Comparison of Early River Valley Civilizations Civilization Sumer Egypt Indus Valley China Geography Power and People Science and Technology Comparison of Early River Valley Civilizations Civilization Sumer Geography Fertile Crescent rivers made land good for farming Power and People Independent city-states (just like separate countries), often wars between them Flooding of Tigris and Euphrates Rivers unpredictable City-states first governed by priests, then by generals who became kings No natural barriers Egypt City-states eventually united into first empires by conquerors (Sargon ruled world's first empire) Limited natural resouce for making tools or buildings Uniform system of laws (applied to all groups) - Hammurabi's Code Flooding of the Nile predictable Worshipped 3,000 gods and had a dismal (sad) view of afterlife United kingdom with strong government organization Science and Technology Irrigation Cuneiform - the first system of writing Bronze Wheel, sail, plow Hieroglyphic writing Pyramids Nile an easy transportation link between villages (downstream current, upstream winds) Indus Valley China Theocracy with pharoahs rulings as gods Mathematics, Geometry Believed in beautiful afterlife Medicine Allowed women to trade and seek Deserts were natural divorce barriers (Red Land was desert, Black Land was Pharoahs built pyramids fertile soil) Indus flooding Strong centralized government unpredictable Planned cities Monsoon winds Social divisions not too important Mountains, deserts were natural barriers Huang He flooding unpredictable Community and family more important than individual Mountains, deserts natural barriers Feudalism - Sharp divisions between nobles and peasants Geography isolated China from other civilizations Mandate of Heaven Dynastic Cycle - until 1900 A.D. Calendar as accurate as our calendar today Writing (not yet deciphered, which means not figured out) Cities layed out on a precise grid (like streets and avenues) Plumbing and sewage systems Writing - had to know at least 1,000 characters to know how to read Silk - from caterpillars Cast Iron - built blast furnaces to create great heat Essay (30 points) Choose any one of the following essay questions and answer it in several complete paragraphs. Make sure each of your paragraphs begins with a single, clear topic sentence and has complete sentences with supporting details. A. Geography (rivers, floods, deserts, mountains, winds, resources) had a great affect on how civilizations developed. Choose any three of the river valley civilizations we studied and give several examples of how geography affected each civilization. (Remember: effects can be both good or bad.) OR B. The early river valley civilizations each had different systems of government and organization. Choose any three of these civilizations and explain how each society was ruled and organized. OR C. Great advances in science (knowledge) and technology (inventions) improved the lives of the people in each of the early river valley civilizations. Choose any three civilizations we studied and for each one describe how the advances in science and technology improved the lives of the people.