Topic 12 On the Eve of Revolution April 28, 1789- unrest exploded in Paris By July people were hungry, unemployed, and poorly paid people of Paris had taken up arms Causes 1. Unfair Class & Tax System (Last slide) 2. Economic Troubles What were the economic causes to the French Revolution? Deficit Spending: Wars: How to solve? A Poor Harvest Why a famine? Effects? Louis XVI of France - portrait by A.F. Callet (1741-1823) www.wikipedia.org Causes Continued 3.The Enlightenment Paris was home to this philosophical movement rooted in the questioning of the status quo How did the Enlightenment cause the revolution? 4.The example of the American Revolution How did the American Revolution cause the French Revolution? John Trumbull's Declaration of Independence, showing the fiveman committee in charge of drafting the Declaration in 1776 as it presents its work to the Second Continental Congress in Philadelphia www.wikipedia.org French Society France had an outdates social system (Ancien Regime) First Estate: Clergy Second Estate: Nobility Third Estate: Vast majority of population The Social Classes First Estate: provided social services- nuns, monks, and priests ran schools, hospitals and orphanages Second Estate- wealthy nobles who hated absolutism Third Estate- most diverse social class Bourgeoisie- middle class. Included prosperous bankers, merchants, as well as lawyers, doctors, journalists, and professors, peasants Third Estate Resented the privileges enjoyed by their social “betters” First and Second Estate did not have to pay taxes Why should people from the first two estates have such great privileges at the expense of the majority? Even the smallest rise in the bread prices (their main food) brought the threat of great hunger or even starvation Financial Troubles One of the causes of the economic troubles was the financial crisis that was due in part to deficit spending Louis XIV had left France deeply in debt- Seven Years War, American Revolution, and building Palace of Versailles To solve the problem- government would have to increase taxes, reduce expenses or both Jacques Necker Financial expert and advisor to Louis XVI. Urged the king to reduce extravagant court spending, reform government, and abolish burdensome tariffs Proposed taxing the First and Second Estate. Calling the Estates General French kings did not call the Estates General for 175 years France was on the verge of bankruptcy- 1788 Bread riots spread, nobles were denouncing royal tyranny. Finally convened in May 1789. First and Second Estate outvoted the Third Estate National Assembly June 1789- Third Estate claimed to represent the people of France, they declared themselves to be the National Assembly Were afraid of the king Knew of Enlightenment ideas Tennis Court Oath- swore “never to separate and to meet wherever the circumstances might require until we have established a sound and just constitution.” Storming of the Bastille July 14, 1789- city of Paris was seized Streets buzzed with rumors about the royal troops occupying the capital 800 Parisians assembled outside the Bastille-Prison Crowd was looking for weapons Commander of Bastille opened fire on 800 and battle broke out Enraged people stormed into Bastille and did not find weapons Storming the Bastille Bastille was a symbol to the people of France representing years of abuse by the monarchy The people react Revolts in Paris and the Provinces Why are we seeing revolts? The Great Fear What caused it? Famine + Fear = Crazy Peasants peasants go crazy over the nobles who were trying to reimpose medieval dues Attacked homes of nobles Burned old manor records Paris in Arms Revolutionary Center Factions (small groups) competed for power Marquis de Lafayette Headed National Guard – middle class militia formed in response to the royal troops in Paris Radical Paris Commune Replaced the royalists government of the city Could mobilize whole neighborhoods for protests or violent Actions to further the Revolution Political Crisis Leads to Revolt Political crisis in 1789- coincided with the worst famine Grain prices soared People were unemployed Rumors about attacks lead people to be in fear Peasants unleash their fury on nobles Marquis de Lafayette Aristocratic hero of two worlds Fought alongside George Washington during the American Revolution Was also the head of the National Guard- middle class militia The National Guard was the first to wear red, white, and blue Political Unrest Paris Commune replaced the royalist government of the city Newspapers and political clubs made an impact National Assembly Acts August 4- National Assembly voted to end their own privileges. They agree to give up their old manorial dues, exclusive hunting rights, special legal status, and exemption from taxes Feudalism is abolished Used Enlightenment as a goal- equality of all male citizens before the law. Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizensmodeled after the Declaration of Independence National Assembly Acts Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen stats all men have the right to be born free and equal in rights Liberty, property, security, and resistance to oppression Many women were upset by the Declaration because they did not have rights Women and the Declaration 1791- Olympe de Gourgesdemanded equal rights in her Declaration of the Rights of Women and the Female Citizen Gourges was imprisoned and executed October 5th- 6,000 women marched 13 miles from Paris to Versailles demanding “bread” and to see the king Marie Antoinette Daughter of Maria Theresa and her brother was Joseph II Queen lived a life of great pleasure and extravagance Was compassionate to the poor National Assembly Presses Onward Has a large bourgeois membership and worked to draft a constitution and to solve the continuing financial crisis To pay off the huge government debt: Assembly voted to take over and sell Church lands National Assembly put the French Catholic Church under state control Civil Constitution of the Clergy-1790- bishops and priests became elected and salaried National Assembly Constitution of 1791- set up a limited monarchy in place of an absolute monarchy New legislative assembly had the power to make laws, collect taxes, and decide on issues of war and peace The constitution abolished the old provincial courts and reformed laws Constitution put the power in the hands of men with means Radicals Take Over European rulers increased border patrols to stop the spread of the “French plague”- the revolution Émigrés- nobles, clergy and others who had fled France and its revolutionary forces Declaration of Pilnitz- Prussia and Britain threatened to intervene to protect the French monarchy France took threat seriously and prepared for war Economic Issues October 1791- Economic problems led to renewed turmoil Currency dropped in value Caused prices to rise rapidly Uncertainty about prices led to hoarding and caused additional food shortages Sans-Culottes Sans-Culottes- working class men and womenpushed the revolution into more radical actions Demanded a republic or government ruled by elected representatives instead of a monarch Jacobins- mostly middle-class lawyers or intellectuals- supported sans-culottes War Legislative Assembly declared war first on Austria, then on Prussia, then on Britain and other states Fighting lasted from 1792-1815 Monarchy is Abolished 1793- France experienced one of the bloodiest regimes in its long history August 10, 1792- Parisians stormed the royal palace and slaughtered the kings guards Citizens attacked prisons that held nobles and priests accused of political offenses Radicals took control of the Assembly Called for the election of a new legislative body- the National Convention National Assembly National Assembly allowed suffrage- the right to vote- extended to all male citizens September 1792- more radical body- voted to abolish the monarchy and establish a republic Seized lands of nobles and abolished titles of nobility Convention put Louis XVI on trial as a traitor to France and he was beheaded Marie Antoinette was also executed Terror and Danger Grip France 1793- France was at war with much of Europe including Britain, the Netherlands, Spain and Prussia. Sans-culottes demanded relief from food shortages and inflation Committee of Public Safety- 12 members- had almost absolute power as it battled to save the revolution French recruits marched off to defend the republic Terror and Danger Grip France Government battled counterrevolutionariesMaximilien Robespierre- lawyer and politician- rose to leadership of the Committee of Public Safety Robespierre- embraced Rousseau’s ideas- promoted religious toleration and wanted to abolish slavery Robespierre led the Reign of Terror: lasted from September 1793-July 1794. 300,000 were arrested and 17,000 were executed July 27, 1794- Robespierre was arrested and killed The Revolution Enters Its Third Stage Moderates set up another constitution New constitution set up a five man Directory and a two-house legislature elected by male citizens with property Directory held power from1795-1799 Peace was made with Prussia and Spain, but war with Austria and Great Britain continued Chaos Chaos is rampant in France French look for stability Napoleon Bonaparte- a popular military hero who had won a series of brilliant victories against the Austrians in Italy Politicians planned to use him to advance their own goals. Rise of Napoleon Bonaparte Early Military Career What was his reputation? Napoleon’s Coup de e’tat Helped overthrow the directory and set-up three man board “the consulate” Napoleon took title first consul 1802 – named himself consul for life 1804 – had enough power to name himself emperor Revolution Brings Change 1799- Dislodged the old social order, overthrown the monarchy, and brought the Church under the state control “Citizen” applied to all social classes Revolution and war gave the French people a strong sense of national identity Nationalism- a strong feeling of pride in and devotion to one’s country Napoleon’s Reforms Napoleonic Code Equality of all citizens before the law Religious toleration Advancement based on merit – what group wanted this most of all? Economic Reforms What did Napoleon reform? Social Reforms Public Schools: Encouraged émigrés to return provided they took an oath of loyalty Land Reform: Women: Napoleonic Wars 18041814 The Grand Empire Strongest power in Europe Claimed or defeated most of Europe Forceful diplomacy Would take kings and queens of European countries off their thrones and replace them with family and friends 1805-1807: Napoleon’s Grand Army defeated Austrian, Prussian, Russian Armies 1807-1812: Napoleon Master of European Empire Spread of French Revolution principles to conquered territories that will be an important factor in the development of liberalism in these countries. Napoleon's Empire at its greatest extent. Dark Blue-French Empire Medium Blue-Conquered "Rebellious" States Light Blue-Allied States www.wikipedia.org Posted by user Kieran4 Continental System: Economic Warfare Napoleon wanted to take over Great Britain – issue to overcome? 1805 Napoleon prepared to invade Britain Napoleon defeated at Battle of Trafalgar off the southwest of Spain Napoleon Tries to Weaken Britain Through Economic Warfare: the Continental System Explain how the system worked? Why does it fail? Still France was at an age Napoleon Invasion of Russia Why did Napoleon Invade Russia? How did the Russians choose to deal with Napoleon? Was it successful? Only 100,000 survived many died and others deserted – What defeated the Grand Army? Napoleon's retreat from Moscow, painted by Adolph Northen in the 19th century www.wikipedia.com Napoleon’s First Defeat Russia allies with Austria and Prussia against a weakened France 1813 they defeated Napoleon in the Battle of Nations at Leipzig 1814 European troops approach France and Napoleon abdicates Napoleon is exiled to Elba in the Mediterranean Louis XVIII, brother of the late king is restored to the French throne Napoleon and Poniatowski at Leipzig, painted by Suchodolski 1797–1875 www.wikipedia.org The Final Defeat Battle of Waterloo June 18th, 1815 French Army met English and Prussian forces Duke of Wellington and General Blucher met at Belgian town of Waterloo Battle crushed the French Army Again Napoleon exiled this time to St. Helena where he would eventually die in 1821 What is his legacy? Battle of Waterloo, painted by William Sadler (1782–1839) www.wikipedia.org Congress of Vienna September 1814-June 1815 Called by Prince Clemens von Metternich of Austria to restore the “Status Quo” in Europe Representatives: They had to try to restore the balance of power How did they do that? Other Decisions Austria, Prussia, Russia, and Great Britain create the Quadruple alliance Pledged to act together to maintain balance of power to suppress revolutionary uprisings German confederation created (39 states) with Austria as its official head. Switzerland becomes independent Nationalism increases throughout Europe – WHY???? The Congress of Vienna by Jean-Baptiste Isabey, (1819). www.wikipedia.org Revolution Outside France 1791 – French colony Saint Domingue (Haiti) revolted Toussaint L’Ouverture – son of African slaves led the revolt of over 100,000 men Later Napoleon captured Toussaint and he died in French prison January 1804 western Hispaniola became first independent nation of Latin America 1793 France went to war with Britain, Netherlands, Spain and Prussia Toussaint Louverture. From a group of engravings done in post-Revolutionary France. (1802) www.wikipedia.org Effects of the French Revolution Bourgeoisie grow in influence Revolutions of 1830 & 1848 Latin American Wars of Independence Congress of Vienna & the Concert of Europe Spread of Modern European Nationalism Spread of Revolutionary & Enlightenment Ideas What do you think we are going to see next?