Followers are called Muslims
C. Qur’an: holy book
D. Five Pillars: religious/moral
E. Muhammad (570-632 AD)
Born in Mecca
God’s last prophet
Golden Age of Islam
A. After Muhammad: Muslim
armies conquered much of Middle
East, northern coast of Africa and
southern Europe
B. Achievements in math, science,
medicine, philosophy, art:
• Medical encyclopedias
• Improvements in math
• Calligraphy, woolen carpets,
Europe in the Middle Ages
476 CE to 1400’s CE
• The Middle Ages in Europe signifies a time when the Church
was in control of daily life of individuals
• The Church and State were at odds for much of this era
• This time period was known for its rigid class system
• The Middle Ages began when the Roman Empire collapsed
• When the Roman Empire collapsed, Europe fell into the
hands of various invaders, leaving the Church as the only
constant for many centuries
• The Franks were a Germanic speaking people
• In 768 CE the king of the Franks, Charlemagne, took control of
Western Europe, and united it for the next 50 years
• In 800 CE Charlemagne was crowned emperor of the Romans – Holy
Roman Emperor – by the Pope
• Under Charlemagne, the kingdom of Europe combined Roman,
Christian, and German elements. He was a powerful Christian ruler
• After Charlemagne’s death in 814 CE, Europe once again became
divided into small kingdoms
• The small kingdoms were attacked by the Vikings
– The Vikings destroyed towns and attacked local armies
– A new system was needed to bring about order
• The Feudal System was a way of organizing economic, political,
and military needs
• Kings gave lands to wealthy Nobles (Lords)
• Nobles gave shares of their land called Fiefs to lesser nobles
known as Vassals
• Nobles owed allegiance to the king, and Vassals owed allegiance
to the nobles
• The Feudal Contract was a set of unwritten rules between a lord
and a vassal
– Vassals were expected to follow the landowners’ rules and fight for him
– Many vassals were Knights (skilled warriors)
– Knights followed a code of conduct called Chivalry
• Feudal society was built around warfare, as Nobles needed
protection from invaders
• By 1000 CE feudalism had taken over Western Europe
Class System during Feudalism
• Manors were large, self sufficient estates with farmland, and
oftentimes entire villages
Manor House or Castle for the Lord
Village for the peasants
Forest and woods for hunting and lumber
Fields for growing crops
Grain mills to process the crops
Barn for animals
Water supply
• Manors were ruled by lords, who collected taxes and harvests
from peasants
• Peasants worked and farmed the land
• Many peasants were serfs
– Serfs were bound to the manor and were not allowed to leave
– Serfs were only permitted to leave the manor if they saved enough
money to buy their freedom and a small portion of land, or if they
managed to escape and survive for a year and a day
– Serfs could only get married with permission of the lord
The Manor
Quick Recap of Middle Ages in Europe
1) When?
-476 CE to 1400’s
-Occurred after the collapse of
Roman Empire and before the
2) Feudalism:
Political system where kings
gave away land to nobles in
return for their service
Nobles were called Knights
and followed Chivalry (code
of behavior)
Decentralized political
system (kings gave away
their power to nobles)
Land = power
3) Manorialism:
– Manors were land owned by
– On a manor: homes, farmland,
church, fields, serfs (peasants)
– Manors were self sufficient
4) Religion:
– Roman Catholic Church
(Pope) =influential and
Tang, Song, and Ming Dynasties
Tang Dynasty
In the 600’s Tang Taizong, a young general, came to power and united China.
The Tang Dynasty ruled from 618 to 907
Vast empire with capital in Xian
Tang rulers forced Vietnam, Korea, and Tibet to become tributary states (these
states remained independent, but acknowledged China’s power and sent
tribute/payment to the Chinese empire)
– Strict class system: gentry, peasantry, merchants
– Reinstituted civil service exams from the Han Dynasty
– Government corruption, drought, and rebellion contributed to the collapse of the Tang
Dynasty in 907.
Song Dynasty
– In 960 a scholarly general named Zhao Kuangyun reunited China and formed the
Song Dynasty.
– China prospered under the Song Dynasty, but was weakened by constant invaders.
– Strict class system: gentry, peasantry, merchants
– The Song Dynasty was conquered by the Mongols in 1279.
Both the Tang and Song dynasties were known for short stories and poetry.
Under Song dynasty landscape painting and calligraphy flourished.
Chinese architects created the pagoda: temple with a roof that curves upward
Chinese became experts at creating porcelain, something they are still known for
– Key Achievements: gun powder, compass, block printing, porcelain
• Ming Dynasty (1368-1644)
– Ming “brilliant” Dynasty
– Founded by Emperor Hongwu, who restored native rule back in
China (Chinese ruling in China).
– Mandarins, Chinese officials, traveled throughout China to oversee
the implementation of government policies.
– Under the Ming Dynasty, the Mongol Empire was ousted from China.
– Trade flourished and expanded to Southeast Asia and Africa.
– Trade was conducted using the Silk Road (see next slide)
– Respect for traditional Chinese values: Confucianism, imperial
academies, civil service exams.
– Early Ming rule was robust and helped stabilize and strengthen
– During Ming rule the Great Wall of China was restored and rebuilt.
– Zheng He was a famous Chinese Explorer during the Ming Dynasty.
Quick Recap: (Golden
Age of China 600-1200’s)
Early Japanese History
A) Located in East Asia and is
an archipelago- A country
that consists of a group of
II. Religion
A) Shinto: living and nonliving things in nature have
a spirit (like Animism)
B) Buddhism
B) A long and irregular
C) Made up mostly of
mountains, which has
made farming difficult.
1) Terrace Farming- needs to
dig and carve flat areas
(called terraces) into the
sides of mountains
III. Influence of China
Through Cultural Diffusion
Japan received:
1) Writing
2) Buddhism
3) Cultivating Tea
IV. Japanese Feudalism
1) Emperor and Shogun- the
2) Daimyo- wealthy nobles who
were given land in return for
loyalty and military service
3) Samurai- warriors of
Japanese society
– Code of behavior called
Bushido (which required
the samurai to be loyal to
the Daimyo and to fight)
African Civilizations
A) Geography
1) Deserts (i.e.- the Sahara Desert), savanna (grasslands), and
2) Due to its diverse geographic features, Africa is a very diverse
continent with many different cultures
B) Religion: Animism
C) Bantu Migrations (500 BC- 1500 AD)
largest migrations (movements) of people in history
Bantu people spread: The Bantu language, Iron technology and
Agricultural (farming) techniques
II. West African Civilizations
A) Wealthy famous civilizations:
1) Ghana
2) Mali
3) Songhai
**located along the Trans-Saharan trade routes and participated in the
Gold-Salt trade
B) Mansa Musa- He was the most famous ruler of Mali.
• Devoted Muslim who helped spread Islam
• Made pilgrimage to Mecca in Saudi Arabia
• Turned the city of Timbuktu into a center of trade and Islamic
The Mongol Empire
– Mongols were nomadic herders who roamed the grassland with their horses and sheep.
– The Mongols were fierce fighters and raided cities.
– Under the leadership of Ghengis Khan the Mongols built the largest empire in the world.
Ghengis Khan
Birth name: Temujin
Birth location: Central Asia
Birth time: 1100’s
Experienced difficult boyhood, became a courageous warrior, and skilled leader.
As ruler of the Mongols he earned the title Ghengis Khan which means World Emperor.
Mongol Empire
– Under Ghengis Khan the Mongols ruled from Korea (East) to the Caspian Sea (West).
– The Mongols advanced into Persia, India, and Northern China
– Reasons for Mongol success: skilled warriors, borrowed military technology from Chinese and
Turks which included cannons.
– The Mongols reached Eastern Europe in their expansion, and after Ghengis Khan they
attacked Russia, Hungary, and Poland
Kublai Khan
– In 1279 the grandson of Ghengis Khan, Kublai Khan, completed the job of conquering China.
– Kublai Khan ruled China, Tibet, Korea, and parts of Vietnam
Yuan Dynasty
– Under Kublai Khan the Mongols adopted the Chinese name for the empire and called it the
Yuan Dynasty.
Mongol Impact
– Mongols spread terror and destruction throughout the regions they conquered.
– Despite brutality in war, Mongol leaders ruled with tolerance.
– Ghengis Khan respected academics, and artists. He listened to the ideas of scholars of
different religions.
– The Mongols ruled Russia for about 250 years. The absolute power practiced by Mongol
rulers served as a blueprint for future Russian rulers. During the Mongol rule in Russia they
cut off Russia from Western Europe. This led to isolationism, and deprived Russia from
advancing in arts and sciences.
Pax Mongolia
– During Mongol rule there was political stability throughout Asia. This period was known as Pax
– Pax Mongolia allowed for exchange of goods and ideas between the East and the West.
– Silk Road: before the Mongols, the silk road which provided a trade route that linked China to
the Middle East, was a dangerous trade route. Under the Mongols this trade route was safe,
and as a result trade flourished.
E. Marco Polo
• Italian merchant who visited the Mongols in
• Marco wrote down extensive information
about his experiences in China with the
• These writings are valuable primary sources
that teach us about China during this period.
• They increased the desire of Europeans to
trade with China to obtain valuable goods.
Transformation of Western
I. Black Death (i.e. Bubonic Plague)
A. Disease that killed 25 million people in Europe (almost
1/3 of the population) during the late Middle Ages
B. The disease started in East Asia and spread to Europe
over trade routes such as the Silk Road
C. It caused Depopulation (The population of Europe
decreased from 85 million to 60 million), decline of
Feudalism (serfs fled from manors for better
opportunities) and trade temporarily decreased
II. The Renaissance (1400-1600)
• The Golden Age of Western
Europe which began in Italy
• Studied art and books from
ancient Greece and Rome.
• Humanism- There was a focus
on humans and life on earth
instead of on God and Heaven.
• Famous artists of the
Renaissance: Donatello,
Leonardo da Vinci,
Michelangelo, and Raphael
Niccolo Machiavelli- Famous
author of “The Prince,” which
is a guide for government
1) Rulers must have absolute
power and do whatever is
necessary to stay in power
2) “The end justifies the
means”- Leaders must do
whatever is necessary to
help their nation.
III. The Protestant Reformation
A. A religious revolution that challenged the Catholic Church and
led to the further division of Christianity
B. Europeans were angry that the Catholic Church was too
concerned with worldly issues (i.e.- money and power) and
about indulgences- reductions in punishment that were sold by
the Church
C. The power of the Catholic Church (and the Pope) decreased
D. The power of monarchs increased
E. Religious unity in Europe came to an end
Key leaders of the Protestant
1) Martin Luther- German monk who created the 95 Thesis,
which were 95 arguments against the sale of
2) Henry VIII- King of England who separated from the
Catholic Church because he wanted a divorce from his
wife and the Catholic Church would not allow it.
3) John Calvin- Swiss reformer who believed in
predestination, which is the idea that God already knows
who will be punished and who will be saved (i.e.- sent to
IV. The Printing Press
A.Invented by Johannes Gutenberg.
B.The printing press was important for spreading
new ideas quickly.
C.It helped spread the Protestant Reformation
D.It increased literacy (the ability of people to read
and write)
Pre-Columbian Civilizations of
America (c. 300-1500s AD)
A. Societies that developed in the Americas
before the arrival of the Europeans.
B. Maya, the Aztec, and the Inca.
C. They were all very organized, developed,
and advanced civilizations.
The Maya
Lowland region of
Mesoamerica (Mexico and
Central America).
•They developed a calendar
and a form of writing.
Other Facts
•Math- They invented the use
of zero in math (like the
Gupta of India).
The Aztec
Mesoamerica (Mexico)
Tenochtitlan- Capital city of
the Aztec Empire
The Incas
Andes Mountains of Peru (in
South America)
• They used a calendar and a
form of writing.
Conquered by Hernan Cortez
in 1521.
•Chinampas- These were
“floating gardens” that the
Aztecs built in lakes in order
to farm since there was a
shortage of fertile land.
•developed a vast (large
network of roads and
footbridges in the Andes
Conquered by Francisco
Pizarro in 1532.
•Terrace Farming (like the
**Aztec and Incas used creative agricultural techniques (chinampas and
terrace farming) in order to adapt to their geographic environments
I. Age of Exploration and Encounter
Period in history when the Europeans began
sea voyages of exploration. During this
period, Europeans reached the Americas
and began to colonize (take over) areas in
the Americas, Africa, and Asia.
1) Europeans wanted greater access to the spices
and other products of Asia.
2) Europeans wanted to find sea routes to Asia
since land routes were controlled by Muslims.
3) Improvements in navigational (sailing)
technology made long sea voyages possible.
(i.e. the compass and astrolabe, cartography
(the science of making maps), and the lateen
sail for ships.
B. Key Explorers include:
1) Bartholomeu Dias- First explorer to round the
Cape of Good Hope (southern tip of Africa).
2) Vasco da Gama- First explorer to reach India by
going around Cape of Good Hope.
3) Christopher Columbus- First explorer to reach
the America
4) Ferdinand Magellan- First explorer to
circumnavigate (sail around) the globe.
C. Effects of the Age of Exploration:
1) The Americas:
a) The Spanish and Portuguese colonized land in the
b) Encomienda System- A labor system in which the
Native Americans were forced to work on Spanish
farming plantations (growing sugar) and in Spanish
mines (getting gold and silver). Spanish landowners
had total control over the Native Americans.
c) Millions of Native Americans died due to the diseases
(such as smallpox) brought over by the Europeans.
2) Africa
a) Europeans took slaves from Africa to the Americas to
work on farming plantations.
b) The voyage of slaves from Africa to the Americas
was called the Middle Passage.
3) Mercantilism
a) Mercantilism is the idea that colonies exist only to
make the Mother Country (i.e.-Spain and Portugal)
b) Spain and Portugal tightly controlled trade with their
colonies in the Americas in order to make money.
Europeans would take raw materials (like cotton) from
their American colonies and sell finished products
(like clothing) back to the colonies.
4) Triangular Trade- trade route taken by
Europeans in the Atlantic Ocean. Europeans
traveled to Africa to get slaves, brought the
slaves to their colonies in the Americas, and
then returned to Europe with goods from the
5) Columbian Exchange- exchange of people,
plants, animals, ideas and technology between
the “Old World” (Europe) and the “New World”
(North and South America)
a) Items sent from Europe to the Americas include:
Wheat, sugar, bananas, horses, chickens and
diseases (like smallpox and measles).
b) Items sent from the Americas to Europe include:
Maize (corn), potatoes, beans, squash, chili peppers,
cocoa, and tobacco.
c) The Columbian Exchange is the ultimate example of
cultural diffusion (the exchange of goods and ideas
between civilizations).
II. Commercial Revolution
A) New forms of business:
1) Joint-stock companies- Investors would
combine money to help pay for trading
2) The expansion (growth) of banking.
3) Capitalism- Form of business in which profits
from one project are reinvested in other
projects in order to make more money.
The Travelers of Global I
1) Marco Polo- Italian merchant who traveled to China (over the Silk
Road) when it was ruled by the Mongols.
2) Ibn Battuta- Arab/Muslim explorer who traveled a total of 75,000
miles and visited lands in Africa, Asia, and Europe.
3) Zheng He- Chinese explorer of the Ming Dynasty who sailed the
Indian and Pacific Oceans to lands that included Southeast Asia,
India, the western coast of Africa.
• They wrote extensively about their travels, which are valuable
primary sources that teach us about lands that they visited.
• The contacts they made with other lands helped stimulate trade
between different regions of the world.
Part II
Age of Absolutism
A. Absolute Monarchy: Kings who had total control
over the nations that they ruled and their power was
B. Divine Right: Kings received their power to rule
directly from God.
C. Centralized political control: Did not share
power with anyone else.
D. Absolute Monarchs
1) Peter the Great- Absolute monarch of Russia. He also
westernized Russia.
2) Louis XIV- Absolute monarch of France.
3) Philip II- Absolute monarch of Spain.
4) Henry VIII- Absolute monarch of England.
5) Suleiman the Magnificent- Absolute monarch of the
Ottoman Empire.
*Peter the Great, Louis XIV, and Suleiman the Magnificent
helped expand territory by conquering neighboring
Intellectual Revolutions of
I. Scientific Revolution: 1500-1600s:
A) Science and reason (logic) were used to explain how the
world worked. People no longer turned only to the Bible and
the Catholic Church for answers.
B) Key people of the Scientific Revolution:
1) Copernicus- Astronomer who developed the Heliocentric
Theory- The idea that the planets revolve around the sun.
2) Galileo Galilei- Astronomer who proved that Copernicus was
correct. He was put on trial by the Catholic Church because his
ideas contradicted its teachings.
3) Sir Isaac Newton- Mathematician and
astronomer who developed calculus and the
theory of gravity.
4) Johannes Kepler- Astronomer who helped
discover how planets move.
5) Descartes- Mathematician, scientist, and
C. Key effects of the Scientific Revolution:
1) It resulted in the spread of new ideas
throughout Europe.
2) It challenged the traditional authority of the
Catholic Church since European scientists
proved that many Church teachings were
3) The new ideas of this period directly led to
the Enlightenment
II. The Enlightment
“Age of Reason”
A) Key Ideas of the Enlightenment:
1) Enlightenment philosophers believed that society
could be improved by using reason (logic) and
natural law (universal rules that are always true).
2) Enlightenment philosophers believed that
governments receive their authority from the people
(NOT from God).
3) Enlightenment philosophers believed in democracy
*the Scientific Revolution and the Enlightenment both
encouraged the spread of new ideas and the use of
B) Key People of the Enlightenment:
1) John Locke- He believed that all people have natural rights (the right
to life, liberty, and property). He also said that people have the right
to overthrow governments that fail to protect these rights.
2) Baron de Montesquieu- Power in government should be divided into
three branches (executive, legislative, judicial) so that there is a
separation of powers and a system of checks and balances.
3) Voltaire- He believed that everyone is entitled to freedom of speech
and freedom of religion
4) Rousseau- He believed that society is a social contract (an
agreement in which all people agree to work for the common good
of society).
C) Key Effects of the Enlightenment:
The Enlightenment helped cause political revolutions
in France, Latin America, and the United States
Enlightened Despots- European kings and queens
who believed in Enlightenment ideas and ruled using
Enlightenment principles.
Political Revolutions
I. English or Glorious Revolutions
1) England’s government became a limited (or constitutional)
monarchy- This is a form of government in which the power of
monarchs (kings) is limited by written laws.
2) Laws that each limited the power of the English king:
a) The Magna Carta
b) The Petition of Right
c) The English Bill of Rights
d) Habeas Corpus
NOTE: English kings had to share power with Parliament (the lawmaking
body of the English government that represents the people).
II. French Revolution: 1789-1815
A) France overthrew their king (Louis XVI) and
fought for more rights.
B) Causes of the French Revolution:
1) The peasants of the Third Estate were angry
that they had very few rights and paid the
highest taxes
2) France was ruled by absolute monarchs who
abused their power and denied the rights of the
3) The ideas of the Enlightenment inspired the
French people to overthrow their unfair kings
and to create a new government
4) France was in an economic crisis- The kings
spent too much money and put France in debt.
C) Key Events of the French Revolution:
1) Declaration of the Rights of Man- A document
written that gave equal rights to the men of
France and created a fair system of taxation.
2) Reign of Terror- The leaders executed
thousands of people that they believed were
loyal to the king.
– The Jacobins were the radical (extreme) group
leading this event and Robespierre was the leader of
the Jacobins.
D) Key Effects of the French
1) King Louis XVI of France was executed
by Robespierre and the Jacobins.
2) The middle class of France gained more
power and rights.
E) Napoleon Bonaparte
1) Napoleon Bonaparte was the ruler who came to power at the
end of the French Revolution.
2) He expanded French territory by conquering neighboring
lands in Europe.
– He made French people feel nationalism (pride in their
3) Napoleon was defeated in 1812 because he made a big
– He invaded Russia during the winter and the freezing
climate of Russia killed thousands of his soldiers.
III. Latin America Revolution
A. The colonies of Latin America (Central America,
South America, and the Caribbean) fought to gain
independence (self-government) from Spain,
Portugal, and France.
B. After gaining independence, attempts were made
to unify Latin America in order to form one
country. These attempts failed because Latin
America has many natural boundaries (i.e.Andes Mountains, Amazon Rainforest, etc.).
C) Key causes of the Latin American
1) The governments of Latin America were controlled by
Peninsulares (people born in Spain and Portugal) who
treated the people poorly.
Creoles (Europeans born in Latin America), Mestizos (mixed
Europeans/Native Americans), Native Americans, and African
slaves demanded more rights.
2) The ideas of the Enlightenment inspired the Latin
Americans to fight for independence and overthrow their
unfair governments.
3) The American Revolution and the French Revolution
inspired them
D) Leaders that helped gain independence (selfgovernment) for the colonies of Latin America:
1) Simon Bolivar
2) Jose de San Martin
3) Miguel Hidalgo
4) Toussaint L’Ouverture
• All of these men are considered nationalists
since they loved their nations and wanted to free
them from European control.
The Industrial Revolution
I. The Industrial Revolution
A) The Industrial Revolution was the change
from producing goods by hand to
producing goods with machines in
B) Began in Great Britain because it had
many natural resources (i.e.- coal, iron, tin,
lead, waterways) that are necessary to
produce and transport goods.
C) Key effects of the Industrial
1) Industrialization- Machines were used to
produce goods in factories.
2) Urbanization- The growth of cities. People came
to urban (city) areas to get jobs in factories.
3) Bad working conditions- long hours and low
pay. Child labor as well.
4) Formation of Labor Unions- Workers formed
organizations of workers that fought to improve
the pay and working conditions of workers.
5) Legislation- Governments eventually passed
laws to set minimum wage and end child labor.
D) Laissez Faire Capitalism
(Market Economy)
• This was the economic system that was
used during the Industrial Revolution:
1) Businesses and factories should be owned
by individuals (NOT the government)
2) Business decisions should be made by
Individuals (the government should NOT
3) Prices should be set by individuals (NOT the
government) based on supply and demand.
E) Karl Marx & Friedrich Engels
1) Did not believe in market economy
2) “Communist Manifesto”
a) All of history has been about class struggles (“Haves” vs. “Have-Nots”).
b) During the Industrial Revolution, wealthy and greedy factory owners
(Bourgeoisie) were taking advantage of the poor factory workers (the
Proletariat) to earn money.
c) The Proletariat should rise up, overthrow the bourgeoisie in a violent
revolution, and eliminate laissez faire capitalism.
d) The Proletariat could then create a new kind of society where work and
wealth was shared equally be everyone (and where social classes no
longer existed).
3) Ideas became the foundation of Communism
I. Nationalism
• Feeling of love, loyalty, and devotion to
one’s country
• Nationalism usually develops in areas
where people share a common language,
culture, and history.
II. Unification of Italy and Germany
A. Due to feelings of nationalism, Italy and Germany
wanted to combine their respective separate states to
form one united nation with one government.
B. 2) Unification of Italy (1870) because of:
A. Giuseppe Garibaldi
B. Giuseppe Mazzini
C. Count Camillo di Cavour
C. 3) Unification of Germany (1871) because of:
A. Otto von Bizmarck- He used a “blood and iron”
policy (3 wars) to unify German lands.
III. Nationalism of Austria-Hungry
and the Ottoman Empire
A) Austria-Hungary and the Ottoman Empire were
both large empires that ruled over many diverse
ethnic groups.
B) Due to feelings of nationalism, the ethnic
minorities of these lands wanted to gain
independence (self-government) and form their
own nations.
C) Austria-Hungary and the Ottoman Empire were
eventually broken up due to nationalist
movements by these different ethnic groups.
IV. Nationalism in Ireland
(Potato Famine)
A) In 1801, Great Britain took over Ireland.
B) Potato Famine
1) 1845-1850- About 1 million Irish people died of famine when the
potato crop failed to grow
2) Over 1 million Irish people migrated to the United States to
escape the famine
C) Nationalism
1) Due to feelings of nationalism, many people in Ireland did not
wanted independence from Great Britain
2) 1921- Southern Ireland (mostly Catholic) gained independence
from Great Britain. Northern Ireland (mostly Protestant) remained
part of Great Britain.
I. Imperialism
A) Imperialism/colonization is when a
strong country conquers and takes
over a weaker country.
B) During the 19th century (1800s),
many European nations such as
Great Britain, France, Germany,
and Italy took over lands
throughout Africa and Asia.
C) Causes of imperialism:
1) Europeans wanted raw
materials/natural resources (like
coal, tin, iron) for factories
2) “White Man’s Burden”- This was
a racist poem that encouraged
Europeans to civilize the people
that they took over by teaching
them European customs and
religious beliefs (like Christianity).
3) Social Darwinism- This was the
idea that it was natural for strong
countries to take over weaker
II. Imperialism in India, China, and
• “Scramble for Africa”- Over 90% of Africa was taken over by
European countries that scrambled to take over the continent.
Opium Wars: After the British began smuggling opium into China,
the Chinese fought back in the famous Opium Wars.
– After being defeated, China was carved up into spheres of influence
(areas where trade was controlled by different European nations).
• Sepoy Mutiny- Rebellion in which India tried (but failed) to gain
independence from Great Britain (England).
• Boxer Rebellion- Rebellion in which China tried (but failed) to gain
independence from the various European (Western) nations that
controlled them.
III. Imperialism in Japan
A) (1854) Commodore Matthew
Perry of the United States
opened up the country to
B) Meiji Restoration (1868-1912)
1) This is the period in
Japanese history when
Japan was ruled by
Emperor Meiji.
2) Modernization- Japan
industrialized (built
factories, machines, roads,
3) Westernization- Japan adopted
the customs and techniques of
Western countries. Japan
changed its government,
military, education system, and
technology to make it similar.
D) Japan became a powerful and
modern industrial country.
E) Since Japan had very few
natural resources of its own,
Japan took over Korea and part
of China to gain these
World War I
A) Causes (M.A.I.N.)
1) Militarism- Countries in Europe (especially Germany and Britain)
built up their armies
2) Alliances- Countries in Europe divided themselves into two military
alliances (the Triple Alliance and Triple Entente) in order to prepare
for war.
3) Imperialism- Countries in Europe competed with each other to take
over lands in Africa, Asia, and the Balkans (Southeastern Europe).
4) Nationalism- Ethnic groups in the Balkans (Southeastern Europe)
wanted to gain independence from Austria-Hungary and they were
willing to fight for it.
5) World War I started when Archduke Ferdinand (the heir to the throne
of Austria-Hungary) was assassinated by Slavic nationalists in the
B) Treaty of Versailles
• This was the Treaty that ended World War I.
• Punished Germany in a number of ways:
1) Germany was forced to accept blame (guilt) for
causing World War I.
2) 30 billion dollars in war reparations (money for
damages caused during the war).
3) Germany had to reduce the size of its military.
4) Germany was forced to give up some of its lands.
C) Effects of WWI
1) Austria-Hungary and the Ottoman Empire were broken
apart and the land was used to create new nations in
Eastern Europe (such as Czechoslovakia and
2) Armenian Massacre- During World War I, the Turks of
the Ottoman Empire attempted to kill all of the
Armenians that lived in their territory
– Genocide- the attempted extermination of an entire
ethnic group.
3) Women in Europe eventually gained suffrage (the right
to vote) since they had helped out during World War I by
working in factories.
Russian (/Bolshevik) Revolution
A) Causes:
1)World War I- Russia suffered many
casualties (injuries and death) in the war
as well as food shortages at home
2)Czar Nicholas II- The ruler of Russia at
the time, who abused power
B) Bolsheviks
1) This was the radical (extreme) group that
was leading the Russian Revolution.
2) Vladimir Lenin-leader of Bolsheviks
3) Lenin and the Bolsheviks promised to
provide them with “Peace, Land, and
C) Effects
1) Czar Nicholas II was executed.
2) Lenin and the Bolsheviks came to power
in Russia.
3) Russia became a Communist nation.
Nationalism Between World
A) Turkey (Kemal Ataturk)
1) After World War I, the Ottoman Empire was broken
apart. All that remained of Ottoman lands was the
country of Turkey.
2) Kemal Ataturk- He was the first president of Turkey. He
is considered a nationalist because he made many
changes in order to strengthen Turkey:
a) Westernization- He imitated the customs and traditions of
European countries
b) Democracy- He helped establish democracy in Turkey
c) Many Muslims resented Kemal Ataturk since he eliminated
Islamic laws and created secular (non-religious) laws.
B) Zionism
1) Zionism is the name for the nationalist
movement of Jews.
2) The goal of Zionists after World War I was
to create an official nation for Jews in the
Holy Land
3) Jews and Palestinians were fighting for
the same territory.
C) India (Mohandas Gandhi)
1) After World War I, India began to increase its
demands for independence (self-government).
2) Mohandas Gandhi
a) Famous nationalist leader of India who fought for
independence from Britain using non-violent methods
(also called civil disobedience or passive resistance).
b) Salt March- Famous event where Gandhi protested
British taxes on salt by leading a peaceful march to
the sea to make his own salt.
c) Used Boycott methods
I. Totalitarianism Between World
A) Totalitarian dictatorships are when one ruler has
complete control over ALL aspects of life within a
B) After World War I, totalitarian dictatorships were
established in 3 countries under 3 men:
1) The Soviet Union under Joseph Stalin.
2) Italy under Benito Mussolini.
3) Germany under Adolf Hitler.
*Hitler and Mussolini were able to come to power because
Germany and Italy were facing severe economic
C) Characteristics
1) Censorship
They ended freedom of speech in their countries. The
governments strictly controlled the media (i.e.- newspapers,
radio, and television)
2) One political party
Stalin’s political party = Communists.
Mussolini’s political party = Fascists.
Hitler’s political party = Nazis.
3) People were expected to put the needs of the state
before their own
4) They eliminated opposition by using a secret police
5) They used propaganda- Messages that were meant to
influence the way people thought.
D) Joseph Stalin
1) Command Economy: An economic system
where the government (instead of individuals)
owns businesses, makes business decisions,
and sets prices.
2) Five-Year Plans- Stalin tried to modernize the
industry (factories) and agriculture (farms) of the
Soviet Union by setting economic goals every
five years.
3) Collectivization- Stalin took over the individual
farms that people owned and forced people to
live on large government farms (called collective
farms) that were owned by the government.
I. Events leading to WWII
A. Japanese Aggression:
Japan took over Korea,
Manchuria (northeastern
China), and much of
Southeast Asia in order to
gain natural resources/raw
materials (like coal and iron).
Rape of Nanking- Brutal
event in which the Japanese
raped and killed Chinese
Italian Aggression- Benito
Mussolini of Italy invaded and
took over Ethiopia
C. German Aggression- Adolf
Hitler violated the Treaty of
Versailles by:
A. He built up the German
military and drafted soldiers
into the army.
B. He placed soldiers in the
Rhineland (an area between
Germany and France).
C. He took over the neighboring
country of Austria.
D. He took over the neighboring
country of Czechoslovakia.
D. The League of Nations was an international organization
created after World War I in order to prevent war. It
failed to stop Hitler, Mussolini, or Japan from being
E. Appeasement- An aggressive nation is given what they
want by other nations in order to avoid war.
– At the Munich Conference in Germany, Great Britain appeased
Hitler by giving him control over Czechoslovakia. This led Hitler
to demand even more land.
NOTE: World War II started when Hitler invaded Poland
in 1939. Three days later, Britain and France declared
war on Germany.
II. Key Events of WWII
Invasion of Poland- This
event started WWII.
B) Pearl Harbor- Japan launched
a surprise attack against the
United States. This event
brought US into World War
C) **Hitler failed to conquer
Russia (the Soviet Union) at
the Battle of Stalingrad
because of the harsh climate
and large size of the nation.
D) D-Day Invasion- This was the
beginning of the final Allied
push against Germany. It
resulted in the eventual
defeat of Germany.
E) Atomic bombing of Hiroshima
and Nagasaki- This was the
final event of World War II. The
U.S. dropped two atomic
bombs on Japan. Japan
surrendered soon after.
F) The Holocaust
1) Hitler and the Nazis tried to kill
all Jews in Europe. 6 million
Jews and 6 million non-Jews
were killed during this event
2) The Holocaust is an example
of genocide
III. Effects of WWII
A) Formation of the United Nations
1) Organization that was created after World War II in order to
solve international problems (like poverty and disease) and
prevent future wars.
2) 191 nations
3) Made up of 6 main bodies. 4 of them are:
a) The Security Council
b) International Court of Justice
c) General Assembly
d) Secretariat
4) Declaration of Human Rights- lists the rights that ALL people
should have within their nations (right to freedom of speech, the
right to life, and the right to participate in government)
B) Nuremberg Trials
1) The court case where the surviving Nazis who
helped Hitler carry out the Holocaust were put on
2) 19 Nazi leaders were executed or sentenced to
imprisonment as a result of “crimes against
humanity” (i.e.- genocide).
3) The Nuremberg Trials are important because they
demonstrated that individuals in government could
be held accountable (responsible) for their actions.
Cold War
A. Fifty year struggle between the United
States (a democratic nation) and the
Soviet Union (a communist nation) after
World War II.
B. It is called a “cold” war because the
United States and the Soviet Union never
directly fought each other.
C. Iron Curtain: This was a term used by
Winston Churchill to describe the imaginary line
dividing the democratic countries of Western
Europe from the communist countries of
Eastern Europe.
D. Containment: This was the policy used by
the United States in which it attempted to stop
the spread of communism.
1. Truman Doctrine
2. Marshall Plan
E. Crisis in Germany
• After World War II, Germany was divided into 2 nations.
– West Germany became, a democratic nation.
– East Germany became a communist nation controlled by the
Soviet Union.
• Berlin Wall=Concrete wall built by the Communists
around the city of West Berlin to prevent people in East
Germany from fleeing to West Germany.
• Berlin Airlift= Event in which the United States, Britain,
and France flew in supplies to the people of West Berlin
after Stalin set up a blockade.
F. Military Alliances
• Both the United States and Soviet Union
formed their own military alliances
a) NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organization)This was a military alliance between the
United States, Canada, and the democratic
nations of Western Europe.
b) Warsaw Pact- This was a military alliance
between the Soviet Union and the other
Communist nations of Eastern Europe.
G. Arms Race- The United States and Soviet
Union competed to build up the largest supply
of nuclear weapons.
H. Cuban Missile Crisis
a) United States discovered that the Soviet
Union was building missile bases in Cuba
b) The crisis ended when the Soviet Union
agreed to remove the missiles.
c) This event is the closest the world has ever
come to nuclear war between countries.
I. Korean War & Vietnam War
1. Korea and Vietnam (two nations in East Asia)
were each divided into 2 separate countries.
One side of each country became communist
and the other side became democratic.
2. The Korean War and the Vietnam War were the
result of this situation.
3. Today, North Korea is still communist and
South Korea is still democratic.
4. After the Vietnam War, all of Vietnam became
one united communist nation.
Economic Issues after WWII
I. Economic Cooperation and
1) European Union (E.U.): organization includes 27
countries in Europe. They have decreased tariffs
(taxes) and use a single form of currency called
“The Euro.”
2) North American Free Trade Agreement
(N.A.F.T.A.): organization that includes the United
States, Canada, and Mexico. By decreasing tariffs
this organization has increased trade between the 3
main countries of North America.
II. Oil Politics
A. World’s most important natural resources
B. Located mainly in the Middle East
C. Organization of Petroleum Exporting
Countries (O.P.E.C.)
– The members determine the price of oil
as well as production levels
Communism in China
Terms to remember:
1.Mao Zedong
2.Great Leap Forward
3.Cultural Revolution
4.Deng Xiaoping
5.Tiananmen Square Protests
A) Mao Zedong
1) He was the first Communist dictator of
2) He gained the support of peasants
because he promised to provide them
with their own land
B) Great Leap Forward
1. This was the attempt by Mao to modernize (update) the
industrial (factory) and agricultural (farm) production of China.
2. Peasants in China were forced to move onto large government
3. This program was very similar to the Five Year Plans and
Collectivization that took place in the Soviet Union under
Joseph Stalin.
4. Both Mao and Stalin had a command economy in which the
government owned businesses and farms and made all
economic decisions.
C) Cultural Revolution
This was a period in China where Mao used
violent young Communist soldiers (known
as Red Guards) to eliminate all of the
opposition that he had within China.
D) Deng Xiaoping
1) He was the ruler in China after Mao Zedong.
2) Deng changed the economy of China from a
command/communist economy (in which the
government owns businesses) to a
market/capitalist/free enterprise economy (in
which individuals own businesses).
3) This is the system that is largely used in China
E) Tiananmen Square
Protests/Massacre (1989)
1. This was a series of protests where the
Chinese peacefully demanded
democratic reforms
2. Deng Xiaoping called in the army to
repress the protests. Hundreds of
Chinese protesters were killed or
3. This proved that China’s government
was not willing to make democratic
F) Current issues in China
1) China controls the Buddhist region of
Tibet who want independence
2) China denies its people human rights
(i.e. freedom of speech, the right to vote).
3) Each family is only allowed to have one
child in order to prevent overpopulation.
Decolonization in India
Decolonization in Africa
Decolonization in Southeast Asia
Nationalist Leaders
I. Decolonization in India
A) After World War II, India gained
independence from Great Britain
C) India after independence:
1) democratic government.
B) In order to prevent conflict between
Hindus and Muslims, the region that
was controlled by Great Britain was
divided into two separate countries:
1) India- Nation created for the Hindus of
the region.
2) Pakistan- Nation created for the
Muslims of the region.
3) There is still ethnic tension between
Hindus and Muslims in the region.
4) Kashmir is an area near India and
Pakistan that both nations claim to
control. The situation is dangerous
since both India and Pakistan have
nuclear weapons.
2) a policy of nonalignment (or neutrality)
during the Cold War
3) Caste System- there continues to be
discrimination in rural (farming) areas
II. Decolonization in Africa
A) Independence was achieved due to the efforts
of nationalist leaders. Two leaders that fought to
gain independence from Great Britain include:
1) Jomo Kenyatta- Gained independence for
2) Kwame Nkrumah- Gained independence for
B) South Africa after independence:
Europeans still controlled the government of South Africa and
established the racist system known as apartheid.
1. Apartheid (1948-1990): the system of racial segregation. Black
South Africans were required to use separate bathrooms,
attend separate schools, carry identification passbooks, and
even go to separate beaches.
1. Nelson Mandela: Black South African nationalist leader who
fought against Apartheid. He was imprisoned for 27 years by
the white South African government. Nelson Mandela became
the first black president of South Africa after apartheid officially
came to an end in 1990.
D) Rwanda after independence:
1) 1990: Serious ethnic conflict between two groups in
the African nation of Rwanda:
• the Hutus and the Tutsis
2) 1994: The Hutus slaughtered 800,000 Tutsis in only
a few months. This was genocide and a major human
rights violation.
III. Decolonization in Southeast
A) Between 1953 and 1954,
Cambodia and Vietnam both
gained independence from
B) Ho Chi Minh- Nationalist leader
who led an 8-year war against
France to gain independence
for Vietnam.
C) Vietnam after independence:
1)Vietnam was divided into 2
countries: communist North
Vietnam and democratic South
2) After the Vietnam War, all of
Vietnam was reunited to form one
communist nation
D) Cambodia after independence:
1) Cambodia was ruled by the
Khmer Rouge.
2) Pol Pot
a) Leader of the Khmer Rouge and ruler of
Cambodia from 1976-1979.
b) He was a brutal dictator who denied his
people of human rights.
c) Genocide- Pol Pot executed 2 million
people within his nation
IV. Nationalist Leaders
A) These are nationalist leaders since they
were loyal and devoted to their nation.
– Mohandas Gandhi
– Kwame Nkrumah
– Jomo Kenyatta
– Nelson Mandela
– Ho Chi Minh.
Middle East after World War II
I. Creation of Israel
A. After World War II, part of the Holy Land was
used to create the Jewish nation of Israel.
B. Palestinians claim that they should have
control over the region since they have lived
there for hundreds of years.
C. Between 1948 and 1973, 4 major wars were
fought between Israel and the Arab nations
of the Middle East. Israel won each war.
D. Palestinians are still fighting to gain control
of the Holy Land and frequently use
II. Islamic Fundamentalism
A) Islamic Fundamentalism
• Gvts should create societies that are based firmly
on the rules of Islam.
• Iran and Afghanistan
B) Iranian Revolution (1979)
• Ayatollah Khomeini (an Islamic religious leader)
came to power
• Iran is a theocracy- A country that is ruled by
religious leaders.
C) Taliban
• Ruled Afghanistan from 1996-2001.
• Laws that were strictly based on Sharia (Islamic
Collapse of Communism
I. Soviet Union:
Mikhail Gorbachev
A. Soviet leader who helped bring an end to Communism in the
Soviet Union
B. Perestroikaa
• Program in which he changed the economy from a
communist economy to a market economy
C. Glasnost
• Program where he allowed freedom of speech
• It was a major step towards democracy in the Soviet Union
2. Boris Yeltsin
• He was the first democratically elected president in the history
of Russia
II. Germany:
A. Germany had been divided into two nations:
– West Germany (a democratic country)
– East Germany (a communist country controlled by the Soviet
B. 1989: The Berlin Wall (the symbol of the Cold War) was finally torn
– This symbolized the end of the Cold War and the end of
C. 1990: West and East Germany were reunited to form one
democratic country.
Human Rights
1. Genocide
An attempt to exterminate a group of people. It is the
ultimate violation of human rights.
2. Examples include:
A. Armenian Massacre:
Turks of Ottoman Empire murdered 1 million
Armenians during WWI
B. Ukrainian Famine
Stalin starved many Ukraines resulting in death
of million of people
C. Holocaust
Hitler and the Nazis murdered 6 million Jews
during World War II.
D. Rwanda
The Hutus killed almost one million Tutsis in
E. Cambodia
The Hutus killed almost one million Tutsis in
F. Yugoslavia
Slobodan Milosevic was the Serbian ruler of
Yugoslavia who violently attacked non-Serbs
(especially Albanians) living in his lands.
Economic Systems
Traditional Economy
1. Barter (trade without using money)
2. Subsistence agriculture
3. People have the same occupation (job)
as their parents
4. Economic decisions are often influenced
by tradition and religious beliefs.
Market Economy
1. Individuals own businesses and make
economic decisions
2. Price depends on supply and demand
3. I.e. capitalism, laissez-faire, and free
4. Most of the world today uses a market
Command or Communist
1. The government own businesses and
make economic decisions.
2. The government determines the price of
3. I.e. Soviet Union under Joseph Stalin and
China under Mao Zedong
Recent Issues and
I. Ethnic Conflicts
1. Palestinians and the Jews
– Control over the Middle East
2. Tibet and China
– Buddhist region wants independence
3. Catholics and Protestants in Northern
– Fought over control of Ireland
4. Serbs, Croatians and Muslims
– battled over the Balkins
II. Environmental Problems
Ozone Layer
Acid Rain
Greenhouse Effect
1)Kyoto Protocol (1997)- International agreement calling for a
decrease in carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gasses
2) International cooperation is very necessary!
III. Science and Technology
A) Green Revolution
– Use of technology to increase food supply
– Irrigation, machinery, fertilizer, pesticides
– Very successful in India
B) Nuclear Proliferation
– Spread of nuclear technology
– North Korea recently developed nuclear
– Iran?
Good Luck 