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IRJET- Review Paper on Seismic Behavior of Flat Slabs over Conventional RC Slabs in Multistoried Building

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International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET)
e-ISSN: 2395-0056
Volume: 06 Issue: 08 | Aug 2019
p-ISSN: 2395-0072
www.irjet.net
REVIEW PAPER ON SEISMIC BEHAVIOR OF FLAT SLABS OVER
CONVENTIONAL RC SLABS IN MULTISTORIED BUILDING
Niranjan Chaudhary1, Krishna Prasad Bhatta2, Nitin Verma3
1,2M.E
Student, Dept. of Civil Engineering, Chandigarh University, Punjab, India
Professor, Dept. of Civil Engineering, Chandigarh University, Punjab, India
---------------------------------------------------------------------***---------------------------------------------------------------------3Assistant
Abstract –Flat slab is an important part of modern
construction field due to its huge advantages over
conventional slab. Due to its asthetic appearance, shorter
construction period, easier formwork, flexibility in the layout
of room etc, the conventional slabs are being replaced by
beamless slabs. The flat slabs have less stiffness and less shear
strength with more flexibility feature than the conventional
slabs. So, from structural engineer’s point of view, flat slabs
are not suitable for the high seismic zones unless it is adopted
with shear wall, bracings or reetrofittings. The main objective
of this paper is to review the earthquake behavior of flat slabs
in different height variations, soil conditions, seismic zones etc.
The different analysis has been carried out by using various
methods by various authors Generally the analysis has been
done by the equivalent static analysis method, response
spectrum method, and time history method using different
softwares like STADD PRO, ETABS &SAFE. The authors have
been found focusing on the parameters like story shear, story
drift, story displacement, natural time period etc.
Key Words: Flat slab, Drop panel, Response spectrum
analysis, ETABS, Flat ground, Sloped ground, Story drift,
Natural time period
1. INTRODUCTION
Nowdays, the buildings are being constructed rapidly due to
the population increment. The demand of high rise building
is higher than the past decades. Along with the construction,
the desires of the people have been upgraded with respect to
asthetic appearance, short construction period, flexibility in
the room layout, framework installation, reinforcement
placement and so on. To meet the demands of people the
technique of construction has been changed these days.
Among different techniques, beamless slab (i.e flat slab) is
one. Generally, the buildings are constructed with the
conventional RC slabs which proves it to have high story
strength and stiffness. But due to the several advantages of
flat slabs the traditional construction of slabs are being
slowly replaced by flat slabs.
The flat slab was introduced by C.A.P Turner in 1906 in
U.S.A. The flat slabs directly rests on the columns and
transfers the loads directly to it. It is built monolithically
with the supporting columns and is reinforced in two or
more directions. It can be designed and built either by
conventional Rcc or post tensioning. Since it is a beamless
slab, it results in plain ceiling thus providing the attractive
appearance from architecture point of view. Generally the
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plane ceiling diffuses the light better and is taken as less
vunerable in case of fire compared to the conventional RC
slab. It avoids the beam column clogging and economical as
the concrete is more logically used in this type of slab
construction. Hence the cost is considerably low in the case
of large spans and heavy load. It is a developing technique in
the south asian countries where as the european countries
have already stepped into it and many structures are being
built day by day using flat slabs. These types of slabs are
mostly used in theatres, auditorium, offices, ware houses, go
downs, shopping malls, factories, mills, etc.
1.1 Components of flat slabs
Drop panel: It is the part of the slab around the column that is
of greater thickness than the rest of the slab. It increases the
shear strength of slab and negative moment capacity of slab.
Likewise, it stiffens the slab and helps in reducing the
deflection.
Column head: Whenever the diameter of the supporting
column is increased below the portion of slab, this area of
column with increased diameter is considered as column
head. It is the local enlargement of the supporting column at
the junction with the slab. It increases the rigidity and shear
strength of slab. By reducing the clear effective span, it
reduces the moment in the slab.
2. LITERATURE REVIEW
Navyashree k (2014) worked on the use of flat slab in
multistory building situated in high seismic zones. The was
carried out by considering six models of G+3,G+8 and G+12 of
conventional Rc frame and flat slab building .The seismic
behavior of these models were analyzed according to the
increment of height under seismic forces in zone IV. It was
seen that the column moment, the natural time period, lateral
displacement and storey drift is more in flat slabs. The base
shear of the flat plate model is less compared to conventional
R.C.C building.
Muniraju k. s (2015) focused on the title comparative study
of seismic analysis between conventional RC frame and flat
slab with with drop. The three models G+3, G+7 and G+11
were considered for conventional RC frame and flat slab
building. The Vulnerability of purely frame and flat slab
models for earthquake load was analyzed in different soil
conditions and seismic zones. The analysis was carried out
with the equivalent static method and response spectrum
method. By analysing with etabs software the conclusions
were made like natural time period, design base shear and
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International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET)
e-ISSN: 2395-0056
Volume: 06 Issue: 08 | Aug 2019
p-ISSN: 2395-0072
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lateral displacement is more for flat slab model than
conventional RC slab. The flat slab was concluded as the best
option for horizontal plan irregularity.
Mohana H. S (2015) gave his effort on the G+5 model of
commercial multistoried building having flat slab and
conventional slab. The analysis was done by checking the
parameters like base shear, story drift, axial force and
displacement in all the seismic zones. After the completion of
work, it was found that the storey shear of flat slab is 6%
more compared to conventional slab structure and it is
maximum at base and least at top storey. Similarly, design
axial forces on flat slabs are higher than conventional
structure and the difference of forces is nearly 5.5%.
Sayali A. Baitule (2016) carried her work on the
performance evaluation of flat slab with storey height
variation using pushover analysis. The three models of G+12
with different storey height variation at different storey
were considered. The ground storey,7th storey and 13th (top
storey) of 1st , 2nd and 3rd model was considered as 5.5m with
3m for remaining stories in zone IV. It was found that Teff
decreases as the large storey height floor shifted to higher
level. So it is safer to provide large floor height at top storey
the storey height increases with respect to storey drift also
increases.
Navya Medasana (2017) worked and compared the
earthquake behavior of 30 storey building with conventional
beam slabs, flat slabs and alternate flat slabs as per IS
1893(2002).The parameters were focused on storey shear,
modal mass, participation ratios, column forces etc. The time
period of flat slab and alternate flat slab-beam slab structure
was found to be almost same at 90% mass participation.
Likewise, the beam slab building was to have more base
shear than other considered models. The flat slab structure
was found to have more response spectrum accelerations
compared to other models.
Sandeep GS (2017) worked on the lateral displacement and
storey drift of flat slab and conventional slab structures in
different earthquake zones with type II medium soil and
studied the performance of different height of buildings
under seismic forces in these zones. It was found that 5
storey building with flat slab without drop panels, 10 storey
and 15 storey buildings with flat slab with drop and without
drop panel buildings are not appropriate for zone IV and V
with respect to lateral displacement. Likewise, conventional
slab building having flat slab with drop panel are not suitable
for zone V with respect to lateral displacement. Further to
minimize this risks, shear walls, bracings should be adopted.
The conventional slab structure has more lateral stiffness
than the flat slab with or without drop panel as well as the
flat slab with drop has higher lateral stiffness compared to
flat slab without drop panel.
compared the flat ground buildings and sloped ground
building with flat slabs. The sloping angles considered for
the dynamic analysis were 00, 200 and 300 which was
performed by etabs software. It was observed that the time
period of 300 sloped ground building is higher than 00 and
200.Likewise, for 200 and 300 sloped ground building, the
displacement and storey drift was found to be less. The
displacement was found to be maximum at top floor in III, IV
and V zones whereas the max displacement can be found in
zone V.
Kumar Vanshaj (2017) worked on seismic response of
multistory flat slab building with and without shear wall. The
objective was to investigate the behavior of flat slab
multistory G+19 building without and with shear wall at
core, corners and side centers of the perimeter boundary of
the building in zone V by elastic time history method using
etabs software. It was concluded that the performance of flat
slab without shear wall was poor during earthquake
excitation that of flat slab with shear wall. Shear wall was
found to be very useful to decrease the storey drift index and
recommended at side center in case of flat slab building.
Anusha. I. Koti (2018) made her effort on the post
tensioned flat slab with drop considering seismic effect. The
main objective of this work was to determine stresses,
moment forces and to evaluate frequency and natural time
period of the structure. The post tensioned slab with drop
for equivalent frame analysis was a big concern and it was
analyzed by using CSI SAFE 2016 software. It was found that
the post tensioned with drop reduces the stress
concentration in the column and slab junctions. Due to
tensioning of flat plate slab, no effect was found on axial
force at great extent but moment and shear on column
increases. The moment calculated for RCC flat slab was
found to be higher than the PT flat plate.
Imran B K et al (2019) analyzed the office building of G+5
with flat slab and conventional slab for Bangalore, India by
using etabs software. They concluded that the flat slab is not
economical at all. Due to slab thickness and size of drop
panel, the quantity of concrete will be more and thus
increases the construction cost to some extent.
3. CONCLUSIONS
Raghavendra M S et al (2017) worked on seismic behavior
of high rise building on sloping ground and flat slab ground
with flat slab for various soil and seismic zones. They
The various research and studies shows the different merits
of flat slabs .In some cases flat slabs are lacking due to its less
stiffness and shear strength where as the conventional slabs
steps ahead due to its less flexibility. The additional
structure like shear wall, bracings and retrofiitings helps in
reducing the story drift, base shear, lateral displacement to
some extent. Likewise the components of flat slabs like drop
panel and column heads also plays a vital role in minimizing
the seismic risk to great extent. The construction of flat slab
in high seismic zones is to be analysed carefully by checking
the different seismic parameters like natural time period,
story displacement, axial forces etc and location of shear wall
is to be placed at the side center of the building to minimize
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International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET)
e-ISSN: 2395-0056
Volume: 06 Issue: 08 | Aug 2019
p-ISSN: 2395-0072
www.irjet.net
the risk of damage occurred by earthquake and wind forces
in the future.
BIOGRAPHIES
REFERENCES
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analysis between conventional RC frame and flat slab
with drop”, Internatioanl Journal of Science Research
and Development, Volume 03, 2015.
Mohana H. S (2015), “Comparative study of flat slab
and conventional slab structure using etabs for different
earthquake zones of India”, Internal Research Journal of
Engineering and Technology, volume 02, June 2015.
Sayali A. Baitule (2016), “Performance evaluation of
flat slab with storey height variation using pushover
analysis”, International Journal of Engineering Research,
volume 05, Feb 2016.
Navya Medasana (2017), “Seismic study and
performance of 30 storey high rise building with beam
slab, flat slab and alternate flat beam slab systems in
zone V”, Internal Research Journal of Engineering and
Technology, Volume 04,Feb 2017.
Sandeep GS (2017), “Comparative study of lateral
displacement and storey drift of flat slab and
conventional slab structures in different seismic zones”,
International Journal of Civil Engineering and
Technology, Volume 08, July 2017.
Raghavendra M S et al (2017), “Comparative study of
commercial high rise building with flat slab by varying
slope of the ground for different soil and seismic zone
condition”, Internal Research Journal of Engineering and
Technology, volume 04, August 2017.
Kumar Vanshaj (2017), “Seismic response of
multistory flat slab building with and without shear
wall”, Internal Research Journal of Engineering and
Technology, Volume 04, November 2017.
Anusha. I. Koti (2018), “Analysis of post tensioned flat
slab with drop considering seismic effect”, Internal
Research Journal of Engineering and Technology,
Volume 05, June 2018.
Imran B K et al (2019), “Analysis and design of G+5
building with conventional and flat slab”, Internal
Research Journal of Engineering and Technology,
Volume 06, May 2019.
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Niranjan Chaudhary
M.E student
Department of Civil Engineering
Chandigarh University, Mohali
Punjab, India
1’st Author
Photo
Krishna Prasad Bhatta
M.E student
Department of Civil Engineering
Chandigarh University, Mohali,
Punjab, India
2nd Author Photo
4th
Author
Photo
Nitin Verma
Assistant Professor
Department of Civil Engineering
Chandigarh University, Mohali,
Punjab, India
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