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BIOMONITORING TO KNOW THE EFFECT OF CIGARETTE ON SMOKING AND NON

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BIOMONITORING TO KNOW THE EFFECT OF CIGARETTE ON SMOKING AND
NON-SMOKING SALIVA pH IN BANJARSARI WETAN VILLAGE, MADIUN
DISTRICT
PROJECT PAPER
To Fulfill Course Tasks
Environmental Pollution in Ecology and Human Health Projects, Biomonitoring the Body
Guided by Dr. Sueb, M.Kes
([email protected])
Published on Friday, November 30, 2018
By:
Aulia Qori Latifiana (160342606242)
([email protected])
Offering GHIK
UNIVERSITAS NEGERI MALANG
FACULTY OF MATHEMATIC AND SCIENCE
BIOLOGICAL STUDY PROGRAM
NOVEMBER 2018
BIOMONITORING TO KNOW THE EFFECT OF CIGARETTE ON SMOKING AND
NON-SMOKING SALIVA pH IN BANJARSARI WETAN VILLAGE, MADIUN
DISTRICT
Aulia Qori Latifiana1, Sueb1
1
Jurusan Biologi, FMIPA, Universitas Negeri Malang
E-mail: [email protected]
Abstract
Tobacco use is a phenomenon that exists throughout the world and the World Health
Organization (WHO) estimates that around 80% of smokers come from developing countries.
The purpose of this study was to determine the acidity (pH) of saliva and to know the difference
in acidity (pH) of smokers and non-smokers. This research was conducted on September 21,
2018 in Banjarsari Wetan Village, Madiun Regency, with a sample size of 60. The pH value will
be analyzed by the Kolmogorov-smirnov test and the lavene test, the result is a sig value. .000
<0.05. The friedman further test results show that the sig value. 0.144> 0.05, so there is no
difference between smoker's pH and non-smoker's pH.
Keywords: Banjarsari Wetan, salivary pH, smoker, non-smoker
PRELIMINARY
Background
Tobacco use is a worldwide phenomenon and the World Health Organization (WHO)
estimates that around 80% of smokers come from developing countries. Tobacco users are
estimated at around 1.3 billion people and are expected to increase to around 1.6 in 2030, with
tobacco-related deaths accounting for around 6 million per year (Gadour, 2016).
Indonesia is known as the tobacco country, because it is one of the tobacco producing
countries. With many rice fields and plantations, Indonesia has a diversity of plants that are
planted and bred. The plant is cultivated in order to be able to meet the needs of life and is
expected to be able to improve the country's economy.
The abundance of tobacco causes many people/companies in Indonesia to produce
cigarettes. Indonesia is a developing country where most of the population uses cigarettes. Not
only men but also women who use cigarettes.
According to WHO data, Indonesia is the third country with the largest number of smokers
in the world after China and India. The increase in cigarette consumption has an impact on the
higher burden of diseases caused by smoking and the increase in the death rate from smoking. In
2030 it is estimated that the death rate of smokers in the world will reach 10 million and 70% of
them come from developing countries (Kementrian Kesehatan Republik Indonesia, 2017).
In Kementrian Kesehatan Republik Indonesia (2018) the director of prevention and control
of non-communicable diseases of the Indonesian Ministry of Health, dr. Cut Putri Arianie,
M.HKes stated that ''Cardiovascular diseases, such as heart disease and stroke, each year kill
17.7 million people in the world. About 31% of the total global deaths. In Indonesia, strokes
(21.1%) and heart disease (12.9%) became the number one killer and two of all deaths in
Indonesia, ''. Data from Badan Penelitian dan Pengembangan Kesehatan RI (2013) shows that in
East Java from 2007-2010 the percentage between smokers and non-smokers was 28.9% and
71.1%.
Seeing the impact of smoking that is detrimental to health, especially heart health, and
increasing the family's economic burden, it is time for cooperation from all community members
to carry out efforts to stop smoking (Kementrian Kesehatan Republik Indonesia, 2017). From the
presentation, the purpose of this study was to determine the acidity (pH) of saliva and to know
the difference in acidity (pH) of smokers and non-smokers in Banjarsari Wetan Village, Madiun
Regency.
Formulation of the problem
1. What is the smokers and non-smoker's saliva pH in Banjarsari Wetan Village, Madiun
Regency?
2. Is there a difference in the salivary acidity (pH) of smokers and non-smokers in Banjarsari
Wetan Village, Madiun Regency?
Purpose
1. To determine the acidity (pH) level of smokers and non-smokers saliva in Banjarsari Wetan
Village, Madiun Regency.
2. To determine the difference in the salivary acidity (pH) of smokers and non-smokers in
Banjarsari Wetan Village, Madiun Regency.
Benefits of Research
For researchers
1. Is the task of environmental health courses.
2. Increase knowledge about differences in salivary pH in smokers and non-smokers.
3. Provide information about the percentage of smokers and non-smokers.
4. Provide information about the influence of smoking on health.
For the community
- Provide information about the percentage of smokers and non-smokers.
- Provide information about the influence of smoking on health.
LITERATURE REVIEW
Biomonitoring
Health is a healthy condition, both physically, mentally, spiritually, and socially, which
enables everyone to live productively socially and economically. While environmental health is
an environmental condition that is able to support the ecological balance between humans and
the environment to support the achievement of the reality of a healthy, prosperous, and happy
human life (endeavor, 2017).
Biomonitoring is the use of organisms to monitor and assess the condition of an
environment. Exposure to pollutants in the environment can be through various ways such as
inhalation, consumption, and through the skin. The amount of pollutant absorbed is determined
by the presence of factors such as the concentration of pollutants in a particular environment, be
it physical, chemical, time of exposure, and individual factors such as metabolic absorption and
excretion levels. Human Biomonitoring (Human Biomonitoring) takes into account all these
factors by measuring its chemical concentration or metabolites in humans. Human
Biomonitoring can be defined as a method for assessing exposure to chemicals or their effects by
measuring metabolites in humans (France, 2015).
Biomonitoring assessments can be measured using concentrations of natural compounds in
the body such as blood, urine, and breast milk, or tissues such as hair, nails, fat, and bones.
Biomonitoring can also help to identify potential human health risks due to exposure to
substances in the environment. One of the main points of the biomonitoring of the human body,
besides being able to find out the disease of the individual but also can know the causes of the
disease such as food and water consumed and air quality in the environment where he lives
(Casteleyn, 2004).
In the human body consists of thousands of chemical elements such as vitamins, nutrients,
proteins, and hormones that are important for life. These chemical elements are produced by the
body itself and others enter the body through food, drink, breathing, and skin contact with the
environment (Jensen, 2011).
Table 1. Samples used for Human Biomonitoring (HBM)
Matrik
Population
Umbilical cord
Specific
ASI
Specific
Amnionic liquid
Placenta
Newborn baby feces
(Meconium)
Sperm liquid
Specific
Specific
Specific
Breath
General
Saliva
Nail
General
General
Tooth
Specific
Sweat
Urine
General
General
Specific
Benefits
Non-invasion; provide information
between mother and child.
provide information between mother and
child. Enriched with lipophilic compounds.
Invasive
Non-invasive
Non-invasive, easily available, reflects
prenatal exposure.
Primarily used to measure biomarker
effects
Non-invasive. Direct assessment of
airborne exposure.
Non-invasive, easy to get.
Non-invasive, easy to get. Provides
information regarding the length and short
duration of exposure.
Non-Invasive. There are no special
requirements regarding the storage of
matrices.
Non-invasive
Non-invasive, easy to get.
Source: France, 2015.
Saliva
Saliva or saliva is a complex hyposmotic fluid secreted by the salivary glands of the oral
cavity. The salivary gland is an exocrine gland, with secretory epithelium that opens to the
outside environment through the canal. Salivary glands, such as the exocrine glands in the
pancreas, are arranged from acini and canal. The saliva component consists of water, ions,
mucus, and proteins such as enzymes and immunoglobulins (Silverthorn, 2013).
Saliva has components that function as antibacterial and antiviral enzymes namely
lysozyme, lactoferrin, myeloperoxidase and laktoperoksidase (Hidayati, 2015). The difference in
saliva quality in smokers and non-smokers is that smokers have thick saliva, while non-smokers
have runny saliva (Petrusic, 2015).
Table 2. Proportion of population aged ≥ 10 years according to smoking habits from the
province, Indonesia 2013.
Source: Badan Penelitian dan Pengembangan Kesehatan RI, 2013.
Salivary pH
The pH scale ranges from 0-14, with an inverse ratio, where the lower the pH value the
more acid in the solution. Conversely, increasing the pH value means increasing base in solution.
At pH 7, there is no acidity or alkalinity of the solution, and is called neutral. Normal saliva is
slightly acidic, pH 6.5 (Hidayati, 2015).
Cigarettes
Cigarettes contain various kinds of compounds. Compounds in cigarettes such as nicotine,
nicotirin, anabasin, miyosmin, tar, carbon monoxide, etc. Tobacco is the main ingredient in
making cigarettes. Besides being used for making cigarettes, tobacco leaves are also edible
(chewed) and inhaled. Through the process of burning (inhaling) or chewing, nicotine contained
in tobacco and cigarette smoke will come out of tobacco (Hammado, 2014). The inhaled
cigarette makes nicotine in the blood increase by around 40-50 mg / ml of blood.
There are around 4000 chemicals produced from burning cigarettes, and which are
carcinogenic or cause cancer including nicotine, carbon gas monoxide, nitrogen oxides,
hydrogen cyanide, ammoniac, acetylene, benzaldehyde, urethane, benzene, methanol, koumarin,
4-ethylkatecol, orthokresol, perilen and others, which are in the form of gas and solid
components or particles. Solid components or particles are further divided into nicotine and tar.
It is also said that tar is a collection of thousands of carcinogenic chemicals contained in cigarette
smoke. While nicotine, besides being a carcinogenic nitrosamine compound, it is also an
addictive compound, which causes a person to become addicted and creates a sense of
dependence (Aditama, 1992).
Smoke generated from the burnt end of the cigarette has higher levels of chemical
compounds compared to the smoke smoked by smokers, such as (Sharon et al., 2001):
1. Acetone, 2-5 times higher.
2. Benzene, 10 times higher.
3. CO gas (carbon monoxide), 2.5 - 4.7 times higher.
4. Nicotine, 1.8 - 3.3 times higher.
5. Acetic acid, 1.9 - 3.9 times higher.
6. Hydrogen cyanide, 4.2 - 6.4 times higher.
7. Toluent, 6 - 8 times higher.
8. Aniline, 30 times higher.
9. Nickel, 3 times higher.
A passive smoker who is in a room full of cigarette smoke for one hour will just suck as
much nitrosamine as smoking 35 cigarettes and will suck benzopirin as much as smoking 4
cigarettes (Sharon, 2011).
Table 3. Materials in cigarette smoke associated with cancer in humans.
Material that is proven to be
carcinogenic in humans
4-aminobiphenyl
Material suspected to be carcinogenic
in humans
Benzo(a)pyrene
Arsenic
Cadmium
Benzene
Dibenz(a,h)anthracene
Chromium
Formadehyde
Nickel
N-Nitrosodiethylamine
Vinyl chloride
N-Nitrosodimethylamine
Source: Sharon, 2001
At different levels, all harmful chemicals in cigarettes are disturbing the mucous
membranes found in the mouth and respiratory tract. Cigarette smoke is acidic (pH 5.5), and
nicotine is in ionic form but cannot pass through the membrane quickly so that on the cheek
membrane (mucosa) there is nicotine absorption from cigarette smoke. Smokers who use pipes,
cigars, and some types of European cigarettes, smoke cigarette smoke that is alkaline with a pH
of 8.5, and nicotine contained in cigarette smoke is not in the form of ions so that it can be
absorbed directly by mouth (Hammado, 2014).
Effect of smoking on health
Smoking is a cause of 87% of deaths from lung cancer. In women, lung cancer exceeds
breast cancer which is the main cause of death. Smoking is now also considered to be the cause
of pregnancy failure, increased infant mortality, and chronic gastric disease. Smoking can
interfere with normal lung work because hemoglobin is easier to carry carbon dioxide to form
carboxyemoglobin than to carry oxygen. Active smokers and passive smokers can cause their
lungs to contain more carbon monoxide than oxygen so that oxygen levels in the blood are
approximately 15% than normal oxygen levels (Hammado, 2014). The reactions that occur in the
body are:
In Hammado (2014) states that diseases caused by smoking are:
1. Coronary heart disease
Smoking affects the heart in various ways. Smoking can increase blood pressure and
accelerate the heart rate so that the supply of acid is less than normal needed for the heart to
function properly. This situation can burden the task of the heart muscle. Smoking can also
cause blood vessel walls to thicken gradually which makes it difficult for the heart to pump
blood.
2. Coronary thrombosis
Coronary thrombosis or heart attack occurs when the blood clot closes one of the main
blood vessels that supply the heart resulting in a heart deficiency of blood and sometimes
stops it altogether.
3. Cancer
Cancer is a disease that occurs in several parts of the body due to the cell splitting
suddenly and not stopping. Sudden cell growth can occur if cells in the body are aroused by
certain substances over a long period of time. This substance is carcinogenic which means it
produces cancer.
4. Bronchitis or inflammation of the throat branch
A cough that suffers from a smoker is known as a smoker's cough which is an early sign
of bronchitis that occurs because the lungs are unable to release mucus in the bronchi in the
normal way. Mukus is a sticky liquid that is contained in a smooth tube, a bronchial tube
located in the lungs. This cough occurs because mucus catches black powder and dust from
the air that is inhaled and prevents it from clogging the lungs.
5. Emphysema or widening of the alveolar bubble
Cigarette smoke can induce damage to lung elasticity (due to levels of elastin-derived
peptides and desmosin) and result in emphysema (Ofulue, 1999). In this case macrophages are
critical pathogenic factors from neutrophils induced by cigarette smoke in the occurrence of
pulmonary emphysema (Ofulue, 1998).
METHOD
Research design
This study uses a descriptive quantitative descriptive research method. Descriptive
research method is research that takes samples from one population and determines a science that
is in accordance with the findings and facts in the field. So that in practice, this method will be
much more pressing on field observations. This research was conducted in Banjarsari Wetan
Village, Dagangan District, Madiun Regency.
Place and time
Sampling and salivary pH measurements were carried out in Banjarsari Wetan Village,
Madiun Regency. This research was conducted on Sunday, September 21, 2018.
Figure 1. Map of Banjarsari Wetan Village, Madiun Regency (Gambar Daerah, 2016)
Population, sample and sampling technique
Samples are a portion of the number and characteristics possessed by the population, or a small
part of the population members taken according to certain procedures so as to represent the
population. Determination of the sample size to be used, using the minimum sample formula
notation by Slovin.
The number of residents in Banjarsari Wetan Village, especially in RT 4 RW 2 ± 250 people.
The margin of error is 17% or 0.17. Then the results will be obtained:
𝑁
1 + 𝑁e2
250
=
(1 + (250 𝑥 0,172 ))
𝑛=
=
250
7,225
= 30
So, the saliva sample that will be examined is taken from 30 passive smokers and active
smokers. The sampling technique used was purposive. Because the purpose of sampling is
known.
Criteria and subject of research
•Boy and girl
• Age 9-50 years
• Do not consume alcohol and drugs
• Subject smokers
 Smokers active when taking saliva
 Smoking with a minimum number every day 1 stick
• Non-smoker subjects
 Non-smokers active when taking saliva
Tools and materials
The tools used are flakon bottles. While the ingredients used are smoker and non-smoker saliva,
70% alcohol, label paper, and pH indicator paper.
Data Collection Procedure
1.
Determine the research subject according to the criteria.
2.
Provide an explanation of the intent and purpose of the researcher taking samples of the
subject's saliva regarding the research project to be conducted.
3.
Take a sample of saliva from a subject placed in a sterile flakon bottle and label it.
4.
Measure the pH of saliva with pH indicator paper.
Data analysis technique
1.
To find out the acidity level (pH) of smokers and non-smokers saliva in Banjarsari Wetan
Village, Madiun Regency was analyzed by means categorized according to previous
similar research results.
2.
To find out the difference in the salivary acidity (pH) of smokers and non-smokers in
Banjarsari Wetan Village, Madiun Regency was analyzed using ANOVA if the pH data of
saliva were normal and homogeneous (normality test using Kolmogorov-Smirnov and
Lavene test homogeneity test). If the data is not normal and there may be some that are not
homogeneous, then it is tested by the Friedman test. Both tests were analyzed using the
SPSS. 25 statistical application.
RESULTS
Smoker's and non-smoker's salivary pH in Banjarsari Wetan Village, Madiun Regency
based on table 1 about the salivary pH of smokers and non-smokers
Table 4. Average salivary pH of smokers and non-smokers in Banjarsari Wetan Village,
Madiun Regency.
Average salivary pH
Smokers
Non-smokers
6,7
7
The average results of smoker's and non-smoker's salivary pH in Banjarsari Wetan Village,
Madiun Regency are included in the neutral pH category based on previous similar research
results.
Table 5. Test for the normality of saliva in smokers and non-smokers
Smokers
Non-smokers
Kolmogorov-Smirnova
Statistic
df
Sig.
.332
30
.000
.333
30
.000
Shapiro-Wilk
Statistic
Df
.734
30
.754
30
Sig.
.000
.000
Table 6. Homogeneity test of smoker and non-smoker saliva pH
Lavene
Statistic
14.513
4.337
df1
df2
Sig.
Based on Mean
1
58
.000
Based on Median
1
58
.042
Based on Median and
4.337
1
46.193
.043
with adjust df
Based on trimmed mean
14.174
1
58
.000
From the results of the analysis with normality and homogeneity test, the sig value is obtained.
Result
0,000. The results of p <0.05 so that the data is further tested using the Friedman test.
Table 7. Descriptive statistics for salivary pH of smokers and non-smokers
Smokers pH
Non-smokers pH
N
30
30
Mean
6.70
7.00
Std.
Deviation
.837
.587
Min.
6
6
Max.
8
8
25th
6.00
7.00
Percentiles
50th
(Median)
6.00
7.00
7th
7.25
7.00
Table 8. Friedman's test for salivary pH of smokers and non-smokers
Ranks
Mean Rank
Smokers pH
1.38
Non-smokers pH
1.62
Test Statisticsa
N
30
Chi-Square
2.130
Df
2.130
Asymp. Sig.
.144
From the results of the Friedman test, it was found that the pH between 1.38 smokers and nonsmokers was 1.62. The results of statistical tests on the pH of smokers and non-smokers were
p> 0.05, which was 0.144, so that the data had no difference between the pH of smokers and
the pH of non-smokers.
DISCUSSION
Saliva or saliva is a complex hyposmotic fluid secreted by the salivary glands of the oral
cavity (Silverthorn, 2013). Saliva has components that function as antibacterial and antiviral
agents (Hidayati, 2015). From the results of the data analysis above, it shows that the average
salivary pH of smokers is lower than that of non-smokers which is 6.7 <7. Both mean pH is
included in normal salivary pH. According to Hidayati (2015) the normal pH of saliva is
between 6.5 - 7. So that the smoker's pH data is not in accordance with the literature which
states that the pH of a smoker if in acidic conditions is 5.5 and alkaline 8.5 (Hammado, 2014).
Both of these mean results show that the lower the pH value, the more acid in the
solution. Conversely, increasing the pH value means increasing base in solution. At pH 7, there
is no acidity / alkalinity of the solution or so-called neutral (Hidayati, 2015). The
incompatibility of the average results can be influenced by several factors when taking and
measuring pH of the sample. These factors include, a number of saliva samples of smokers
taken after meals, saliva samples of smokers taken while not smoking, and the researchers' lack
of accuracy when measuring pH of saliva.
Normality analysis using the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, because the sample used in this
study was more than 50 people. While the analysis of normality used the lavene test. From the
analysis of normality and homogeneity, the sig value is obtained. 0,000. The test results are in
accordance with the results of a study conducted by Eslami (2016) that smoker's salivary pH is
lower than non-smokers. The result of the sig value. 0.000 <0.05 so that the data is further
tested using the Friedman test.
The results of the statistical test of the Friedman test at the smoker's and non-smoker's pH
were 0.144> 0.05, so that the data showed that there was no difference between smoker's pH
and non-smoker's pH. Khan (2010) and Gadour (2016) found similar results in their study with
the same number of samples.
Smoking is a cause of 87% of deaths from lung cancer. Smoking can interfere with
normal lung work because hemoglobin is easier to carry carbon dioxide to form
carboxyemoglobin than to carry oxygen. Active smokers and passive smokers can result in
more lung containing carbon monoxide than oxygen so that oxygen levels in the blood are
approximately 15% than normal oxygen levels (Hammado, 2014).
CLOSING
Conclusion
1. The degree of acidity (pH) of smokers and non-smokers in the village of Banjarsari Wetan,
Madiun Regency is 6.7 and 7.
2. There is no difference between the salivary pH of smokers and non-smokers as indicated by
the results of the friedman test p = 0.144 or 0.144> 0.05.
Suggestion
It is recommended that smoker saliva samples used for this study be obtained from people after
direct smoking so that the data obtained is better.
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Badan Penelitian dan Pengembangan Kesehatan RI. 2013. Riset Kesehatan Dasar, (Online),
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diakses 11 September 2018.
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(http://www.eu-hbm.info/cophes/human-biomonitoring), diakses 27 Agustus 2018.
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Smokers and Non-smokers in the Population of Tabriz. European International Journal
of Science and Technology, 5(5).
France, Lanoux, C., & Paris. 2015. Human Biomonitoring: Facts and Figures. Denmark: World
Health Organization (WHO).
Gadour, N. 2016. The Effect of Cigerette Smoking on Whole Stimulated Salivary Flow Rate and
pH. Cape: University of Western Cape.
Gambar Daerah. 2016. Peta Kabupaten Madiun (Online) (https://gambardaerah.blogspot.com/
2016/09/berikut-gambar-peta-kabupaten-madiun.html). Diakses pada 29 Agustus 2018.
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Hidayati, S., Rahmawati, I., & Said, F. 2015. Perbedaan pH Saliva Antara Sebelum dan Sesudah
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wp-content/uploads/2017/03/Buku-Pengantar-Kesehatan-Lingkungan.pdf). Diakses pada
29 Agustus 2018.
Jensen,
Scott.
2011.
Biomonitoring:
Frequently
Asked
Questions
(Online),
(https://www.americanchemistry.com/Policy/ChemicalSafety/Biomonitoring/Biomonitori
ng-Frequently-Asked-Questions.pdf), diakses 27 Agustus 2018.
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Sengsaranya, (Online), (http://www.depkes.go.id/article/view/17041300002/merokok-takada-untung-banyak-sengsaranya.html), diakses 5 September 2018.
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Salivation. International Journal Acta Stomatologica Croatica, 49(4): 309-315.
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PEARSON.
ATTACHMENT
Table 1. Variable range
No.
Variable
1
Saliva of
smokers and
non smokers
Saliva pH of
smokers and
non smokers
2
Subvariable
(Dimensions)
Indicators
Research
instrument
How to take
data
-
-
Flask bottle
Field survey
-
Smokers pH
 Acid: pH 5,5
 Base : pH 8,5
Normal salivary
pH: 6.5 - 7
pH paper
Field survey
Table 2. Data on Research Results of Smoker Saliva and Non Smokers
No.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
Smokers
pH
6
7
6
6
6
6
7
7
6
6
8
8
8
6
8
7
7
8
7
6
6
6
6
6
6
7
8
Gender
Male
Male
Male
Male
Male
Male
Male
Male
Male
Male
Male
Male
Male
Male
Male
Male
Male
Male
Male
Male
Male
Male
Male
Male
Male
Male
Male
pH
8
7
7
6
8
7
6
7
8
7
7
7
8
7
7
8
6
6
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
Non smokers
Gender
Male
Female
Female
Female
Male
Female
Male
Male
Female
Female
Female
Female
Male
Male
Male
Femlae
Male
Male
Female
Female
Male
Male
Male
Male
Male
Female
Female
28
29
30
8
6
6
Male
Male
Male
7
6
7
Male
Male
Male
Pic 2. Saliva samples of smokers and non-smokers
Pic 3. Smoker's saliva pH test results
Pic 4. Non-smoker saliva pH test results