Uploaded by Micah Beñosa

Microscopic Study of Some Living Plant Cells

Group 4
Alanan, Nerwell Jean F.
Apelido, Rey Dominic V.
Baure,Jillane G.
Beñosa, Christelle Marie P.
Activity #1: Microscopic Study of Some Living Plant Cells
I. Introduction
The study of the cells is of great importance for us to be able to understand
comprehensively all life by starting at the fundamental. The discovery of the
microscope has opened up a whole new dimension in science. Its importance is
very much appreciated when investigating structures and functions of cells from
different organisms since the cell is the basic unit of life.
II. Objectives
To gain information on the general structure of relatively simple living
plant cells.
III. Methods
A. Mature Trichome Cells: (Cucurbita maxima Duch - squash)
Make a temporary mount of squash trichomes or hairs. Put a small
drop of water on the glass slide. Place specimen (only a few hairs) and
cover with a cover slip over the specimen. Tilt the cover slip over the
specimen on the glass slide. Supporting the raised cover slip slowly,
examine a living cell under, the high power objective and identify the parts
B. Mature Onion Cell: (Allium cepa L.)
Make a temporary mount of a strip of onion epidermis. Using a blade,
remove the inner layer of epidermis from the concave surface of one of
the onion bulb layers. The layer of epidermis should be transparent.
Place it immediately in a drop of dilute iodine or Lugol’s solution at the
center of a clean glass slide. Be sure that the strip of epidermis is spread
out flat.Using toothpicks, we straightened out any folds in the onion skin.
Carefully place over the whole mount a clean cover strip.
C. Mature Green Leaf Cells of Elodea:
(Hydrilla verticellata (Roxb) Hoyle)
Take a leaf from an actively growing shoot of Elodea or Hydrilla which
has been exposed to bright light or have been pressed hard against the
glass slide with the thumb to induce cyclosis or streaming of the
protoplasm. Make a temporary mount placing the lower surface of the leaf
next to the slide. Observe the arrangement of cells under low power. Find
the portion of the leaf where you can see clearly and change to high
power. Observe either the cells of the upper layer of the tooth-shaped
cells along the margin.
D. Mature Epidermal Cells with Chloroplasts and Pitted Cell Walls
(Capsicum annuum L. or red sweet pepper)
Using a very sharp razor blade, make a very thin section of the
epidermis of a red sweet pepper. Mount this in Lugol’s solution and
examine under the low power objective. Then switch to high power to
observe the canals called pits through thick cell walls.
IV. Results/Answers
A. Mature Trichome Cells: (Cucurbita maxima Duch. - squash)
1. Under the LPO, how many cells do you see in each trichome?
We were able to see three cells in each trichome under the LPO.
2. Where is the nucleus in these cells?
The nucleus, which appears to be a dark glob, is located inside
the cell and surrounded by clear spaces known as the vacuole.
3. Where is the cytoplasm?
The cytoplasm is enclosed inside the cell membrane. Sections of
the cytoplasm has these thread-like structures - the cytoplasmic
strands - that keeps the nucleus in place.
4. Study Plate IV - The Plant Cell in squash hair. Label all parts seen.
Indicate its correct magnification.
Total magnification: 100x
Cell wall
Cell membrane
Cytoplasmic Strand
Total magnification: 400x
Total magnification: 40x
B. Mature Onion Cell: (Allium cepa L.)
1. Cell wall - transparent, thick-walled delimiting each cell.
Is it uniform in thickness?
Yes, the cell walls are uniform in thickness.
ii. What do you call the narrow canals or depressions found at
intervals along the cell walls?
Plasmodesmata. They are plasma membrane-lined channels
that passes through plant cell walls and allows cytoplasmic
exchange between adjacent plant cells. It provides passage of
ions and small molecules, but also of macromolecules such as
RNA or proteins.
2. Cytoplasm - a thin, transparent, finely granular layer, completely
lining the cell wall, sides, top and bottom. The center of the cell is
occupied by the clear, colorless cell sap which fill the vacuole.
Can you distinguish the protoplast clearly.
Yes, the protoplast can be distinguised.
ii. Are plastids present in the cell?
Yes, plastids are present in the cell.
iii. Are they colored?
No, they are colorless.
iv. Can you discern cytoplasmic strands?
Yes, it can be discern.
3. Nucleus - a rather dense, globular body embedded in the
cytoplasm at the side, top or bottom of the cell. Within the nucleus,
note the brighter smaller but rounded body or nucleolus.
i. How many nucleoli do you observe?
Under our observation, we were only able to see one nucleolus.
ii. What occupy the spaces in between the cytoplasmic strands?
We identified the spaces in between as vacuoles.
4. Label the parts of a mature onion cell shown on Plate III showing
all the canals or the plasmodesmata on cell wall. Indicate its correct
Total magnification: 100x
Plasma membrane
Cell wall
Cytoplasmic Strands
C. Mature Green Leaf Cells of Elodea:
(Hydrilla verticellata (Roxb) Hoyle)
1. Cell wall - Does each cell have its own wall?
Yes, as observed in our specimen.
2. Draw one mature leaf cell of Hydrilla verticellata 70 ml. long.
Indicate with arrows the direction of the protoplasmic streaming and
get its correct magnification.
Total magnification: 100x
D. Mature Epidermal Cells with Chromoplasts and Pitted Cell Walls:
(Capsicum annuum L. or red sweet pepper)
1. What do you call those rounded colored bodies scattered
abundantly all over the epidermis?
They are called chloroplasts and they give the epidermis of the
bell pepper its red color.
Total magnification: 400x
1. Do adjacent cells share a common wall?
Yes they do.
2. Of what material is the cell composed?
Cellulose, a polymer made out of repeating glucose molecules, composes the
cell wall which surrounds the cell. Additionally, lignin also comprises a portion of
the cell wall. It provides mechanical support for stems & leaves and supplies the
strength and rigidity of the cell wall.
3. How do you account for the apparent presence of the nucleus within
central vacuole of some Elodea cells?
The nucleus located in the central vacuole of the cell is far more apparent
compared to nuclei found in the other parts of the cell. This is due to the high
number of chloroplasts found in the cell, which is less abundant compared to the
central vacuole. Thus, the nucleus is visible in the central vacuole.
4. Due to circumstances, we weren’t able to record the movement of chloroplasts
in the plant cell. Not enough sunlight and stimuli were the reasons. However, we
will try to explain it conceptually.
In what direction does the streaming of cytoplasm in Elodea
The chloroplasts move around the cell’s central vacuole during its
streaming. They move in a cyclic manner - either clockwise or
counter-clockwise direction.
ii. Is the direction of streaming the same in all cells showing it?
Not necessarily. Some cells have a clockwise streaming and
others have a counter-clockwise streaming.
iii. Does the direction of streaming change?
No, it remains the same all throughout the streaming.
iv. Is the speed of movement the same in all cells?
No, they are different. Some cells streams fast while others are
5. Characterize mature plant cells in contrast to young ones.
Based on our observations of plant cells, younger cells tend to have multiple
vacuoles. Then as they mature, they combine these vacuoles resulting to a large
central vacuole that occupies more than 30% of the cell’s volume and as much as
90% of the volume of certain cells.