Uploaded by imoore

HELP PPT

advertisement
STAYING ALIVE
остаться в живых
Sigue vivo
Terms (words we need)
Ventilation (To ventilate) : To breathe in and then breathe
out again.
Inhalation (To inhale or breathe in) : To get air to into your lungs
Exhalation (To exhale or breathe out) : To get air out of your
lungs
Thorax: The space inside your ribcage
Oxygen: The gas we need to get from the air
Carbon dioxide: The gas we exhale
Respiration: is what happens in our cells to make energy
Why do we breathe?
We breathe to get oxygen into the body and carbon dioxide out.
How do we breathe?
We need muscles to do this. Muscles either
contract or relax to change the size of your
ribcage (thorax).
Ventilation
Inhale
Exhale
The thorax
The thorax
Inhalation
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
The intercostal muscles contract, moving the ribcage up and out.
The diaphragm contracts, making it flatter and moving it down.
These muscle movements increase the volume of the thorax.
The pressure inside the thorax drops below atmospheric pressure.
Air enters the lungs from outside the body until the pressure inside the
lungs rises to atmospheric pressure.
Exhalation
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
The intercostal muscles relax moving the ribcage down and in.
The abdominal muscles contract, pushing the diaphragm up.
The diaphragm relaxes
These muscle movements decrease the volume of the thorax
The pressure inside the thorax rises above atmospheric pressure.
Air exits the lungs until the pressure inside the lungs falls to atmospheric pressure
More terms
Contract – to get smaller in size
Relax – to loosen or lengthen after a contraction
Increase – to get bigger
Decrease – to get smaller
Volume – the amount (quantity) of space
something takes up.
Atmospheric pressure – the amount of force
caused by air particles in the atmosphere
Exit – to leave or go out
Bronchioles
Alveoli
Gaseous exchange in Alveoli
Gaseous exchange in the Alveoli
More terms!
• Gaseous exchange: the movement of gases into and out of
the blood
• Concentration: the number of particles in a space
• Diffusion: The movement of particles from a place of high
concentration to a place of low concentration until
equilibrium
• Oxygenated: containing oxygen
• Deoxygenated: Not containing oxygen
• Red Blood cells: cells that carry oxygen
• Plasma: Liquid part of blood that carries carbon dioxide
• Blood capillary: smallest vessel that carries blood.
Gaseous exchange
Firstly deoxygenated blood flows past the
alveolus in a blood capillary. The oxygen in the
alveolus diffuses into the red blood cells
because of the concentration difference
between the blood and alveolus. At the same
time the carbon dioxide in the plasma diffuses
into the alveolus. The blood is continually
moving and air is entering and exiting the lungs,
so there is always a difference in concentration,
which allows diffusion to happen.
Gaseous exchange
• Firstly deoxygenated blood flows past the alveolus in a
blood capillary.
• The oxygen in the alveolus diffuses into the red blood cells
because of the concentration difference between the
blood and alveolus.
• At the same time the carbon dioxide in the plasma diffuses
into the alveolus.
• The blood is continually moving and air is entering and
exiting the lungs, so there is always a difference in
concentration, which allows diffusion to happen.
Do you want to smoke?
Emphysema
Emphysema
Cancer?
Even more terms
• Cancer – uncontrolled growth of cells making tumors. There
are many types that can be caused by smoking.
• Emphysema – breakdown of alveoli walls which causes
larger air spaces and less diffusion. Shortness of breath.
• Cilia – small hairs in the trachea that move particles to be
moved up away from the lungs
• Mucus – sticky liquid that traps particles inhaled through
the trachea
• Bronchitus – lung infection that causes coughing and
inflammation
• Addiction: when you feel you need to take something to
function ‘normally’
E-cigarettes
E-cigarettes
E-cigarettes
E-cigarettes
Juul
Links
• http://science.howstuffworks.com/innovation
/everyday-innovations/electroniccigarette.htm
• http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/tutorial
s/smokingthefacts/hp099205.pdf
• http://kidshealth.org/teen/cancer_center/q_a
/smoking.html#
Aerobic Respiration
Aerobic: Respiration with oxygen
Oxygen + glucose
This makes lot’s of
Water + carbon
dioxide
for you to live.
Homeostasis
To maintain (keep) a constant internal environment
What do we try to maintain (keep) the
same?
What do we try to maintain (keep) the
same?
Body Temperature
Blood sugar levels
Water levels
Oxygen / Carbon dioxide levels
Blood pH
Mineral levels
Why keep the levels the same?
Homeostasis helps your body to work
efficiently and allows you to survive
(live) in many different conditions.
Thermoregulation
Maintaining a constant internal body
temperature.
In humans it is 37ºC
Hypothalamus (in the brain)
Wim Hof
https://www.wimhofmethod.com/
Aerobic Respiration
Aerobic: Respiration with oxygen
Oxygen + glucose
This makes lot’s of
Water + carbon
dioxide
for you to live.
Anaerobic Respiration
Anaerobic: Respiration without oxygen
Glucose
Lactic acid
This makes only a small amount of
Yes, even more terms!
Internal: inside
Blood sugar: the volume of glucose in the blood
Level: the amount of something – often a liquid
Rate: How fast (quickly) something happens
Describe: Can you write about what you can see?
Explain: Can you write about why you can see these things?
Units: What we use to measure time or distance or volume ..
(s, mins, cm, m, ml, C)
Hypothalamus: Part of the brain that controls temperature.
Evaporate: To turn from a liquid to a gas
Shiver
Shivering
Shivering is a way of warming the body when it
is cold.
When your body temperature drops below 35°C
you start to shiver. Shivering is very fast and
continuous muscle contractions. These
contractions generate (make) heat to warm the
body back up.
Goose bumps!
Hairs stand up!
Vasoconstriction
Vasoconstriction
If you are in water or air at the same
temperature, does your body cool down
(get colder) at the same rate?
Experiment
Measure the temperature of the water
every 30s
• You will plot a graph with both lines on it.
• You will put the time on the x-axis and the
temperature on the y-axis
• You will draw a line of best fit for the graph
• You will then describe the differences in the
two lines you have drawn and try to explain
them. This is your discussion of results.
Explaining the heat loss.
Heat will be lost from a body more quickly when
particles are closer together (it gets colder
faster).
Particles in the water are very close together.
Particles in the air are very spread out.
This means that you will lose body heat much
faster when you are in water, even when it is at
the same temperature as the air you were in.
In fact, you lose heat nearly 30x faster in water!
Evaluate the hypothesies…
• You would stay warmer wearing many thin
layers than one thick layer of clothes
• You cool down faster on a windy day
• A tall thin person cools down faster than a
shorter fatter person
• You would cool down faster if your clothes
were wet than if they were dry
Hypothermia
Exposure to the cold and the dangerous effects of hypothermia could lead to
death.
Your job is to design a one page poster / leaflet to warn skiers or snorkel
divers of the danger of hypothermia. It should include:
•
•
•
•
Scientific definition of hypothermia
Symptoms to look out for
Treatment for someone suffering from hypothermia
Ways to avoid hypothermia in the first place
This poster needs to be worthy of a place in a 4 or 5 star hotel at the resort.
Red cheeks
Sweating
Sweating
Sweating is a very good way to cool the body
down.
Firstly, glands beneath the skin produce sweat
which is carried to the surface.
After that, the sweat spreads out on the skin, air
blows on it and the sweat evaporates taking
heat with it.
This heat loss lowers the body temperature back
to normal.
Vasodilation and Vasoconstriction
Vasodilation: blood vessels near the skin carry
more blood so more heat is radiated from the
body.
Vasoconstriction: blood vessels near the skin
carry less blood because it goes to the vital
organs to keep them warm.
Blood sugar levels
Blood sugar levels
• After a meal the level of glucose in our
bodies [increases/decreases]?
• After exercise the levels of glucose in
our bodies [increases/decreases]?
• Why do you think this happens?
I think this happens because......................
Find out:
• Which two hormones control blood
sugar
• Where they are produced
• What their specific function is
Pancreas
Insulin
Glycogen: If you have enough energy from
glucose you store it in the liver and muscles.
Diabetes
This is when you either can’t make insulin or it
no longer works properly. This is a life
threatening disease and needs to be treated.
What would happen if my pancreas
did not produce enough insulin?
Thirsty
Tiredness
Rapid weight loss
Increased urination
Symptoms of Diabetes
Glucose in urine
TYPE 1
INHERITED / GENETIC
TYPE 2 Diabetes
LIFESTYLE – THE WAY YOU LIVE YOUR LIFE.
What is the graph?
Type 1 V Type 2
Type 1:
•
•
•
•
Genetic
starts as a child
need insulin injections
Life threatening
Type 2:
•
•
•
•
•
Lifestyle
Starts as an adult (usually)
Need to eat and exercise properly
Can have medication
Can cause serious illness
STATS
Water regulation
why and how our body
controls water levels.
1)
2)
3)
4)
How does the amount of water we take in compare to the amount we lose?
What are the main ways we gain water & ions?
Which substance does most water leave our bodies in?
State the 3 other ways we lose water.
How can you tell whether you
are hydrated?
Hydrated means you have the correct
levels of water in your body
Dehydrated means you do not have
enough water in your body.
Where are the kidneys?
Humans have two
kidneys. They are
approximately 11.5 cm
long, just below the
ribcage, one on either
side of the spine. They
are embedded in
(inside) fatty tissue for
protection.
What do the kidneys do?
The kidneys are essential blood filters.
(Essential: vital, you can’t do without them.)
The main kidneys functions:
1. Regulate the blood water levels
2. Reabsorb useful substances into the blood
3. Excretion of urea and other metabolic wastes
Diagram of the Kidney
•
A longitudinal section through a kidney shows three areas:
•
•
•
an outer region called the cortex
a middle region called the medulla, and
an inner region leading to the ureter, called the pelvis.
Dissecting a Kidney: What to look for
Correlation
Is there a correlation between height and lung
volume? If you think there is, draw a line on
your graph to show it.
1. Describe what this tells you.
2. Explain why this could be.
The Nervous System
Nervous System – More terms!
Brain: The control centre of the CNS
Spinal cord: The cord that carries the nerves to the whole body
Nerves: The long thin cells that carry the electrical signals to muscles
and glands
Stimulus: something that is detected by receptors and causes a
response by the body
Receptors: The cells that detect a stimulus
Glands: Special cells making hormones and other chemicals
Feedback: Information about the conditions inside and outside the
body
Response: An action that happens as a result of stimulus.
Reflex: A very rapid unconscious response
Effector: Muscle or gland that responds to a nerve
The Nervous System
What are its component
parts?
• Brain
• Spinal cord
• Nerves
What does it do?
• Enables you to control
your body
• Gives you feedback
about the world
The route impulses take
The route impulses take
Sensory
neurone
Relay
neurones
(in brain or
spinal cord)
Effectors –
Motor neurone
The Spine
You don’t need
to know any of
these little
details – just
remember that
the spinal cord
carries messages
to and from the
brain.
Drugs and the CNS
What is a drug?
A drug is: any substance that changes the
normal way the body works.
List as many drugs as you can in the next 30
seconds!
http://www.online-stopwatch.com/bombcountdown/full-screen/
What is a stimulant drug?
Stimulant: causes the body to respond more
quickly or more strongly making a person alert
or energetic
Examples:
Caffeine, cocaine, amphetamines, tobacco
What’s a depressant drug?
Depressant: Causes the body to respond more
slowly or calm the person down.
Examples:
Valium, marijuana, heroin, alcohol
How do drugs work?
A drug works by affecting your nervous system
pathway
There are gaps in the pathway between
neurons, these are called synapses and this is
where the drugs work.
http://learn.genetics.utah.edu/content
/addiction/mouse/
Synapses are Excitatory or Inhibitory
Make a table for each mouse, include:
•
•
•
•
Drug
Stimulant or Depressant
Name of neurotransmitters involved
What occurs (eg. The drug mimics the
neurotransmitter)
• Effect on brain and body
Drug
Cocaine
S/D
Stimulant
Neurotransmitter
Dopamine
What happens at
synapse
Blocks
transporters
Effect
Alert, energy,
fidgety
Marijuana
etc
Cocaine
Caffeine
Alcohol
Marijuana
Ecstasy
Amphetamine
Valium
Download