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Chapter 10 Study Guide

Name: ______________________
Class: _________________
Date: _________
APUSH Chapter 10 Study Guide
Multiple Choice
Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.
1. In 1835, Alexis de Tocqueville wrote, “It is a constant fact that at the present day the ablest men in
the United States are rarely placed at the head of affairs.” To what did he attribute this phenomenon?
a. Whig party policies
b. Democracy
c. Industrialization
d. More money could be made in business than in politics
2. In what way was the United States more democratic than anywhere else in the world during the first
half of the nineteenth century?
a. Franchise qualifications
b. Spoils system
c. Bicameral legislature
d. Method of choosing the Senate
3. Which of the following statements characterizes the American political system directly after the
American Revolution?
a. It was highly democratic and open to almost all white males.
b. Notables managed local elections through their personal connections.
c. Political parties were well established and regulated in most states.
d. Pressure to make politics more democratic spread westward from New England.
4. Why did several eastern states expand suffrage in the 1810s?
a. They sought to prevent riots.
b. They needed to increase their representation in Congress.
c. They wanted to discourage westward migration.
d. They aimed to give women a greater influence.
5. Politicians from modest backgrounds tended to support which of the following reforms in the 1810s?
a. Tax increases for the rich
b. Restrictions on imprisonment for debt
c. Mandatory military service for young men
d. Limited suffrage for women
6. What did bankers, land speculators, and entrepreneurs in the 1820s to the 1840s have in common?
a. Most of them were Whigs.
b. They tended to be Democrats.
c. Most rejected the ideas of the Second Great Awakening.
d. They demanded government assistance for their business enterprises.
Name: ______________________
7. What aspect of early nineteenth-century American government had the founders condemned as
contrary to republican ideals?
a. The committee system in Congress
b. Political parties
c. The two-term presidency
d. The Supreme Court’s judicial review
8. Who is considered the first real politician, partly because he created the first statewide political
a. Alexander Hamilton
b. John Quincy Adams
c. Martin Van Buren
d. Andrew Jackson
9. The power of elected officials to grant government jobs to party members in return for their loyalty
is known as which of the following systems?
a. Nepotism
b. Patronage
c. Caucusing
d. The Whig System
____ 10. Which of the following were the three key elements of Clay’s American system?
a. Protective tariff, subsidized internal improvements, and the national bank
b. Subsidized internal improvements, the national bank, and patronage
c. Slavery, patronage, and subsidized internal improvements
d. Protective tariff, patronage, and subsidized internal improvements
____ 11. Correctly match the candidate in the 1824 presidential election with his description.
a. Adams—choice of the Republican caucus in Congress
b. Calhoun—Secretary of the Treasury in the Monroe administration
c. Jackson—popular War of 1812 hero
d. Crawford—Speaker of the House of Representatives
____ 12. What did the Twelfth Amendment to the Constitution specify should be done in an election like the
election of 1824, in which no presidential candidate received a majority of the electoral votes?
a. The Supreme Court intervenes to determine the winner.
b. The candidate with the most electoral votes wins.
c. The House of Representatives decides the outcome.
d. Congress appoints a special bipartisan commission.
Name: ______________________
____ 13. Which of the following statements describes events surrounding the election of 1824?
a. John Quincy Adams became president even though Andrew Jackson had more
popular votes.
It was the first time a presidential election was decided by the House of
The Republican candidate William Crawford died from a stroke in the midst of the
The disputed outcome led to extended rioting in several large southern cities.
____ 14. As president, John Quincy Adams supported which of the following policies?
a. A national bank to promote a uniform currency and to control credit.
b. Strict limits on the powers of the federal government.
c. A suspension on “internal improvements” by the federal government.
d. The implementation of lower tariffs on imported products.
____ 15. What was the outcome of President John Quincy Adams’ support of the Creeks in their treaty
negotiations with the state of Georgia?
a. Georgia’s governor attacked him as a “public enemy” and “ally of the savages.”
b. His New England supporters deserted his bid for reelection.
c. A large reservation in central Georgia was set aside for the Creeks.
d. The Georgia state legislature called for his impeachment.
____ 16. Andrew Jackson and his supporters won the election in 1828 in part by
a. repudiating the growing authority of political powers.
b. promising to expand and extend Clay’s American System.
c. calling themselves Democrats to portray a more egalitarian image.
d. branding his opponent as “Old Hickory” to emphasize his old-fashioned political
____ 17. Which of the following elements defined the Democrats under Andrew Jackson?
a. Consideration for Native Americans
b. Support for average Americans
c. Treatment of the national bank
d. Views on patronage
____ 18. On whom did President Jackson rely for political advice?
a. Several key western senators, including Henry Clay
b. His official cabinet officers
c. An informal group called the Kitchen Cabinet
d. Chief Justice John Marshall
Name: ______________________
____ 19. How did President Andrew Jackson change the federal system of office holding?
a. He created a civil service system that awarded federal positions on the basis of
Jackson introduced the principle of rotation in office to discourage long tenure.
He established a formula for bipartisan staffing of federal offices and the cabinet.
Jackson wrested the power of appointment from state legislatures and Congress.
____ 20. In 1832, a South Carolina state convention committed which of the following actions?
a. Declared the tariffs of 1828 and 1832 null and void within the state
b. Ordered the state militia to arrest customs officials and to impound their
Declared that the state had decided to secede from the Union
Threatened to impeach Jackson for his unconstitutional actions
____ 21. The 1832 Ordinance of Nullification was based on which of the following beliefs?
a. States had the right to determine which congressional laws they would enforce.
b. The people are the ultimate source of power for the national government.
c. States can neither bring suit against nor tax a federal institution.
d. Only the president has the right to rule an act of Congress invalid.
____ 22. The South Carolina Exposition and Protest, written by John C. Calhoun, bore a similarity to the
argument made by which of the following people?
a. Thomas Paine in Common Sense
b. Jefferson and Madison in the Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions
c. John Marshall in Marbury v. Madison
d. George Washington in his farewell address
____ 23. How did Andrew Jackson respond to South Carolina’s claimed right of nullification in 1832?
a. Jackson asked Congress to raise the tariff rates even higher if South Carolina did
not stop its threats.
He asked Congress for a Force Bill authorizing him to use the military to suppress
any act of nullification.
He pulled federal troops and navy ships out of forts and ports in South Carolina
where they might have provoked an attack by the South Carolina militia.
Jackson asked Congress to prepare a bill to expel South Carolina from the Union if
it did not stop its threats.
____ 24. In the aftermath of the nullification crisis, President Jackson responded to southern concerns about
the tariff by
a. insisting that high protective tariffs were in the national interest.
b. attempting unsuccessfully to have Congress repeal the Tariff of 1832.
c. persuading Congress to pass a new tariff that gradually reduced duties.
d. insisting that he had won the conflict and disregarding the issue.
Name: ______________________
____ 25. Which of the following was the primary function of the Second Bank of the United States?
a. To make a profit for the federal government through judicious loans to the
country’s most promising entrepreneurs
To keep the economy in equilibrium by raising or lowering interest rates in
response to changes in the capitalist business cycle
To stabilize the nation’s money supply by forcing state banks to convert their
paper money periodically into gold and silver coin
To serve as a clearinghouse for foreign investments and currency in order to raise
the country’s international economic standing
____ 26. Which of the following statements characterizes the Second Bank of the United States in the 1830s?
a. Its cautious monetary policy pleased bankers, creditors, and East Coast
entrepreneurs, who funded economic development.
Most Americans welcomed the Second Bank’s policy of forcing unsound western
banks to close.
Eastern entrepreneurs and bankers opposed the Second Bank because it strove to
limit their plans for national economic development.
Jackson’s opponents in Congress knew he opposed the Second Bank and
attempted to stall a vote on its charter until he left office.
____ 27. Why did Andrew Jackson veto the bill to recharter the Second Bank of the United States in 1832?
a. His opponents in Congress, most of whom supported the Second Bank, had tried
to embarrass him politically.
He thought it interfered with the rights of states and the liberties of the people.
French aristocrats had invested heavily in the bank and he objected to their
One of his major congressional opponents, Daniel Webster, directed the Boston
branch of the bank.
____ 28. Which of the following arguments did President Jackson offer as a justification for destroying the
Second Bank of the United States?
a. The bank had not been successful at stabilizing the currency.
b. It had not been able to influence credit in a satisfactory manner.
c. The U.S. government was forced to play too large a role in managing the bank.
d. It was a monopoly that benefited only a few owners, some of whom were
Name: ______________________
____ 29. Which of the following statements describes Jackson’s veto of the bill rechartering the Second Bank
of the United States in 1832?
a. The action was unpopular and surprised most Americans, who thought the issue
had been resolved.
b. Andrew Jackson vetoed the bill for his own reasons and without offering any
reason or explanation to the public.
c. It was a popular move, blending constitutional arguments, an appeal to patriotism,
and class rhetoric.
d. Jackson staked his presidency on the veto, declaring that he would resign if
Congress passed the bill over his veto.
____ 30. Which of the following statements characterizes Andrew Jackson’s intentions toward Native
Americans during his presidency?
a. He planned to encourage missionaries to convert the tribes east of the Mississippi
River to Christianity and white culture.
b. Jackson intended to force Native Americans to comply with federal treaties, even
when they ran counter to the national interest.
c. He sought better relations with the “civilized” Indians of the Old Southwest,
encouraging them to continue their adaptation to white ways.
d. Jackson meant to remove all Native Americans east of the Mississippi, even those
who had adapted to white society.
____ 31. Sequoyah developed which of the following to assimilate members of the Cherokee tribe into
American life?
a. A new charter of government modeled directly on the U.S. Constitution
b. A political party that appealed to Native Americans of all tribes
c. A bank that issued notes to encourage economic development for the Cherokee
d. A perfected system of writing for the Cherokee language
____ 32. The Trail of Tears was the direct consequence of which of the following government actions?
a. The Louisiana Purchase
b. Worcester v. Georgia
c. Indian Removal Act of 1830
d. The Bad Axe Massacre
____ 33. What occurred during the Bad Axe Massacre of 1832?
a. Seminole Indians in Florida ambushed the U.S. Army unit Jackson sent to remove
U.S. troops pursued Black Hawk’s followers into Wisconsin and killed 850 of his
U.S. troops surrounded and massacred an entire Cherokee village in Georgia.
The Choctaw chief Bad Axe fought a pitched battle against white settlers in
Name: ______________________
____ 34. In the U.S. Supreme Court case of Worcester v. Georgia (1832), John Marshall and the Court
majority issued a decision that
a. upheld Georgia’s rights to Cherokee lands.
b. sanctioned the stationing of federal troops on tribal lands.
c. declared the 1830 Indian Removal Act unconstitutional.
d. upheld Indian nations’ political authority in their communities.
____ 35. Which of the following describes the ruling by the Roger B. Taney Supreme Court in Mayor of New
York v. Miln?
a. The Taney Court ruled that New York State could inspect the health of arriving
b. The Court reduced the regulatory role of the New York State government.
c. The justices allowed a bank owned by the state of Kentucky to issue currency.
d. The Court did not expand the economic powers granted to states in the
Constitution of 1787.
____ 36. In the landmark case of Charles River Bridge Co. v. Warren Bridge Co. (1837), Chief Justice Roger
B. Taney and the U.S. Supreme Court did which of the following?
a. Reaffirmed John Marshall’s interpretation of the contract clause in the U.S.
b. Upheld the protected legal position of existing state-chartered monopolies
c. Encouraged competitive enterprise, opening the way for legislatures to charter
railroad companies
d. Ruled that the city of New York could use its “police power” to inspect new
immigrants’ health
____ 37. In which of the following ways was Chief Justice Roger Taney different from his predecessor, John
a. Marshall was a Democrat while Taney was a Whig.
b. Marshall was nationally oriented while Taney favored states’ rights.
c. Taney was a more avid believer in the sanctity of contracts.
d. Unlike Marshall, Taney had a nationalistic interpretation of the commerce clause.
____ 38. Which of the following statements describes the impact of the Jacksonian-era constitutional
revolution on the states?
a. Between 1830 and 1860, twenty states revised their charters and enhanced
b. States began to pass their own tariff laws and print their own currency.
c. The “commonwealth” philosophy of economic development was strengthened.
d. The power of state governments to regulate business was enhanced.
Name: ______________________
____ 39. Most of the new state constitutions written between 1830 and 1860 did which of the following?
a. Gave all men the right to vote
b. Reapportioned state legislatures on the basis of population
c. Required the appointment of most public officials such as sheriffs and judges
d. Allowed the states to grant special charters to corporations
____ 40. On which issue was the Whig philosophy of the 1830s critically different from that of the
Federalists in the 1790s?
a. National bank
b. Industrialization
c. Role of the federal government
d. Rule by an elite based on talent
____ 41. John C. Calhoun challenged the northern Whig economic ideology by arguing
a. that northern factory owners and southern slave owners had nothing in common.
b. that advanced civilizations always had antagonism between workers and
that American society was essentially a classless one.
for federal supremacy over the states and a strong tariff.
____ 42. Working Men’s Parties of the late 1820s and 1830s called for which of the following reforms?
a. The abolition of the factory system
b. Nationalization of factories and their management by workers
c. The abolition of debtors’ prisons
d. The abolition of slavery
____ 43. In 1834, the Working Men’s Party persuaded the Pennsylvania legislature to do which of the
a. Allow collective bargaining by labor unions
b. Create a free, tax-supported public school system
c. Mandate a ten-hour workday for all factory workers
d. Require that workers be paid time-and-a-half for overtime
____ 44. Which of the following developments spurred the Panic of 1837?
a. Cotton prices dropped to an all-time low.
b. The stock market crashed, causing widespread bankruptcy.
c. The Bank of England curtailed British investment in the United States.
d. State governments throughout the country defaulted on their debts.
Name: ______________________
____ 45. Which of the following laws required the Treasury department to accept only gold and silver in
payment for purchases of federal land?
a. The Independent Treasury Act of 1840
b. The Specie Circular
c. The National Road Bill
d. The Commercial Credit Act
____ 46. President Martin Van Buren responded to the Panic of 1837 by
a. revoking Andrew Jackson’s Specie Circular of 1836.
b. adopting a hands-off, limited-government stance.
c. instituting an extensive public works program.
d. depositing government gold and silver from private banks.
____ 47. Which of the following statements characterizes the presidential campaign of 1840?
a. Whig organizers pinned their hopes on clear explanations of the American System
and on the voters’ desire for national moral purification.
The Whigs’ campaign was a carnival of speeches, parades, and mass meetings to
demonstrate the man-of-the-people qualities of their presidential candidate.
The Democrats outdid the Whigs by presenting Martin Van Buren as the true man
of the people, in the tradition of Andrew Jackson.
Big businesses and labor unions contributed large sums of money to the candidates
for the first time in American history.
____ 48. In the election of 1840, Whigs boosted their electoral hopes by appealing to which of the following
a. Irish immigrants
b. Women
c. Wealthy Northern businessmen
d. Freemasons
____ 49. Which of the following describe John Tyler and his presidency?
a. He had become famous as a hero during the War of 1812.
b. Tyler was a longtime supporter of the American system.
c. He so angered Whigs that he was kicked out of the party while president.
d. Tyler’s presidency faithfully upheld Harrison’s priorities.
Name: ______________________
____ 50. Which of the following statements characterizes the American party system by the early 1840s?
a. As the 1840 election demonstrated, the Whigs clearly held the edge in party
discipline and mass loyalty.
The two parties offered nearly the same social and economic platform but
employed differing campaign styles to attract voters.
The practice of Americans voting for a particular party along ethnic and religious
lines began to emerge.
The Democrats had a major advantage in their wealth and the cohesiveness of their
leadership and support.
Name: ______________________
Short Answer
Answer each question with three or four sentences.
1. How do you explain John Quincy Adams’s great success as secretary of state (see Chapter 7) and
his relative lack of success as president?
2. What were Andrew Jackson’s policies on banking and tariffs? How did they evolve? Do you think
those policies helped or hurt the American economy? Why?
3. How did the constitutional interpretations of the Taney Court differ from those of the Marshall
Court? What changed as a result of the Taney Court’s decisions?
4. Why was Andrew Jackson so popular?
5. Why did John C. Calhoun believe that “constitutional government and the government of a majority
are utterly incompatible”? How did the politics of his day reinforce his belief?
6. Why did the Democrats win the election of 1836 but lose the election of 1840?
7. How did the ideology of the Whigs differ from that of the Working Men’s Party? How did it differ
from that of the Jacksonian Democrats?
8. Explain the rise of the Second Party System. How would you characterize American politics in the
early 1840s?
9. How did workers react to the changes in their lives that resulted from industrialization from the
1820s to the 1840s?
10. On what basis did Americans decide to become Democrats or Whigs in the 1830s and 1840s?
Name: ______________________
Essay Questions
Answer each of the following questions with an essay. Be sure to include specific examples
that support your thesis and conclusions.
1. Discuss the relationship between the growth of democracy and the emergence of disciplined political
parties in the period between 1810 and the 1840s. Were the two developments necessarily linked?
Or did they just happen at the same time? Explain your answer.
2. Discuss the impact of the Industrial Revolution on the increasing democratization of American
politics. How and why did the Industrial Revolution lead to more democratized politics?
3. Andrew Jackson ran his campaigns for president in the 1820s promising to transform American
politics. In what respects did the Jackson era fundamentally change American public policy? Was his
presidency revolutionary or evolutionary?
4. How did the policies of the U.S. government toward Native Americans change between the 1800s
and the 1840s? Why did Jackson support Indian removal? Did removal help to preserve, or to
destroy, Native American culture? Explain your answer.
5. The chapter argues that a democratic revolution swept America in the decades after 1820. What
evidence does the text present to support this argument? How persuasive is the evidence?
Name: ______________________
Select the word or phrase from the Terms section that best matches the definition or
example provided in the Definitions section.
a. franchise
b. notables
c. political machine
d. spoils system
e. caucus
f. American System
g. internal improvements
h. corrupt bargain
i. “consolidated government”
j. Tariff of Abominations
k. nullification
l. states’ rights
m. Second Bank of the United States
n. Indian Removal Act of 1830
o. Trail of Tears
p. classical liberalism or laissez-faire)
q. Whigs
r. Panic of 1837
s. Specie Circular
t . ethnocultural politics
1. Forced westward journey of Cherokees from their lands in Georgia to present-day Oklahoma in
1838. Nearly a quarter of the Cherokees died en route.
2. A term used by Andrew Jackson’s supporters for the appointment by President John Quincy
Adams of Henry Clay as his secretary of state, the traditional stepping-stone to the presidency.
Clay had used his influence as Speaker of the House to elect Adams rather than Jackson in the
election in 1824.
3. A highly organized group of insiders that directs a political party. As the power of notables waned in
the 1820s, disciplined political parties usually run by professional politicians appeared in a number
of states.
4. Northern landlords, slave-owning planters, and seaport merchants who dominated the political
system of the early nineteenth century.
5. Second major economic crisis of the United States, which led to hard times from 1837 to 1843.
Name: ______________________
6. The mercantilist program of national economic development advocated by Henry Clay and adopted
by John Quincy Adams, with a national bank to manage the nation’s financial system; protective
tariffs to provide revenue and encourage industry; and a nationally funded network of roads, canals,
and railroads.
7. Political allegiance that is determined less by party policy than by membership in a specific ethnic or
religious group.
8. Law that directed the mandatory relocation of eastern tribes to territory west of the Mississippi.
Jackson insisted that his goal was to save the Indians and their culture. Indians resisted the
controversial act, but in the end most were forced to comply.
9. The principle that the less government does, the better, particularly in reference to the economy.
____ 10. Enacted in 1828, it raised duties significantly on raw materials, textiles, and iron goods. New York
Senator Van Buren hoped to win the support of farmers in New York, Ohio, and Kentucky with
this, but it enraged the South, which had no industries that needed tariff protection and resented the
higher cost of duties on imported goods.
____ 11. The second national party, which arose in 1834 when a group of congressmen contested Andrew
Jackson’s policies and conduct. The party identified itself with the pre-Revolutionary American and
British parties—who went by the same name—that had opposed the arbitrary actions of British
____ 12. National bank with multiple branches chartered in 1816 for twenty years. Intended to help regulate
the economy, the bank became a major issue in Andrew Jackson’s reelection campaign in 1832.
____ 13. The right to vote. Between 1820 and 1860, most states revised their constitutions to extend the vote
to all adult white males. Black adult men gained the right to vote with the passage of the Fourteenth
Amendment (1868). The Nineteenth Amendment (1920) granted adult women the right to vote.
____ 14. The widespread award of public jobs to political supporters after an electoral victory. In 1829,
Andrew Jackson instituted the practice on the national level, arguing that the rotation of officeholders
was preferable to a permanent group of bureaucrats.
____ 15. An interpretation of the Constitution that exalts the sovereignty of the states and circumscribes the
authority of the national government.
____ 16. An executive order in 1836 that required the Treasury Department to accept only gold and silver in
payment for lands in the national domain.
____ 17. A meeting held by a political party to choose candidates, make policies, and enforce party discipline.
____ 18. The constitutional argument advanced by John C. Calhoun that a state legislature or convention could
void a law passed by Congress.
____ 19. Public works such as roads and canals.
Name: ______________________
____ 20. A powerful and potentially oppressive national government.
Map Activity
The Election of 1828
Choose the letter on the map that correctly identifies the home state of each of the following political
____ 21. Andrew Jackson
____ 22. John C. Calhoun
____ 23. Martin Van Buren
____ 24. Henry Clay
____ 25. John Quincy Adams
Name: ______________________
Source-based Multiple Choice
Choose the letter of the best answer.
The following questions refer to the following excerpt.
We are in the midst of a revolution, hitherto bloodless, but rapidly tending toward a total change of the
pure republican character of the government, and to the concentration of all power in the hands of one
man. The powers of Congress are paralyzed, except when exerted in conformity with his will, by frequent
and an extraordinary exercise of the executive veto, not anticipated by the founders of our Constitution,
and not practiced by any of the predecessors of the present chief magistrate. . . .
The judiciary has not been exempt from the prevailing rage for innovation. Decisions of the tribunals,
deliberately pronounced, have been contemptuously disregarded. . . . Our Indian relations, coeval with the
existence of the government, and recognized and established by numerous laws and treaties, have been
subverted. . . . The system of protection of improvement lies crushed beneath the veto. The system of
protection of American industry [will soon meet a similar fate]. . . . In a term of eight years, a little
more than equal to that which was required to establish our liberties [as an independent republic between
1776 and 1783], the government will have been transformed into an elective monarchy—the worst of
all forms of government.
Henry Clay, Introducing a Senate Resolution Censuring Jackson, December 26, 1833
1. The passage above best serves as evidence of
the primacy of the judiciary in determining the meaning of the Constitution.
debates over the authority of different branches of the federal government.
the Constitution’s failure to define precisely the relationship between American
Indian tribes and the national government.
how regional interests continued to trump national concerns for many political
leaders of the period.
2. The central context for the opinion expressed in this passage is
a. the Market Revolution.
b. westward expansion.
c. the call for the abolition of slavery.
d. the transformation to a more participatory democracy.
Name: ______________________
The following questions refer to the following speech excerpt.
It would seem to be humiliating to be under the necessity, in the nineteenth century, of entering into a
formal argument to prove the utility, and to free governments, the absolute necessity of education. . . .
Such necessity would be degrading to a Christian age and a free republic. If an elective republic is to
endure for any great length of time, every elector must have sufficient information, not only to
accumulate wealth and take care of his pecuniary concerns, but to direct wisely the Legislatures, the
Ambassadors, and the Executive of the nation; for some part of all these things, some agency in
approving or disapproving of them, falls to every freeman. If, then, the permanency of our government
depends upon such knowledge, it is the duty of government to see that the means of information be
diffused to every citizen. This is a sufficient answer to those who deem education a private and not a
public duty—who argue that they are willing to educate their own children, but not their neighbor’s
Thaddeus Stevens, Speech before the Pennsylvania General Assembly on behalf of the Free Public
School Act of 1834, February 1835.
3. Which of the following events in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries represents a
continuation of beliefs described in the excerpt above?
a. Efforts by Progressives to reform existing institutions to expand democracy
b. Arguments that the wealthy have an obligation to help the less fortunate
c. Corruption in government energizing the public to demand major overhauls of the capitalist system
d. Immigrants seeking to both “Americanize” and maintain their unique identities
4. The passage above best serves as evidence of
a. resistance to initiatives for democracy and inclusion.
b. romantic beliefs in human perfectibility.
c. the emergence of a new national culture.
d. debates on the scope of the federal government’s role in the economy.