1. SIMILE - A simile is a figure of speech that directly compares two things. Similes differ from metaphors by highlighting similarities between two things using words such as "like" and "as", while metaphors create an implicit comparison. 2. METAPHOR - a common figure of speech that makes a comparison by directly relating one thing to another unrelated thing. 3. PERSONIFICATION - the attribution of a personal nature or human characteristics to something nonhuman, or the representation of an abstract quality in human form. 4. HYPERBOLE - exaggerated statements or claims not meant to be taken literally. 5. IRONY - the expression of one's meaning by using language that normally signifies the opposite, typically for humorous or emphatic effect. 6. SYNECDOCHE - a figure of speech in which a part is made to represent the whole or vice versa. 7. APOSTROPHE - a literary device is when a speaker breaks off from addressing one party and instead addresses a third party. This third party may be an individual, either present or absent in the scene. It can also be an inanimate object, like a dagger, or an abstract concept, such as death or the sun. when a character in a literary work speaks to an object, an idea, or someone who doesn't exist as if it is a living person.