Uploaded by Jahni Rosemond

5 Bibliographies

Ishmail Muhammad
Junior Seminar
Research Question
How are impoverished African Americans portrayed in film and media?
& Class, 8(4), 116. Retrieved from
In the USIA's propaganda, the word "democracy" operated as an essential, foundational term
and was the binary opposite to "communism," the system of human organization that would
threaten all that democracy promised the individual. The government's newsreel service filmed a
young tennis star at the U.S. Open inNew York meeting the U.S. vice president. Meanwhile,
in Arkansas, the commercial media were filming the state's governor, who was organizing white
resistance to nine African-American teenagers attending Little Rock's Central High School.
Masukor, S. (2015). Manning up: Race, gender and violence in boyz n the hood.Screen
Education, (77), 110-115. Retrieved from
Released to critical acclaim in 1991, Boys n The Hood (John Singleton) was lauded as
That year's Do the Right Thing (Spike Lee, 1989), a film that depicted black communities
Screen with ostensible realism while also delivering entertainment and box-office returns. As the
Boys grow up their lives begin to take different paths. Tre and Ricky both hope to attend college.
Tre studies hard - he is smart, as demonstrate in the early primary school sequences - while
Ricky pins his hopes on a football scholarship. Doughboy is gentle and kind, but his keen sense
Of the finality of life in the neighborhood sees him drifting and out of jail for drug-dealing and
Petty crime. After an accidental and unmotivated run-in with a gang from another suburb, Ricky
Is shot, leading Tre and Doughboy to the actions that will determine their respective futures.
Despite his anger, Tre decides not to join Doughboy in a revenge killing, while Doughboy
Completes his downward trajectory, shooting three men in a parking lot. Through epilogue text,
We learn that Doughboy is shot two weeks later, while Tre moves away to college.
Downing, S., Levan, K., & Polzer, K. (2018). Boys in the hood and vampires in the woods: Racialized
fatalism in film. Western Criminology Review, 19(3), 74. Retrieved from
This article shows Studies of street crime and street culture often emphasize the concept of
fatalism, particularly among urban minority males. The type of attitude cinema represents within
white characters they give them a fantastic attitude. Through content analysis of film, the current
study examines media entertainment portrayals of fatalism in White and non-White characters.
While African Americans are portrayed in films between fatalism and street culture and crime.
Bristor, J. M., Lee, R. G., & Hunt, M. R. (1995). Race and ideology: African-american images in
television advertising. Journal of Public Policy & Marketing, 14(1), 48. Retrieved from
The Article illustrates how the potentially positive effects of including more African-Americans
in advertisements are often mitigated by subtle racist elements that suggest that AfricanAmerican inferiority. Suggesting that contemporary television advertising still incorporates racist
ideology, some caveats are necessary. First, as with gender-based critiques (e.g., Bristor and
Fischer 1993), we are not ascribing conscious racist motivations to any specific individuals, or
any advertiser or advertising agency. Nor are we suggesting that the root cause of racism is the
Lalander, P. (2002). Who directs whom? films and reality for young heroin users in a swedish
town. Contemporary Drug Problems, 29(1), 65-90. Retrieved from
I will say this, if ‘Boyz in the Hood’ is the ying, “Menace to Society” is the yang. This film is
similar to the daily life of a young African American man which there hardly are any fathers, and
offspring are doomed to repeat the mistakes of generations past. Children are raised by the
community and after Pernell is imprisoned, Caine to Pernell’s son Anthony) because men who
aren’t dead by their twenties have escaped, are imprisoned. It’s an utterly dehumanizing society
that is dominated by young men focusing on a tough pedestal. The prevalence of easily attainable
guns means a simple insult can escalate to a casual murder with all the emotional detachment of
changing a tire. Young men like Caine, who retain a moral compass still fall victim to this
violent lifestyle because of the intense societal pressure around them. The only alternative is
being a “bitch” or a drug user who is mercilessly ridiculed, outcast, or killed. Most women are
treated badly through language and actions toward them. They are almost treated as property or
as things to be used up and thrown away. Caine, like so many young black men from the inner
city, has grown up in a world where the strong values of an older generation are being
undermined by the temptations of guns, drugs and violence. He sees his mother die of an
overdose. He takes an older neighborhood man as his mentor, only to see him go to prison. By
the time he is in high school, Caine wears a beeper on his belt and is a small-time drug dealer.