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Topic 12
On the Eve of
 April 28, 1789- unrest exploded in Paris
 By July people were hungry, unemployed, and
poorly paid people of Paris had taken up arms
 1. Unfair Class & Tax System
(Last slide)
 2. Economic Troubles
 What were the economic
causes to the French
 Deficit Spending:
 Wars:
 How to solve?
 A Poor Harvest
 Why a famine?
 Effects?
Louis XVI of France - portrait by
A.F. Callet (1741-1823)
Causes Continued
 3.The Enlightenment
 Paris was home to this philosophical movement rooted
in the questioning of the status quo
 How did the Enlightenment cause the revolution?
 4.The example of the American Revolution
 How did the American Revolution cause the French
John Trumbull's Declaration of
Independence, showing the fiveman committee in charge of
drafting the Declaration in 1776
as it presents its work to the
Second Continental Congress in
French Society
 France had an outdates social system (Ancien
First Estate: Clergy
Second Estate:
Estate: Vast
majority of
The Social Classes
 First Estate: provided social services- nuns, monks,
and priests ran schools, hospitals and orphanages
 Second Estate- wealthy nobles who hated absolutism
 Third Estate- most diverse social class
 Bourgeoisie- middle class. Included prosperous
bankers, merchants, as well as lawyers, doctors,
journalists, and professors, peasants
Third Estate
 Resented the privileges enjoyed by their social
 First and Second Estate did not have to pay taxes
 Why should people from the first two estates have
such great privileges at the expense of the majority?
 Even the smallest rise in the bread prices (their main
food) brought the threat of great hunger or even
Financial Troubles
 One of the causes of the economic troubles was the
financial crisis that was due in part to deficit
 Louis XIV had left France deeply in debt- Seven
Years War, American Revolution, and building
Palace of Versailles
 To solve the problem- government would have to
increase taxes, reduce expenses or both
Jacques Necker
 Financial expert and advisor to
Louis XVI.
 Urged the king to reduce
extravagant court spending,
reform government, and abolish
burdensome tariffs
 Proposed taxing the First and
Second Estate.
Calling the Estates
 French kings did not call the Estates General for 175
 France was on the verge of bankruptcy- 1788
 Bread riots spread, nobles were denouncing royal
 Finally convened in May 1789.
 First and Second Estate outvoted the Third Estate
National Assembly
 June 1789- Third Estate claimed to represent the
people of France, they declared themselves to be the
National Assembly
 Were afraid of the king
 Knew of Enlightenment ideas
 Tennis Court Oath- swore “never to separate and to
meet wherever the circumstances might require until
we have established a sound and just constitution.”
Storming of the Bastille
 July 14, 1789- city of Paris was seized
 Streets buzzed with rumors about the royal troops
occupying the capital
 800 Parisians assembled outside the Bastille-Prison
 Crowd was looking for weapons
 Commander of Bastille opened fire on 800 and battle
broke out
 Enraged people stormed into Bastille and did not
find weapons
Storming the Bastille
 Bastille was a symbol to the people of France
representing years of abuse by the monarchy
The people react
 Revolts in Paris and the Provinces
 Why are we seeing revolts?
 The Great Fear
 What caused it?
 Famine + Fear = Crazy Peasants
peasants go crazy over the nobles who were trying to reimpose medieval
 Attacked homes of nobles
 Burned old manor records
 Paris in Arms
 Revolutionary Center
 Factions (small groups) competed for power
 Marquis de Lafayette
Headed National Guard – middle class militia formed in response to the
royal troops in Paris
 Radical Paris Commune
 Replaced the royalists government of the city
 Could mobilize whole neighborhoods for protests or violent Actions
to further the Revolution
Political Crisis Leads to
 Political crisis in 1789- coincided with the worst
 Grain prices soared
 People were unemployed
 Rumors about attacks lead people to be in fear
 Peasants unleash their fury on nobles
Marquis de Lafayette
 Aristocratic hero of two worlds
 Fought alongside George Washington during the
American Revolution
 Was also the head of the National Guard- middle
class militia
 The National Guard was the first to wear red, white,
and blue
Political Unrest
 Paris Commune replaced the royalist government of
the city
 Newspapers and political clubs made an impact
National Assembly Acts
 August 4- National Assembly voted to end their own
privileges. They agree to give up their old manorial
dues, exclusive hunting rights, special legal status,
and exemption from taxes
 Feudalism is abolished
 Used Enlightenment as a goal- equality of all male
citizens before the law.
 Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizensmodeled after the Declaration of Independence
National Assembly Acts
 Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen
stats all men have the right to be born free and equal
in rights
 Liberty, property, security, and resistance to
 Many women were upset by the Declaration because
they did not have rights
Women and the
 1791- Olympe de Gourgesdemanded equal rights in her
Declaration of the Rights of
Women and the Female Citizen
 Gourges was imprisoned and
 October 5th- 6,000 women
marched 13 miles from Paris to
Versailles demanding “bread”
and to see the king
Marie Antoinette
 Daughter of Maria Theresa and
her brother was Joseph II
 Queen lived a life of great
pleasure and extravagance
 Was compassionate to the poor
National Assembly
Presses Onward
 Has a large bourgeois membership and worked to
draft a constitution and to solve the continuing
financial crisis
 To pay off the huge government debt: Assembly
voted to take over and sell Church lands
 National Assembly put the French Catholic Church
under state control
 Civil Constitution of the Clergy-1790- bishops and
priests became elected and salaried
National Assembly
 Constitution of 1791- set up a limited monarchy in
place of an absolute monarchy
 New legislative assembly had the power to make
laws, collect taxes, and decide on issues of war and
 The constitution abolished the old provincial courts
and reformed laws
 Constitution put the power in the hands of men with
Radicals Take Over
 European rulers increased border patrols to stop the
spread of the “French plague”- the revolution
 Émigrés- nobles, clergy and others who had fled
France and its revolutionary forces
 Declaration of Pilnitz- Prussia and Britain threatened
to intervene to protect the French monarchy
 France took threat seriously and prepared for war
Economic Issues
 October 1791- Economic problems led to renewed
 Currency dropped in value
 Caused prices to rise rapidly
 Uncertainty about prices led to hoarding and caused
additional food shortages
 Sans-Culottes- working class men and womenpushed the revolution into more radical actions
 Demanded a republic or government ruled by
elected representatives instead of a monarch
 Jacobins- mostly middle-class lawyers or
intellectuals- supported sans-culottes
 Legislative Assembly declared war first on Austria,
then on Prussia, then on Britain and other states
 Fighting lasted from 1792-1815
Monarchy is Abolished
 1793- France experienced one of the bloodiest
regimes in its long history
 August 10, 1792- Parisians stormed the royal palace
and slaughtered the kings guards
 Citizens attacked prisons that held nobles and priests
accused of political offenses
 Radicals took control of the Assembly
 Called for the election of a new legislative body- the
National Convention
National Assembly
 National Assembly allowed suffrage- the right to
vote- extended to all male citizens
 September 1792- more radical body- voted to abolish
the monarchy and establish a republic
 Seized lands of nobles and abolished titles of nobility
 Convention put Louis XVI on trial as a traitor to
France and he was beheaded
 Marie Antoinette was also executed
Terror and Danger Grip
 1793- France was at war with much of Europe
including Britain, the Netherlands, Spain and
 Sans-culottes demanded relief from food shortages
and inflation
 Committee of Public Safety- 12 members- had almost
absolute power as it battled to save the revolution
 French recruits marched off to defend the republic
Terror and Danger Grip
 Government battled counterrevolutionariesMaximilien Robespierre- lawyer and politician- rose
to leadership of the Committee of Public Safety
 Robespierre- embraced Rousseau’s ideas- promoted
religious toleration and wanted to abolish slavery
 Robespierre led the Reign of Terror: lasted from
September 1793-July 1794.
 300,000 were arrested and 17,000 were executed
 July 27, 1794- Robespierre was arrested and killed
The Revolution Enters
Its Third Stage
 Moderates set up another constitution
 New constitution set up a five man Directory and a
two-house legislature elected by male citizens with
 Directory held power from1795-1799
 Peace was made with Prussia and Spain, but war
with Austria and Great Britain continued
 Chaos is rampant in France
 French look for stability
 Napoleon Bonaparte- a popular military hero who
had won a series of brilliant victories against the
Austrians in Italy
 Politicians planned to use him to advance their own
Rise of Napoleon
 Early Military Career
 What was his reputation?
 Napoleon’s Coup de e’tat
 Helped overthrow the
directory and set-up three
man board “the consulate”
 Napoleon took title first consul
 1802 – named himself consul for
 1804 – had enough power to
name himself emperor
Revolution Brings
 1799- Dislodged the old social order, overthrown the
monarchy, and brought the Church under the state
 “Citizen” applied to all social classes
 Revolution and war gave the French people a strong
sense of national identity
 Nationalism- a strong feeling of pride in and
devotion to one’s country
Napoleon’s Reforms
 Napoleonic Code
 Equality of all citizens before the law
 Religious toleration
 Advancement based on merit – what group
wanted this most of all?
 Economic Reforms
 What did Napoleon reform?
 Social Reforms
 Public Schools:
 Encouraged émigrés to return provided they took
an oath of loyalty
 Land Reform:
 Women:
Napoleonic Wars 18041814
 The Grand Empire
 Strongest power in Europe
 Claimed or defeated most of
 Forceful diplomacy
 Would take kings and queens of
European countries off their
thrones and replace them with
family and friends
 1805-1807: Napoleon’s Grand Army
defeated Austrian, Prussian,
Russian Armies
 1807-1812: Napoleon Master of
European Empire
 Spread of French Revolution
principles to conquered
territories that will be an
important factor in the
development of liberalism in
these countries.
Napoleon's Empire at its greatest extent.
Dark Blue-French Empire
Medium Blue-Conquered "Rebellious" States
Light Blue-Allied States
www.wikipedia.org Posted by user Kieran4
Continental System:
Economic Warfare
Napoleon wanted to take over Great Britain
– issue to overcome?
1805 Napoleon prepared to invade Britain
 Napoleon defeated at Battle of Trafalgar off
the southwest of Spain
Napoleon Tries to Weaken Britain Through
Economic Warfare: the Continental System
 Explain how the system worked?
 Why does it fail?
Still France was at an age Napoleon
Invasion of Russia
 Why did Napoleon Invade Russia?
 How did the Russians choose to deal with Napoleon?
Was it successful?
 Only 100,000 survived many died and others
deserted – What defeated the Grand Army?
Napoleon's retreat from
Moscow, painted by Adolph
Northen in the 19th
Napoleon’s First
 Russia allies with Austria and Prussia against a weakened
 1813 they defeated Napoleon in the Battle of Nations at
 1814 European troops approach France and Napoleon
 Napoleon is exiled to Elba in the Mediterranean
 Louis XVIII, brother of the late king is restored to the French
Napoleon and Poniatowski at Leipzig,
painted by Suchodolski 1797–1875
The Final Defeat
 Battle of Waterloo
June 18th, 1815 French Army met English and Prussian forces
Duke of Wellington and General Blucher met at Belgian town
of Waterloo
 Battle crushed the French Army
 Again Napoleon exiled this time to St. Helena where he
would eventually die in 1821
 What is his legacy?
Battle of Waterloo,
painted by William Sadler
Congress of Vienna
September 1814-June
 Called by Prince Clemens von Metternich of Austria to restore the
“Status Quo” in Europe
 Representatives:
 They had to try to restore the balance of power
 How did they do that?
 Other Decisions
 Austria, Prussia, Russia, and Great Britain create the Quadruple
 Pledged to act together to maintain balance of power to
suppress revolutionary uprisings
 German confederation created (39 states) with Austria as its
official head.
 Switzerland becomes independent
 Nationalism increases throughout Europe
– WHY????
The Congress of Vienna by
Jean-Baptiste Isabey, (1819).
Revolution Outside
 1791 – French colony Saint Domingue
(Haiti) revolted
 Toussaint L’Ouverture – son of African
slaves led the revolt of over 100,000
 Later Napoleon captured Toussaint
and he died in French prison
 January 1804 western Hispaniola
became first independent nation of
Latin America
 1793 France went to war with
Britain, Netherlands, Spain and
Toussaint Louverture. From a
group of engravings done in
post-Revolutionary France.
(1802) www.wikipedia.org
Effects of the French
Bourgeoisie grow in influence
Revolutions of 1830 & 1848
Latin American Wars of Independence
Congress of Vienna & the Concert of Europe
Spread of Modern European Nationalism
Spread of Revolutionary & Enlightenment Ideas
What do you think we are going to see next?