SPHS 2018 10th Grade Anthem Summer Reading Assignment The Google Docs Link for this Assignment: https://docs.google.com/document/d/1H_wvYg7LEiPTZlzrRtG7bHo8uhNDpEcJG_WhZ4vQE0/edit?usp=sharing The General Assignment: For summer reading for sophomore year English, you will read Ayn Rand’s novella (short novel) Anthem and then do the assignment below. Please type it into the Word or Docs version of this assignment, please do not alter it or change font or margins. You may be required to submit it through Turnitin.com. This work will be used on the first essay of the school year, which we will start in September. Anthem is a short book, even shorter than Animal Farm. You can acquire the reading in 4 different ways: it is provided in PDF form on the school’s website, it is in the public domain so you can just Google it and find it, every public library in America should have a copy, or you can purchase your own copy. Below is the assigned work associated with the summer reading. It is due when school starts – not later. Directions: Below you will find six sets of definitions, ideas, and themes (main ideas deliberately put into the writing of a text to be discovered and explored by readers) in Anthem or that will help you better understand Anthem. For each set of definitions/ideas/themes, provide two different quotes, of any length, from Anthem that have something to say about those ideas/definitions/themes. These quotes should be cited properly using MLA parenthetical citations. (Author’s Last Name Page#) Ex: (Rand 4). For each quote: 1. Connect: In a few complete sentences, write how the content of each quote builds off of, changes, confronts, explains, alters, defends (agree), refutes (disagree), or qualifies (agree to an extent) any of the ideas/definitions/themes the quote is about. 2: Think: In a few complete sentences, answer one part of this question: What essential question(s) does this quote ask or make its readers think about the ideas/definitions/themes OR what does this quote say about the human condition? Also, before each set of definitions/ideas/themes you will find the definition of dystopia. Anthem is technically a post-apocalyptic work of dystopian fiction. Read the definition of Dystopia and follow the prompts to try to figure out the dystopian purpose of Anthem. Grading: Each response will be judged on quality over quality. Each Quote will be judged on how properly it is cited and how well it relates to the ideas/definitions/themes. Each Connection will be judged on how well it addresses the thematic contents of the quote. Each Think will be judged on how well it addresses complexity of the ideas/definitions/themes or the human condition. Definitions: Idea Dystopia Dystopias, through an exaggerated worst-case scenario, make a criticism about a current trend, societal norm, or political system through exaggerations of their consequences. Dystopian fiction depicts a future in which humanity has fallen into decline and ruin, and where life and nature are recklessly exploited and destroyed. The overarching message of dystopian stories is one of warning and mistrust in humanity. So, in your opinion, what two trends, norms, or systems are being criticized and exaggerated through Anthem? 1: 2: And what is Anthem saying or warning about those trends, norms, or systems? Think: Connect: Quotes: Definitions: Theme 1 Objectivism and Egoism Objectivism: The philosophy of rational individualism, one who lives by his own effort and does not give or receive what is undeserved, who honors achievement and rejects envy. Objectivism holds that there is no greater moral goal than achieving happiness, but one cannot achieve happiness by wish or whim. Happiness requires that one live by objective principles, including moral integrity and respect for the rights of others. Ayn Rand said: "My philosophy, in essence, is the concept of man as a heroic being, with his own happiness as the moral purpose of his life, with productive achievement as his noblest activity, and reason as his only absolute." Egoism: Each human’s primary moral obligation is to achieve his own welfare, well-being, or selfinterest. Individualism/Independence Independence: Reliance on one’s own thinking in the search for truth, and on one’s own effort to support oneself. Individualism: The philosophy that emphasizes the reality and cognitive efficacy of the individual. Individuals are real, not splintered fragments of the group; they can and should be autonomous thinkers, not molded playthings of “social conditioning.” Ayn Rand said: “Individualism regards man—every man— as an independent, sovereign entity who possesses an inalienable right to his own life, a right derived from his nature as a rational being.” Think: Connect: Quotes: Definitions: Theme 2 Think: Connect: Quotes: Definitions: Theme 3 Altruism and Selflessness Altruism: Humans have no right to exist for their own sake; service to others is the only justification of his existence, and that self-sacrifice is his highest moral duty, virtue, and value. Or the moral value of an individual’s actions depends solely on the impact on other individuals, regardless of the consequences on the individual itself. Think: Connect: Quotes: Definitions: Theme 4 Collectivism/Conformity/Dependence Dependence: Permitting other people to dominate one’s thinking and one’s life; a refusal to think, a willingness to derive one’s beliefs uncritically from others, either by means of blind obedience or an equally blind rebellion. Conformity: The act or habit of bringing oneself into harmony or agreement with others or adhering to conventions. Ayn Rand said: “Living in unthinking adherence to the judgment, the standards, the values of others.” Collectivism: The reality and cognitive efficacy of society as a whole; only the group is real, only the group’s beliefs determine truth. Ayn Rand said: “Collectivism means the subjugation of the individual to a group—whether to a race, class or state does not matter. Collectivism holds that man must be chained to a collective action and collective thought for the sake of what is called ‘the common good.’” Groupthink: Is the deterioration of mental efficiency, reality testing, and moral judgment in the interest of group solidarity. Groupthink results in an extreme form of consensus, which isolates members from different views and in turn, narrows their perspective. Theme 5 Self-Actualization: Existing vs. Living Maslow's (1943, 1954) Hierarchy of Needs: A motivational theory in psychology comprising a five tier model of human needs, one level must be met before the next level can be achieved. Definitions: 5.1. Transcendence needs - helping others to achieve selfactualization. 5. Self-Actualization needs - realizing personal potential, selffulfillment, seeking personal growth and peak experiences. 4.2. Aesthetic needs - appreciation and search for beauty, balance, form, etc. 4.1. Cognitive needs - knowledge and understanding, curiosity, exploration, need for meaning and predictability. 4. Esteem needs - self-esteem, achievement, mastery, independence, status, dominance, prestige, managerial responsibility, etc. 3. Love and belongingness needs - friendship, intimacy, trust and acceptance, receiving and giving affection and love. Affiliating, being part of a group (family, friends, work). 2. Safety needs - protection from elements, security, order, law, stability, etc. 1. Biological and Physiological needs - air, food, drink, shelter, warmth, sex, sleep, etc. Think: Connect: Quotes: What Is Self-Actualization? Maslow described this concept that was at the peak of his hierarchy this way: "What a man can be, he must be. This need we may call self-actualization...It refers to the desire for self-fulfillment, namely, to the tendency for him to become actualized in what he is potentially. This tendency might be phrased as the desire to become more and more what one is, to become everything that one is capable of becoming." While the theory is generally portrayed as a fairly rigid hierarchy, Maslow noted that the order in which these needs are fulfilled does not always follow this standard progression. For example, he noted that for some individuals, the need for self-esteem is more important than the need for love. For others, the need for creative fulfillment may supersede even the most basic needs. Think: Connect: Quotes: Definitions: Theme 6 Linguistic Relativity and The Sapir-Worf Hypothesis Linguistic Relativity: The hypothesis (not fully proven or disproven) that the structure of a language or the words included in a language can affect its speakers' world view or cognition (ability to think). It is the belief that language determines thought and that linguistic categories limit and determine cognitive categories, or at least, linguistic categories and usage only influence thought and decisions. So basically, humans do complex thinking in words; if you don’t have certain words/language abilities, than you can’t do some levels of thinking.