Uploaded by Kamil q


The sweetness of fruits
comes from a natural
form of sugar called
Fruit is very versatile,
appropriate for
puddings, pies, and
jellies, salads,
appetizers, eaten as
snacks, and served in
soups. Fruits can cut
the richness of meats
like pork and duck, and
enhances the delicate
flavors of fish and veal.
The scientific definition of a fruit
is ‘an organ that develops from
the ovary of a flowering plant and
contains one or more seeds.’ The
culinary definition, however,
limits fruits to those foods
containing a high sugar content.
Winter fruits include citrus
fruits and apples.
Fruits are classified by growing
season and location. The 3
main groups of fruit are
summer, winter, and tropical.
Citrus fruits are characterized by thick skins, aromatic oils, and
segmented flesh. They are abundant in vitamin C. The most common
citrus fruits are oranges, grapefruits (white and sweeter pink varieties),
lemons, limes, tangelos, and tangerines. The flavor of citrus fruits
range from very sweet oranges to very tart, sour lemons.
Apples are a widely
available winter fruit, and
among the most commonly
used of all the fruits.
Carpels are semitransparent pods
that contain seeds
near the core. They
do not soften
during cooking.
The sweet and semi-firm
textures of the Red and
Golden Delicious apples
are best for ‘eating’.
The crisp and tart apples
like the Jonathan and
Granny Smith are best for
baking, as they hold their
shape well during cooking.
The semi-tart McIntosh,
Rome, and Winesap apples
are excellent for
Berries are highly
perishable, tender,
and fragile.
Handle them as
little as possible
and serve them as
soon as possible.
Varieties include
boysenberries, and
Summer fruits include
berries, cherries, grapes,
melons, peaches,
nectarines, plums, and
Cherries range in color from the light red of the Queen Anne to the very
dark, almost black Bing cherry. Flavors range from very tart cherries,
best for baking, to the very sweet and usually darker cherries best for
eating fresh. Cherries can be served fresh or cooked; they can be
frozen or canned or pickled and candied, like the maraschino cherry.
Cherries, along with plums,
peaches, nectarines, and
apricots are called DRUPES.
Drupes all have a central pit
enclosing a single seed.
Peaches have a distinctive fuzzy skin. There
are two categories of peaches:
Apricots have fuzzy
In CLINGSTONE peaches, the pit sits tightly
against the meat and is tougher to remove, but skin like peaches, but
are usually smaller,
the meat is sweeter, darker in color and juicier.
slightly drier and more
It is mostly used in the making of jellies and
orange in color.
jams, and is not commonly found in groceries
Nectarines are also
or markets. In FREESTONE peaches the pit sits
loosely against the meat and is much easier to similar to peaches, but
with a smooth skin
remove. Grown in the southern states, like
and flesh the same
Georgia, they are lighter in color, firmer in
texture of plums.
texture, and tend to be larger than clingstone.
Popular sweet melons are honeydew
and cantaloupe (muskmelon).
Characterized by their tan, green, or
yellow skin, the rind is tough and the
flesh is flavorful. The network of seeds
in the middle are taken out before
Unlike sweet melons, watermelons have
a smooth, thick green skin and are
often much larger in size. The seeds are
scattered throughout the melon.
Plums have a firm flesh and
range in shades of green, red, and
purple. There are two categories:
dessert and cooking. Cooking
plums are generally drier and
more acidic than dessert plums.
Some cooking plums grow wild.
Grapes are technically berries that grow in
clusters on vines, but because they come in
so many varieties with so many uses, they
are grouped separately. They are available
with or without seeds. We eat them, cook
with them, and make wine with them.
California Seedless and Napoleon Red are
two common varieties. White wines
complement the flavor of fish and poultry;
red wines complement the flavor of beef.
Pears have a sweet taste and a
smooth juicy flesh. Common
varieties are Bartlett, Bosc, or
d’Anjou (small dark red or green).
Pears are often picked early,
while the flesh is still very firm
and grainy. Place them in a paper
bag and allow them to ripen at
room temperature.
Tropical fruits are named for the
climatic conditions under which
they grow, and include figs, dates,
kiwis (fuzzy skin with bright greencolored flesh and tiny edible
seeds), mangos (thick-skinned with
a light yellow flesh and spicy-sweet
flavor), bananas, papayas (their
vitamin C content increases as
they ripen), pomegranates, passion
fruit, pineapple, and coconuts
(coconut milk is not the juice from
the center, but a simmered mixture
of water and coconut meat).
Bananas are high in
nutrients and are picked
green and allowed to ripen
during transport. Green
bananas can be cooked;
very overripe bananas can
be used in baking.
The parts of the vegetable
plants we eat include the
leaves, fruit, stems, roots,
In flower vegetables,
tubers, seeds, and flowers.
the flower or FLORET
They are eaten cooked more
part of the plant and
often than fruits are, and have
the stems are eaten.
a lower sugar content.
Only the tender flesh at the base of
each globe artichoke outer leaf is
eaten, scraped off on the teeth.
Then the thistle-type
‘choke’ is removed
and the ‘heart’ of the
artichoke is exposed.
Cut broccoli
Artichokes are sometimes
considered a stem vegetable.
The thick, waxy
leaves of the
cabbage plant stand
up well in stir-frying
and in soups.
lengthwise to
cooking times
for stems and
florets are the
It is believed that cruciferous vegetables may
lower the risk of certain kinds of cancer. These
vegetables are from the cabbage family and
include cabbage, cauliflower, Brussels sprouts,
kale, broccoli, mustard greens, collards,
rutabagas and turnips.
Avocados have leathery green or black skin
with a buttery flavor. They should be served
with lime or lemon juice to prevent the flesh
from turning brown. Guacamole (gwak-ahMOE-lee) is a traditional Mexican dip using
mashed avocados as the main ingredient.
Slicing cucumbers have
smooth skins and are long,
round cylinders with a high
content. Pickling cucumbers
(prickly skin)are best used
for making sweet or dill
pickles. Ones that feel heavy for their size are likely
to be crisper. Smaller cukes have fewer seeds.
Eggplant is a tear-shaped, purple-black vegetable with a glossy skin and
firm flesh, sometimes used as a good replacement for meat. Asian
eggplant, a more slender variety, is typically sweeter. It is always served
cooked. Babaganoush (BAH-bah-gahn-OOSH) is a Middle Eastern dip
using eggplant as the main ingredient.
Bell or sweet peppers are
named for their shape. All
varieties start out green,
and change colors to red,
green, yellow, cream, or
purple as they ripen.
Chili peppers are smaller
and hotter. The seeds are
the hottest part.
Butternut, acorn,
spaghetti, banana,
hubbard, and
Tomatoes are a type of pumpkin are types
berry, ranging in color of winter squash.
from green, to yellow,
Crookneck, and
to bright red. Large,
zucchini are types
green tomatoes can be of summer squash
fried. Vine-ripened
with soft skin and
Tomato products include
tomatoes have the
smaller seeds that
sauce, paste, and ketchup.
best flavor.
can both be eaten.
The light-green leaves of iceberg lettuce are
tightly packed together; the heaviest heads
being the most compact. Remove the core
before storage for a longer shelf life. Both
romaine and leaf lettuce are loosely packed;
the leaves grow upward in bunches and
their edges are slightly ruffled.
Escarole →
Red & green leaf lettuce
There are several types of ‘greens’ used in cooking,
including mustard greens, escarole, and spinach.
They usually have a more bitter, stronger flavor than
the lettuces and are very high in nutrients.
Once the seed vegetables
are picked, they begin to
convert their natural sugars
to starch. They lose their
Green beans
Haricot verts
Fresh beans include green beans, yellow
wax beans, and French haricot verts
(HAIR-ee-ko VAIR). They are all eaten in the
pod… or long, outer shell.
Corn and popcorn,
grown for its small
ears and pointed
Fava Beans Lima Beans
kernels that explode
Broad beans are removed
when heated.
from the pod before cooking.
They are toxic when raw.
Root vegetables are plants
that have a single, large edible
root that extends down into
the ground and provides
nutrients to the part of the
plant above ground.
Carrots contain a large
amount of carotene, a
pigment easily
convertible to vitamin A.
The leaves and
root of beets are
both edible. Large
beets may have a
woody texture.
Pickled beets are
radishes range in
color from bright
reds to pale cream,
making them a good
When young and fresh, half-white,
half-purple turnips range in flavor
from very sweet to a little peppery;
older ones can be hot and bitter. The
flesh is white; the greens are edible.
White onions have the sharpest,
cleanest flavor, best for slicing
on hamburgers. Flattened yellow onions are the
most common and the least expensive. Use these
for most recipes and for onion rings. Very round
yellow, red, and white onions are less “hot”,
somewhat sweeter and crisper. All varieties have a
pungent flavor and aroma and are used as
seasonings. Pearl onions have very small bulbs.
Green onions, also
called scallions, are
common onions
Leeks look like large
pulled when
Vidalia onions:
green onions. They have the
sweet onions only
from South Georgia
mildest flavor of all onions.
Mild-flavored shallots are shaped like
small bulb onions, but separate into
cloves when broken apart.
Garlic is separated into cloves and peeled. Some
believe garlic has medicinal qualities.
Tubers are enlarged,
bulbous roots capable of
generating a new plant. They are actually
fat, underground stems. Like several of the
seed vegetables, these are high in starch.
Potatoes are the most
popular vegetable and
very versatile, able to be
prepared by baking,
boiling, frying, deepfrying, and microwaving.
There are several varieties of potatoes,
served daily in over 60% of U.S. households.
Sweet potatoes have a darker flesh than a
white potato due to a higher sugar content.
The thick skin is not usually eaten.
Yams are similar to sweet potatoes, but not
as sweet. Its flesh ranges in color from
deep red to creamy white.
White oval-shaped potatoes, a variety called Russets, are grown
for baking. As they become tender, the flesh of the potato
becomes mealy. The skin is the only thing that helps this potato
maintain its shape. They are the most expensive potato.
Red potatoes hold their shape well when cooked, so
are best prepared by boiling. These can be boiled, and
then sliced for frying or diced for potato salad.
Round white potatoes can be prepared
by either baking or boiling.
Celery has a high water
content and is very crisp.
The ‘bunch’ is called a
STALK. An individual
piece is called a RIB.
Celery is often served
‘stuffed’ with cheese or
peanut butter.
Mushrooms are a family of
‘fungi’. Purchase from
reliable sources to avoid
poisonous varieties.
Morel; resembles truffle
with earthy nutty flavor
Shitake; 10” cap
mushroom with
meaty flavor
Enoki; resembles bean
sprouts and fruity flavor
Chanterelle with nutty flavor
The USDA (United States Dept. of Agriculture)
has a grading system for fruits and vegetables
to indicate quality, but it is not mandatory in all
cases. USDA grades, from highest to lowest,
are U.S. Extra Fancy, U.S. Fancy, U.S. No. 1,
U.S. No. 2, and U.S. No. 3. Higher qualities are
indicative of excellent colors and flavors and
uniformity of shapes and sizes.
Produce grown by
hydroponic farming methods
(grown in nutrient-enriched
water under regulated light and
temperatures) is not as flavorful.
When purchasing canned fruits,
you may select from those packed
in their own juice (no sugar added),
those packed in light syrup (a small
amount of sugar added), or those
Purchasing produce in the offpacked in heavy syrup (a larger
season is more expensive.
amount of sugar added).
DO NOT wash vegetables until you are ready to
use them. Moisture causes spoilage. Certain fruits
(incl. apples, bananas, melons, and avocados)
emit ethylene gas which causes fruits to ripen.
These should be stored in a sealed container.
Unripe produce will continue to ripen in cool, dry
places. Refrigerate ripened fruits and vegetables
Wash produce
in ventilated plastic or paper bags or in the
before using.
crisper section. Refrigerating bananas will darken
the skins, but delay the ripening of the fruit.
Refrigerate Yukon Gold
potatoes, which are used like
other round potatoes, but have a
yellow flesh and buttery flavor.
Do not refrigerate other potatoes, as the starch
will turn to sugar. Store potatoes and onions in a
cool, dry place…. Unpeeled. Potatoes exposed to
light turn a green color, and develop a bitter taste.
Some fruits and vegetables naturally contain the enzyme
polyphenoloxidase (pol-lee-fen-il-OX-ee-days) that, when combined
with oxygen in the air react to cause discoloration. This process
begins as soon as the skin or peel of the produce is removed.
Apples, pears, bananas,
Tearing lettuce instead of cutting it
grapes, potatoes, lettuce,
with a knife, deters browning.
and avocadoes are all fruits
and vegetables that will turn
brown as the flesh of the
produce is exposed to
oxygen. Lemon juice,
vinegar, powdered ascorbic
acid (Vitamin C)…all used full
strength or diluted with water,
will delay and/or slow the
enzymatic browning. Even
adding salt and/or covering
them with water will help.
Cooking fruits and vegetables results in noticeable changes:
1. COLOR of green vegetables, from the
chlorophyll pigment, turns to dull olive green
if overcooked or exposed to acid. A small
amount of baking soda will brighten the
green color, but destroys nutrients. A small
amount of acid from lemon juice or vinegar
added to red vegetables such as cabbage or
beets that contain the carotenoid or
anthocyanin (an-thoe-SIGH-ah-nin) pigments
restores bright colors damaged by cooking
these vegetables in water containing certain
minerals. An alkali such as soda causes a
blue-green color in red vegetables.
2. TEXTURE changes as heat
softens cell walls, making the
fruit and vegetables more tender.
Overcooking them, however,
may cause them to be mushy.
3. FLAVOR is released during cooking,
making them more pronounced, but
unpleasant flavors.
Fruits flavors
mellow when heated, and become
less acidic.
MACEDOINE (mass-ee-dohn): mixture of fruits or vegetables
1. Use as little water as possible while
cooking vegetables and fruits, and
serve them with the liquid as many
of the nutrients are dissolved in it.
(All vitamins except A,D,E,&K)
Leftover liquids can be used in
soups and mashed potatoes.
2. Cut the vegetables and fruits in
large pieces rather than very small
ones. Nutrients leave the food item
Fruits and vegetables are excellent
through the cut surfaces.
sources of vitamins ( like A & C),
minerals (such as potassium), and
Nutrients are
fiber. They are low in fat and 3. Don’t overcook!
destroyed by exposure to heat,
sodium and have no cholesterol.
Bananas are an excellent source of
potassium…a mineral needed to
prevent cramping of leg muscles.
especially over long periods of
time. Cook fruits and vegetables as
quickly as possible.
Pierce skins of whole
potatoes before
avoid bursting.
FRYING is a popular
method of preparing
vegetables. Potatoes and onion
rings can be deep fat fried.
STIR-FRYING requires a large, hot
surface, like a wok. Chopped
onions, garlic, or green pepper might
be SAUTÉED in butter.
cooks vegetables or fruits in boiling
water. This allows the skins of produce
such as peaches or tomatoes to be
easily removed.
a la king: served in cream sauce with vegetables
Peppers, sweet corn,
tomatoes… benefit with
a flavor burst from being
SIMMERING is a method
of slow-cooking in liquid.
Keep the temperature at
or just under boiling.
STEAMING minimizes nutrient
loss. It may take a little longer
than placing the food directly in
a liquid, however. There are a
variety of steamers available on
the market.
BAKING is cooking in
dry heat in an oven.
TEMPURA is a Japanese method of
breading and deep-frying
GLAZING is a finishing
technique. A small
amount of sugar or syrup
is added to or brushed
over the vegetable to BOUQUETIERE: a mix of fresh
vegetables, in season
give it a glossy
appearance as it heats. JARDINIERE: diced, mixed vegetables
called stewing, is a
method of cooking
in liquid. The goal
is retention of
shape. Use just
enough water to
cover fruit, and add
water for a little
sweetness and help
in retaining shape.
Popular fruit sauces include applesauce
or a fresh berry coulis (cool-LEE) which is
a sauce made from a purée of vegetables
or fruit that can be served hot or cold.
Begin by cooking the fruit in liquid, such
as water, until the fruit has broken down.
Add a sweetener such as sugar, honey, or
syrup. Once the sauce has cooled, spices
or other flavorings can be added as
desired. A purée will be smooth if put in a
blender or through a sieve.
A compote is
stewed fresh or
dried fruit, fruit
cooked in water and
sugar (a syrup), and
served as a hot or
cold dessert.
Chutney is
any relish type
mixture made
from chopped
fruits or
The “relish tray” has become
standard fare on many tables
and buffets. Raw vegetables
(including cucumbers that have
been made into sweet and dill
pickles) and olives (black, green,
stuffed, etc.) are high in
nutrients and very colorful. Their
crisp texture adds variety to any
meal. They make a low-calorie,
high-fiber snack.
Crudités (croo-dee-TAY): A
French term for raw vegetables
served as a relish.
Wasabi: Japanese horseradish condiment