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baking process

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BAKING PROCESS
BY,
E.REVATHY,
II M.S.c
Flour

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
Gives structure to
baked products.
Gluten is the protein in
flour which gives
strength and elasticity
to batters and doughs.
Use the correct type of
flour for baking.
Not all recipes require
the flour to be sifted.
Types of Flour


All-purpose flourused for all general
baking. Made of a
blend of hard and
soft wheat.
Unbleached Flourflour that has not
been bleached.
Types of Flour


Bread Flour-has more
gluten than all-purpose
flour. Used for making
yeast breads and rolls.
Used in bread machines.
Cake Flour-has less
gluten that all-purpose
flour. Made from soft
winter wheat. Used for
making cakes and baked
products with delicate
textures. You can
substitute all-purpose
flour for cake flour, use 1
cup minus 2 Tablespoons
of all-purpose flour.
Types of Flour


Instant Blending
Flour-flour that has
been specially
treated to blend
easily with liquids.
Used for sauces and
gravies.
Whole Wheat Flourmade by milling the
entire kernel of
wheat. Must be
refrigerated if not
used within a few
weeks.
Types of Flour

Self-Rising Flour-allpurpose flour with
baking powder and salt
added. You can
substitute self-rising
flour in recipes that have
all-purpose flour, baking
powder and salt. If you
do not have self-rising
flour, you can substitute
the following:For each
cup of self-rising flour
use 1 cup all-purpose
flour, 1 ½ tsp. Baking
powder and ½ tsp. Salt.
Leavening Agents


Leavening Agents produce gases in batters
and doughs that make baked products rise.
There are several types of leavening agents:

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Air
Steam
Chemical Leavening Agents
Yeast
WHAT IS A LEAVENING
AGENT?

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A leavening agent causes a product to
rise.
Examples:
Baking powder
Baking soda
Yeast
Air


Air is trapped in
mixtures during
beating and stirring.
Some products are
leavened totally by
air.

Example: Angel
Food Cake
Leavening Agents
(part one…)

Air introduced
through
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
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Creaming fat and
sugar together.
Sifting flour.
Beating batter.
Whipping egg
whites.
Steam
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
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Steam is produced in
products that contain a
high water content.
The high temperatures
used in baking will
cause steam
Some products are
leavened by steam

Example- Cream Puffs
Leavening Agents
(part two…)

Steam
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when large amounts
of water and high
heat are present
Water turns to steam
and product rises
The steam leaves a
cavity in product
(great for fillings)
Chemical Leavening Agents

Baking Soda

Should be used with an
acidic ingredient.
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Buttermilk
Molasses
Brown Sugar
Vinegar
Honey
Applesauce
Citrus Juice
Chemical Leavening Agents

Baking Powder


Contains a dry acid,
baking soda and
cornstarch.
Most are doubleacting. They release
carbon dioxide when
they are moistened
and some when they
are heated.
Leavening Agents
(part four…)

Yeast – Microscopic plant
that reproduces quickly
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Gives off carbon dioxide as
it grows
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Needs food: sugar and flour
Needs moisture
Needs warmth
Create bubbles in dough
Bubbles expand when heated
and dough rises.
Give baked products a
special flavor and smell.
Yeast

Yeast

A microscopic,
single-celled plant
that produces carbon
dioxide gas as it
grows. It needs
food, liquid, and
warm temperatures
to grow.

Examples: Pizza,
Doughnuts,
Cinnamon Rolls.
Liquids

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Hydrate the protein and
starch in the flour.
Moisten ingredients
Serve as leavening
when they are
converted to steam
during baking.
Examples:

Water, milk, buttermilk,
fruit juices.
Fats
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Help make baked
products tender –
tenderizes the gluten.
Coats the flour
particles.
Helps trap air which
aids in leavening.
Examples-oil,
shortening, butter,
margarine.
Eggs
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Helps incorporate air
into baked products
when you beat them.
Add color and
contributes structure.
Helps give dough
elasticity and
structure.
Sweeteners

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Gives sweetness to baked products.
Helps tenderize and helps the crust to
brown.
In yeast breads, serves as food for the
yeast.
Examples-sugar, brown sugar, honey,
molasses, corn syrup, confectioner’s
sugar (powdered sugar)
Salt


Adds flavor to many
baked products.
Regulates the action
of yeast in baked
products.
Other Ingredients

Flavorings are not essential ingredients
but they help make baked products
special.

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Spices
Extracts
Nuts
Fruits
Types of Mixtures

Pour Batters

Are thin
enough to pour
in a steady
stream.

Examples

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Cakes
Pancakes
waffles
Types of Mixtures

Drop Batters

Are thick, and are
usually spooned
into pans.

Examples
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Muffins
Red Lobster
Types of Mixtures

Soft Dough

Are soft and
sticky, but can be
touched and
handled.

Examples
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Biscuits
Yeast dough
Types of Mixtures

Stiff dough

Are firm to the
touch.

Example

Pie Crust
Baking Techniques

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Use the size and type of pan specified in the recipe.
The cooking time will need to be increased for
larger pans and decreased for smaller pans.
Most recipes are developed for light-color metal pans.
If you used dark, metal pans lower the oven
temperature by 25°
Grease and flour means to lightly grease a pan and
dust it with flour.
Cooking spray is an easy method of pan preparation,
but it may not work with all products.
Lining a pan with paper requires parchment paper.
Baking Techniques


It is important to remember that
ingredients are correct. Do not change
ingredients amounts or the product will
not turn out. (You can still double and
half)
It is important to preheat the oven so
that the rising process occurs properly
and the products do not overcook.
Quick Breads

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Quick Breads are quick and easy to
make.
Most contain basically the same
ingredients.
All contain gluten, which is formed
when the flour is combined with the
liquid ingredients and the mixture is
stirred or kneaded.
If the mixture is mixed or handled too
much, the gluten will overdevelop.
Quick Bread Examples
Pita Bread
Cornbread
Crepes
Tortillas
Examples of Non-Quick Breads
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Croissants
Loaf bread
French bread
bagels
English muffins
Sourdough bread
Muffins

The muffin methodto prepare muffins,
waffles, pancakes,
popovers and some
coffee cakes.
Muffin Method
1. Combine dry
ingredients in a
bowl. Make a well
in the center of
the dry
ingredients.
Muffin Method
2. Combine beaten
eggs with milk and
melted fat (butter).
3.
4.
Add the liquid
mixture all at once
to the dry mixture
and stir the batter
just until
moistened.
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fKBQwBm
IUd4
Characteristics of Muffins

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An undermixed
muffin has a low
volume and a coarse
crumb.
An overmixed muffin
has a peaked top
with tunnels on the
inside.
Biscuits
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Biscuits have a tender, but crisp
crust.
There are two kinds of biscuits:
rolled and dropped.
The biscuit method is used to
prepare biscuits.
Handle the dough as little as
possible.
Not all biscuits need to be rolled out.
Some biscuits have more liquid and
need to be dropped onto the pan or
can be used as a dumpling in a
stew.
Types of Biscuits


Rolled biscuits are
rolled out to an even
thickness and cut
out with a biscuit
cutter.
Drop biscuits contain
more liquid than
rolled biscuits. This
created a batter that
is too sticky to
handle but which
can be dropped
from a spoon
Biscuit Method
1.
2.
Sift together the
dry ingredients
into a mixing bowl.
Using a pastry
blender, cut the
fat into the dry
ingredients until
the particles are
the size of coarse
crumbs.
Biscuit Method
3. Add the liquid all at
once, and stir until
the dough forms a
ball.
WHY IS IT IMPORTANT TO PREHEAT
THE OVEN WHEN MAKING BREADS?

It is important to preheat the oven so
that the rising process occurs properly
and the products to not overcook.
WHAT DOES IT MEAN TO “KNEAD THE
DOUGH” IN A RECIPE?

Kneading means to push and fold over
with your hands to smooth and
elasticize dough
WHAT INGREDIENTS CAN BE ADDED
TO QUICK BREADS TO CHANGE THE
FLAVOR?
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Fruits
Nuts
Spices
Extracts
Cheeses
Fats and Oils
Coat gluten to keep it from
becoming over developed
 Adds richness and flavor to
baked product
 Helps keep baked product
tender
Ex. Butter, shortening,
oil, margarine

Sweeteners
Add flavor and sweetness
 Helps baked product
brown
 Helps baked product
remain tender
Ex. Sugar, honey, corn
syrup, powdered sugar,
molasses

OTHER INGREDIENTS

Eggs –
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Add color
Trap air to help with
leavening
Hold baked product
together
Add flavor and richness
Add tenderness and
texture
OTHER INGREDIENTS
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Seasonings – Add
flavor and color to
baked product.
Salt – stimulate
taste buds to taste
other flavors.
Ex. Spices, extracts,
chocolate, nuts, and
fruit.
The Baking Process
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Oven Temperature
when baking a
leavened product use
the exact temperature
in the recipe.
During baking:
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Product rises
Crust heats
Moisture evaporates
Crust dries
The Baking Process

Pans – can affect results.
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Material – conduct heat
differently, changes cook
time.
Size – recipes developed
for certain sizes, be careful
to follow pan size
recommendations.
Moulding:different shapes
The Baking Process
Placement in the ovens
 Pans must be placed in
ovens so that air can
circulate freely.
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One - in center
Two – separate racks
opposite sides
Etc.
Be sure pans do not
touch, it creates hot
spots where food may
burn or over cook.
The Baking Process

Timing

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

be sure to use a timer,
check close to done time,
may vary by oven.
Cooling & removing from
pan

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Remove from pan
immediately, unless recipe
says otherwise
Cool on cooling rack to allow
even cooling
milk Products
s
TYPES OF DAIRY PRODUCTS
Milk
 Cream
 Cultured Dairy Products
 Frozen Dairy Products
 Concentrated Dairy Products
 Non-Dairy Products
 Butter
 Cheese
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MILK
Can be plain or flavored
(chocolate, strawberry, etc.)
Usually fortified with VITAMIN D


Meaning that it is added as a bonus!
Raw milk is straight from the cow
(untreated)

It is generally then processed in the
following ways before it is sent to
stores:
 Pasteurized: Process of heating
to destroy harmful bacteria
 Homogenized: Process of
agitating milk to help distribute
the fat throughout so it’s uniform
in texture (not clumpy)

CREAM
Cream is a more concentrated form of milk
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It comes in the following varieties:
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Once a cow is milked, the solids float to top (milkfa
they are skimmed off and this becomes cream!
Heavy (whipping) Cream
 Higher percentage of fat (85% cream, 15% mi
Light (whipping) Cream
 Lower percentage of fat (70% cream, 30% mil
Half & Half
 Even less fat (half 50% cream, half 50% milk)
To Make Whipped Cream:


Use cold bowl and whip cream until frothy… to swe
gradually add sugar little by litte
DO NOT OVERBEAT, or it will deflate and turn into
butter!
Enzymes & food
Technology

Enzymes
present every where in
Introduction
nature & In our bodies all the time.
Enzymes are not living things
&they made by living cells .


They are necessary for life .
They have a very specific mechanism,
each one has a very particular job.
Types of enzymes

1- Join specific
molecule
together
&form new
molecule.


2-Break
specific
molecule apart
into separate
molecule.
1-Enzymes are specific
2-Enzymes are catalyst
as one enzyme can perform the
same job over & over again
million of times without being
consumed .
3-Enzymes are efficient.
4-Enzymes are protein in nature .
Enzymes & Food
Back ground:
-For many thousand of years ,
man has used Naturally
occurring m.o (bacteria, yeast,
mould &the enzymes they
produced to make Food such
as :
“Bread, Cheese, beer& Wine”
Forms of enzymes
1-liquids
2-granules
3-capsules
4- immobilized preparation
Uses of enzymes
1- Production of bulk product such as :
glucose & fructose
2-In food processing &food analysis.
3-In laundry & automatic dishwashing
detergent.
4-The textile, pulp& paper &animal feed
Industries.
5- Clinical diagnosis & Therapy.
6-Genetic engineering .
Application:
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-In fish, seafood, meat industries :
Used to bind pieces of fish or meat
Together for :
-Portion control .
-Add value to meat off cuts.
So Lead To :
No need to use heating, freezing for
Binding.
Possible to slice the recombined meat in
The row state.
Easy to handle, no effect on flavor.
-standardizing texture.
-improving slice ability .
-improvement to breaking strength.
-Adding more juiciness.
-Reduction of other ingredient as
(Phosphate)
Enzymes produced by genetically
modified microorganisms
•
There are several advantages of using GMMs for the
production of enzymes, including:
It is possible to produce enzymes with a higher specificity
and purity
It is possible to obtain enzymes which would otherwise not
be available for economical, occupational health or
environmental reasons
Due to higher production efficiency there is an additional
environmental benefit through reducing energy
consumption and waste from the production plants
For enzymes used in the food
industry particular benefits are
for example a better use of raw
materials (juice industry), better keeping
quality of a final food and thereby less
wastage of food (baking industry) and a
reduced use of chemicals in the production
process (starch industry (
For enzymes used in the feed industry
particular benefits include a significant
reduction in the amount of phosphorus
released to the environment from farming
Examples:-
Novozymes’ enzymes produced by
genetically modified microorganisms
Novozymes A/S markets a range of
enzymes for various industrial
purposes. Many of these enzymes
are produced by fermentation of
genetically modified microorganisms
(GMMs
FRUITS AND NUTS
Stone Fruits

Stone fruits are named after
the large, hard pit that forms
the middle of the fruit. The
meat of the fruit surrounds the
stone-hard middle. It is this
meat that is used as slices in
desserts, stewed for compote,
jam or puddings, or cut for
garnishing purposes. Plums,
peaches, cherries, apricots and
nectarines are a few common
stone fruits.
Plums
Plums are often eaten fresh or
dried (called prunes), but may
also be utilized by boiling them for
marmalade. Plums contain
dietary fiber and vitamins B and
C. For them to taste good, they
must be harvested fully mature.
Peaches and Cherries
Peach
Cherries
There are two types of cherries:
sweet cherries and sour cherries.
A ripe peach has hairy, yellow/red Sweet cherries are tastier to eat as
skin and yellow juicy flesh. It has is. Sour cherries are more sour and
short sustainability and contains more juicier. They are good for jam
vitamin-A. It’s eaten fresh or
and juice.
canned. Peaches are often used in
desserts.
Hard Fruits
Pear
Pears are high in fiber and
potassium. They have different
texture and flavor. Pears are
mostly used as fresh fruit but can
also be preserved. They can be
used in pastry dishes as well.
Apple
Apples are high in vitamin C,
potassium and fiber. Many of
the apple nutrients are in the
peel. Apples are often used in
cooking and in desserts. You
can eat them raw, dried and
baked. There are also used to
flavour drinks. There are over
1,000 different apple varieties
in the entire world. Apples are
divided into categories based
on which season they mature
or their graininess, sweetness
or sourness.
Berries

Berries have many uses such
as to garnish dishes, to make
jams and to be blened in sweet
sauces. Naturally, they are
also used in baking pies and
pastries too. There are
numerous sorts of berries, and
each region has its own
selection that is most often
used locally.
Strawberry
Strawberries contain anti-oxidants
such as vitamins B and C,
minerals, escpecially iron, and
they are very rich in fiber.
Strawberries are a very popuar
berry because of the juicy, sweet
taste. They are often eaten as
they are, but in restaurants they
are mostly used for salads and
desserts. Strawberry jam is a
common topping for toast.
Raspberries
Raspberries are suitable for making
juice and jam. Raspberries are
fragile and stay fresh for a very short
time. The tart taste gives these
berries a unique characterisitic.
Furthermore, their colour and shape
make them very useful for
decorating desserts.
Blueberries
Blueberries have always been a
popular food. They are very rich in
anti-oxidants and vitamin-C. Besides
using blueberries in jams and juices,
these berries are used most often for
desserts, pastries and muffins.
Currant Berries
There are black, red and white
currants. They are mostly used for
decorating desserts, but they are
also used to make jellies that
eaten with meat. Currants are rich
in C vitamin.
Citrus Fruits

Citrus fruits have a wide range
of uses. Some of them are
used for flavouring starters
and main courses. Because of
their bright colours, they
garnish many dishes and
beverages. The meat of the
fruits are also eaten raw in
fruit salads or by themselves,
especially at breakfast.
Oranges
There are different types of
oranges, some with yellow flesh
and blood oranges with red flesh.
Oranges are sometimes eaten
fresh or made into juice. They are
also used in desserts and for
garnishing different dishes. The
peel can also be grated for
flavouring purposes.
Lemons
A ripe lemon has a bright yellow peel
and is light yellow in color inside. It
has tart taste. It is mainly used for
flavouring food, especially fish. It is
also used in drinks. The peel is
grated and used to add flavour to
different dishes.
Limes
Limes are used in the same way as
lemons in cooking and different
beverages. The juice and the peel
are what you use from it. As with
lemons, limes are not usually eaten
raw like oranges.
Exotic Fruits
Banana

Exotic fruits are wide range of
fruits that are typically grown
in areas outside of Europe,
especially the tropical fruits.
It’s not uncommon to have a
fruit salad or fruit tray of only
exotic fruits. Some of the
more common exotic fruits are
banans, kiwis, pineapple,
coconuts, carambola, dates,
figs, guava, papaya and
passion fruit.
Banana is often eaten raw, but
can also be eaten boiled, dried or
roasted. It contains very much
starch. Banana can be used in
desserts as well as main courses.
Kiwi
Pineapple
There are green and yellow kiwi
fruits, but the green sort is the
more common variety. They are a
bit sour, but sweet at the same
time. Kiwis are most often eaten
as fresh fruit in salads or on
desserts, but they can be used
together with meat and fish.
Pineapples have a yellow and juicy
meat. They have a sweet taste. It
gets harvested when it is ripe. It
contains vitamins, minerals and is
high in fiber. Pineapples can be
used in many ways, but most
common is for dessert, garnishing
for meat and in salads. It is also
used to make pineapple juice and
decorating certain beverages.
Fruity Nuts
Coconut
The coconut’s meat is white, hard and
sweet. Coconuts are usually dried and
grated into flakes, which are used in
many dishes and desserts. Coconuts
also contain a liquid, called milk, that is
used in soups, stews and desserts. It is
very common in Indian and Asian
cooking.
MELONS
Melons are related to cucumbers
and squashes and are sometimes
referred to as vegetable fruits.
Melons are composed of 98
percent water and contain small
amounts of minerals and vitamins.
Melons are eaten fresh as a
dessert or in a salad. There are
different varieties of melons, for
example, watermelon, honeydew
melon and cantaloupes are the
most common.
OTHER FRUITS
Grapes
There are green, black and red
grapes. Grapes have a high
concentration of glucose and thus
a high energy value. It is main
ingredient in the production of
wine. Grapes are used commonly
in desserts and fruit salads, and
occasionally as garnishing.

In recent times, the variety of
fruit available for consumption
has increased substantially.
Globalisation and the
development of agricultural
technology are the major
reasons for this increase.
Nuts
Almonds
Sweet almonds are a versatile nut and
as all nuts, are a rich source of
proteins, healthy fats and minerals.
Almonds are used for pastries and are
an important ingredient in marzipan.
Additionally, almonds can be flaked or
chopped for usage on cakes or cookies.
Roasted and salted almonds are
sometimes used as snacks in bars and
restaurants. Some main courses have
whole almonds as an ingredient.
Hazelnut
Walnut
Hazelnuts are used extensively in
pastries and other desserts. Ground
finely, these nuts are the basis in
praline in confectionary work.
Walnuts are yet another nut often
used in desserts, including
decorating cakes. Walnuts are also
used in salads, either in whole pieces
or chopped in coarse bits. Walnuts
have a high amount of the mineral
selenium, which helps the brain
function effectively.
Cashew
Cashews are bigger than peanuts.
They are always sold shelled, either
unroasted or roasted and sometimes
salted. In the latter form, they are
mostly used as snacks. Unroasted
cashews are used in casseroles and
in stir-fried dishes.
Peanut
Peanuts are rich in fat; they can
contain as much as 50 percent fat.
As cashews, peanuts are often
roasted and salted and used as
snacks in bars especially. Just like
cashews, it’s not uncommon for
peanuts to be used in stir-fried
dishes. Sometimes oil is extracted
from peanuts. Other times peanut
butter is made.
Food
Oil
Stea
m
Food
Emulsifiers

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Hydrophillic-Lipophillic Balance (HLB)
This is a concept for choosing emulsifiers.
The value of HLB ranges from 1-20.
Low HLB emulsifiers are soluble in oil while
high HLB emulsifiers are soluble in water.
Bancroft's rule tells us that the type of
emulsion (i.e. oil in water or water in oil) is
dictated by the emulsifier and that the
emulsifier should be soluble in the continuous
phase.
Low HLB emulsifier's are soluble in oil and
give rise to water in oil emulsions.
Emulsifiers – HLB level
Solubility
HLB Range
No dispersability in water
1-4
Poor Dispersion in water
3-6
Milky appearance
6-8
Stable milky appearance
8-10
Translucent to clear dispersion
10-13
Clear solution
13+
Use of emulsifiers




For Emulsions, If You Don't Have A Clue, Use At 5% Of The Fat.
Use Unsaturated Emulsifiers With Unsaturated Fats.
Mixtures Work Better Than A Single Emulsifier When Stabilizing
Foams And Emulsions.
Bancroft's Rule
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Emulsion Stability Is Favored By Solubility In The Continuous Phase
i.e. High HLB----> oil/water
Low HLB-----> water/oil
HLB and most other rules go out the window when protein and
(sometimes) polysaccharides enter the system.
Only saturated monoglycerides complex with starch.
Emulsifier forms affect functionality.
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flakes vs powder vs hydrates vs gels
Use of emulsifiers
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Many functions are due to affects on polymorphism.
Emulsifier preparations frequently contain
unsaturation and may be an important contributor to
off-flavors.
Emulsifier preparations are seldom pure and thus
variation from manufacturer to manufacturer may be
substantial.
When you find a non-obvious usage of emulsifiers,
the function is often related to interaction with starch
or protein.
Order of addition may be very important.
Processing steps like homogenization may
substantially change the function of emulsifiers.
Fat replacers
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Functions of Fats in Foods
Plasticizer
Mouthfeel
Appearance
Carrier for flavors
Carrier for
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Fat Soluble Vitamins
Carotenoids
Essential Fatty acids
Heat Transfer
Fat replacers
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Water
Carbohydrate
Protein
Modified fats
Synthetic fats
Fat replacers
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Water
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Cheap
Label friendly
Usually free from regulatory constraints
Doesn’t effect calories from fat
)Thank You)
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