IMMUNOLOGY AND BLOOD BANKING TERMINOLOGIES Blood Banking: refers to the process of collecting, separating, and storing blood. Serology: is the scientific study of blood serum. Immunology: is a branch of biology that is concerned with the process by which all living organisms defend themselves against infection. AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome): a life-threatening disease caused by a virus and chracterized by the breakdown of the body’s immune defenses. Allergen: any substance that causes an allergy. Allergy: an inappropriate and harmful response of the immune system to normally harmless substances Anaphylactic shock: is a life threatening allergic reaction characterized by a swelling of body tissues including the throat, difficulty breathing, and a sudden fall in blood pressure. Antibody: is a soluble protein molecule produced and secreted by B cells in response to an antigen. Antigen: is any substance that is recognized by the immune system when introduced into the body. Autoimmune Disease: a disease that results from the immune system mistakenly attacks the body’s own tissues. B-cell: are small white blood cells that are derived from the bone marrow and will develop into plasma cells. Blood donor: the one who donates blood. Blood recipient: the one who receives the blood donated by the donor. Blood typing: the process of identifying the patient’s blood type. Bone Marrow: is the soft tissue located in the cavities of the bones that produces all blood cells. Cell washing: is the process of removing non-cellular substances like proteins, antibodies, and electrolytes from the whole blood. Cell: is the basic unit of life. Centrifuge/Serofuge: is a machine used to spin specimens such as blood and solutions in order to separate solid and liquid substances. Coagulation: is the process by which a clot is formed. Decantation: is the process of removing the liquid portion from a centrifuged solution by pouring. Dengue: is a disease caused by the dengue virus. Erythrocytes: also known as red blood cells. These carry the oxygen throughout the body. These also contain antigens on its cell membrane that determine a person’s blood type. Granulocytes: These are white blood cells that are filled with granules containing potent chemicals that allow the digestion of cells and the production of inflammatory reaction. Examples are neutrophils, eosinophils, and basophils. HDN (Hemolytic Disease of the Newborn): is a blood disorder that occurs when the blood types of a mother and baby are incompatible. Hepatitis A: is a disease wherein the liver is inflamed which is caused by the Hepatitis A Virus that is trasmitted through the fecal-oral route. This has an incubation period of 2-6 weeks. Hepatitis B: is a disease wherein the liver is inflamed which is caused by the Hepatits B Virus that is transmitted via blood and body fluids. This has an incubation period of 2-6 months. HIV(Human Immunodeficiency Virus): the virus that causes AIDS. Hypersensitivity: refers to the excessive and undesirable reactions produced by a normal immune system. Immunity: it is the ability of an organism to resist disease. Immunocompromised: is a condition wherein the immune system is weakened and the patient is vulnerable to infections. Immunoglobulin: a family of large protein molecules, also known as antibodies. Immunosuppresion: this is the inactivation of immune responses, for instance, by giving drugs to prevent transplant rejection. Leukocytes: also known as white blood cells. These protect the body from microorganisms and foreign objects. These include Monocyte, Lymphocyte, Eosinophils, Basophils, and Neutrophils. Lymph nodes: are small bean-shaped organs of the immune system that are distributed widely throughout the body and are linked by lymphatic vessels. Lymphatic organs: are organs of the immune system where lymphocytes develop and congregate. They include bone marrow, thymus, lymph nodes, spleen, and various other clusters of lymphoid tissue. Macrophages: are phagocytes that developed from monocytes. Natural killer cells: are large granule-filled lymphocytes that take on tumor cells and infected body cells. Phagocytes: are large white blood cells that contribute to the immune defenses by ingesting microbes or other cells and foreign particles. Plasma cell: are large, antibody-producing cells developed from B cells that produce antibodies. Plasma: is the liquid portion of uncoagulated blood that contains clotting factors. Platelet Concentrate: also known as Platelet Transfusion. This is used to prevent or treat bleeding in people with either a low platelet count or poor platelet function. Platelets: are granule-containing cellular fragments critical for blood clotting and sealing off wounds. PSA (Prostate Specific Antigen): is a protein produced by the prostate gland. This can be used for the determination of prostate cancer. Rheumatoid arthritis: a autoimmune disorder wherein the immune system mistakenly attacks the joints. Serological tests: are blood tests used to look for antibodies in the blood. Serum: is the liquid portion of coagulated blood that does not contain clotting factors. Stem cell: are undifferentiated biological cells that can differentiate into specialized cells and can divide to produce more stem cells. T-cell: are small white blood cells that develop from the thymus. They participate in immune defenses and secrete lymphokines. Thymus: is a primary lymphoid organ where T lymphocytes proliferate and mature. Transfusion: the process of transferring blood or blood components from one person (the donor) into the bloodstream of another person (the recipient) Transplant: is a medical operation in which a part of a person's body is replaced with the same organ but from another person (donor). Tumor: is an abnormal growth of cells that serves no purpose. Type A: is a blood type with A antigens on its surface. Type AB: is a blood type with A and B antigens on its surface. Type B: is a blood type with B antigens on its surface. Type O: is a blood type with H antigens on its surface. Typing sera: a reagent used in the determination of a patient’s blood type. Vaccine: a substance that contains antigenic components from an infectious organism. Water bath: is a machine used to incubate solutions. Whole Blood: blood with all its components.