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ONLINE HOTEL RESERVATION SYSTEM
A CASE STUDY: HILLTOP VIEW HOTEL MBALE
BY
SAID BIN AHMED
UBB209/2017/B/D/A/37791
[email protected]
SUPERVISOR
Mr SOLOMON Wasilowa
A RESEARCH PROPOSAL SUBMITTED TO THE SCHOOL OF COMPUTER SCIENCE
AND INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE
REQUIREMENTS FOR THE AWARD OF DIPLOMA OF COMPUTER
SCIENCEAND INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY OF
MANAGEMENT TRAINING AND ADVISORY CENTRE
MARCH,2019
Table of Contents
LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS. .............................................................................................................................. 3
CHAPTER ONE ............................................................................................................................................... 4
1.1 Introduction ........................................................................................................................................ 4
1.3
Problem Statement ....................................................................................................................... 4
1.4
General Objective ......................................................................................................................... 6
1.5
Specific Objectives ........................................................................................................................ 7
1.6
Research Questions ...................................................................................................................... 7
1.7
Scope of the Study ........................................................................................................................ 8
1.8
Significance of the Study ............................................................................................................... 8
CHAPTER TWO .............................................................................................................................................. 9
LITERATURE REVIEW ..................................................................................................................................... 9
2.1 Introduction ........................................................................................................................................ 9
2.2 The current System ............................................................................................................................. 9
2.3
The Strengths and Weaknesses of the Current System ................................................................ 9
2.3.1
The strengths .......................................................................................................................... 10
2.3.2
The Weaknesses...................................................................................................................... 10
2.4
Related work ............................................................................................................................... 11
2.4.1
Online Computerized Hotel Management System: A case study of Satellite Motel Ilorin,
Nigeria. 11
2.4.2
Online Hotel Reservation and Management System. A case study of College of International
Tourism and Hospitality Management (CITHM) ..................................................................................... 12
2.5 Summary of the Literature Review; .................................................................................................. 12
2.6 Proposed Work ................................................................................................................................. 13
CHAPTER THREE .......................................................................................................................................... 14
METHODOLOGY .......................................................................................................................................... 14
3.1 Introduction.................................................................................................................................... 14
3.2
Research Design ...................................................................................................................... 14
3.2.1 Research Approach ..................................................................................................................... 14
3.2.2Research Methods .......................................................................................................................... 14
3.3 Data Collection ............................................................................................................................... 14
3.3.1
3.4
Sampling .................................................................................................................................. 15
Data Analysis ............................................................................................................................... 15
3.5 Requirement Identification ............................................................................................................... 15
3.6 System Design ................................................................................................................................... 16
3.7 System Implementation .................................................................................................................... 16
3.8
System Testing and Validation .................................................................................................... 17
3.8.1
Testing ..................................................................................................................................... 17
3.8.2
Validation ................................................................................................................................ 17
REFERENCES ................................................................................................................................................ 18
LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS.
CS6……………………………………………………………Collection Suit 6.
Mysql……………………………………………………….....My Structured Query Language.
PHP………………………………………………………........Hypertext Preprocessor.
HIMS…………………………………………………………Hotel information
Management
System.
OHRS………………………………………………………….Online Hotel Reservation System.
CPU…………………………………………………………… Central Processing Unit.
RAM…………………………………………………………...Random Access Memory.
DFD…………………………………………………………….Data Flow Diagram.
CSS…………………………………………………………….Cascading Style Sheet.
CHAPTER ONE
1.1 Introduction
This chapter is going to look at the introduction, background to the study, problem statement,
main objective, specific objectives, research question, scope of the study, and significance of the
study.
This section will look into a brief introduction of terms used in the topic of the study as described
below.
Hotel, (Sunanjan2013), Hotel is a place where all who conduct themselves properly and who
being able to pay and ready to pay for the entertainment are received if there be accommodation
for them, who without any stipulation engagement as to the duration of their stay or as to the
compensation, are while there, supplied a reasonable cause with their meals, lodging and other
services and attention.
1.2 Background to the Study
Online booking as defined by Master card Worldwide Insights (2008) is the process of
purchasing goods and services from merchants who sell over the internet. Generally, it is also
known as internet buying, electronic shopping, online purchasing or internet shopping. Kim
(2004) further defined internet shopping as examining, searching for, browsing for or looking at
a product to get more information with the possible intention of purchase on the Internet. By
looking at other perspective, Chiu et al (2009) considered online shopping in Chaina as an
exchange of time, effort and money for receiving products or services. Retailers see it as
internet/online retailing, e-commerce or e-store/online store, which refers to “the sale of retail
goods via online channels, valued at retail selling price”
(Datamonitor, 2009). As such, there are various ways of defining online shopping and it may
depend on which perspective we are looking at or interested in. Hence, the above mentioned
terms may be used interchangeably in this report.
Nowadays, online shopping has become the norm and consumers are adopting it as it has many
advantages. On consumers’ perspective, online shopping provides low and transparent prices,
comprehensive assortment of goods and services and a much more convenient shopping
alternative that has eliminated such traditional shopping inconveniences of squeezing through
crowds, stuck in long queue at cashier counter, battling for parking spaces at a busy mall. On the
other hand, retailers see it as a huge business opportunity to grab. According to Euro monitor
(2012) in Tang & Tong (2013), Malaysia’s Internet retail realized RM842 million in 2011 and
will expect to post compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 15% to reach RM1.7 billion in
2016 With Egyptian consumers shifting their shopping needs online, a lot of small and medium
sized businesses (SMBs) or even corporation are taking advantage of this opportunity by setting
up their alternative e-commerce stores to better serve their customers’ needs. For instance,
SenHeng Electric, MPH Bookstore, Parkson, Tesco and Isetan all created internet retailing as an
additional way for their customers to shop and as a marketing strategy to reach more potential
customers (Euromonitor, 2013). However, many researchers still claimed that online shopping is
still at the early stage of development in Egypt (Paynter & Lim, 2001; Haque et al, 2006; Tang &
Tong, 2013). According to ComScore (2009), the online retail (or total online spending in the
retail industry) in UAE is the lowest compared to many other countries in Asia. The ranking in
2009 (inAsia) as follows: 1) Japan, 2) South Korea, 3) Australia, 4) Taiwan, 5) Singapore, 6)
NewZealand, 7) Hong Kong, 8) China, 9) Vietnam, 10) Philippines, 11) India, 12) Indonesia and
13) Malaysia.
In Africa, although, the potential for growth in internet shopping is inevitable in other parts of
the world, understanding of what product has potential of online sales in Africa is critical. Many
previous researchers have identified products characteristics and classifications influence the
attitudes and intention to shop online. According to classical product information economics
Theory by Nelson (1974) in Tsang and Hsu (2009), goods can be classified into experience and
search goods. This theory defines that the search goods are products dominated by product
information attributes (or product specifications) which can be acquired electronically by
perspective consumers prior to purchase (such as computers, compact discs, books, electronics &
electrical items, games) whereas the experience goods are products dominated by information
attributes that can only be appreciated after purchase and use such as clothes and groceries.
Tsang and Hsu (2009) explained that experience goods require personal inspection prior to
purchase and such information is often difficult to obtain electronically; it is likely that
consumer’s intention to shop online is lower for experience goods than search goods. However,
Tsang and Hsu (2009) in a study found that experience goods induce more search efforts than
search goods. It implied that experience goods can become “search goods” with the help of
forums and blogs, perspective consumers may virtually experience other users’ experiences
without any cost prior to purchase. It also implied that the need for advertisements of experience
goods may surpass that of search goods. On the other hand, Chiang and Dholakia (2003)
concluded in earlier study that online shopping intention is higher when consumers perceive the
product to be search goods than experience goods. Earlier study by Ian Phau, Poon, SM (2000)
regarding Internet shopping in Singapore found that products and services that have a low outlay
(expenditure), are frequently purchased, have intangible value proposition, and relatively high on
differentiation are more likely to be purchased via the Internet.
In Uganda, according to Lian and Lin (2008), different products types affect consumers’ degree
of acceptance of online shopping for example Jumia. It was concluded in a similar study by
Dimitrios et al (2009) that consumer attitude towards online shopping is affected mainly by the
product in question. Moreover, a study by Korgaonkar et al (2006) also suggested that
consumers' online patronage differed based on product type. However, Zuroni & Goh (2012)
found that there is no significant difference in attitude towards online shopping among types of
goods group.
The purpose of this study is to identify the potential of online booking on Hiltop Hotel. Just how
much is known about the readiness and acceptance of consumers adopting online booking on
such services and the factors which influence consumers’ attitudes booking it online. This study
also examines whether demographic profile (gender, age, education level, income, residential
area type), previous online booking experience, perceived benefits, consumers’ lifestyles,
perceived merchants’ trustworthiness influence consumers’ attitude towards online booking on
Hilltop view Hotel. It is impossible to cover all the potential factors. The intention is to figure
out the most important and relevant factors which may highly affect the consumers’ online
booking attitudes toward the customers.
1.3
Problem Statement
Although the administrative section of HILLTOP VIEW Hotelhas been handling the hotel
booking system is significant. It will aid in checking or solving the following problems.
i.
Manual system if of time consuming and involved too much labour before the
booking list is finally released.
ii.
Loss of the complete ticket as a result of mishandling in the case of transfers of
document (records)
iii.
Duplication of records where the customers may wish to purchase more tickets for
other customers
iv.
1.4
Check guest customers which are not easily detected.
General Objective
The major aims of this study are develop software system that will help in reducing labour and
replacement of manual method used in booking rooms for guest.
1.5
Specific Objectives
1. To study the current ways by which customers register or order for the services.
2. To design online hotel reservation system.
3. To implement the design of online hotel reservation system.
4. To test and validate of the online hotel reservation system.
1.6
Research Questions
These include the challenging questions that a researcher will face while carrying out the
research processes.
1. What means can customers use to acquire services from the hotel?
2. What design techniques can be applied to design the new system?
3. What are the contributions of the new system to the Hotel?
4. What testing and validation criteria can be used on Hotel Order Management system?
1.7
Scope of the Study
A Hotel is a large establishment, which consist of different section/department with their various
responsibilities that bring about the efficient running of the Hotel service. This research work
cover Account, Admin, housekeeping, sale of food and beverage departments.
1.8 Significance of the Study
This section points out the relevancies of using online hotel booking.
With the use of online hotel reservation software, the hotel will be able to benefit the following;
Will enhance sales with reservation worldwide.
Will enhanceservices with convenient payment choices and enhanced cash flow with direct
payment.
Enjoy time to market with minimal setup.
Enjoy productivity gains and cost savings.
Will enhance hotel image competitive edge (good reputation).
CHAPTER TWO
LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 Introduction
This chapter presents the Literature Review of the study, divided into; Introduction to the
Current System, Strength and Weaknesses of the Current System, Related Works, the summary
of the Literature Review and the Proposed Work.
2.2 The current System
In (2009), the Current System used the manual way that involved the use of stationery (pen,
pencil and paper) for capturing the details of the guests who come to the hotel. Transaction are
recorded on pieces of paper, reservations are done by either the guest calling or going direct to
the hotel premises in order to find out on the available space.
Most work of the organization is carried out based on manual file System. Records of day-today transactions are written in rough notebooks by operator. Modifications of data in files are
tedious.
Chauhan.et al. (2011), the Current System also kept the records of the guests in file folders,
spring files and box files, which are susceptible to loss of data and mixing of records which gives
wrong information of a particular guest. The current System is also associated with much time
being spent in capturing the details of the customers as this is done by the hotel management,
since the customers are not given opportunities to record themselves.
Calculation of amount of payment is done manually by calculator, which is time consuming and
subject to loss of accuracy.
Therefore this will opt for the Computerized System that will enable the customers to interface
with the system so that they can give the right information and it will also spare the time of the
employees among other associated advantages,
2.3
The Strengths and Weaknesses of the Current System
This section points out the loop holes and the strength in the Current System.
2.3.1 The strengths
This section points out how the current system has worked to its best.
Mr. Ode Obaba,(2009) clear identification of the customers; The Hotel Management is able to
know the kind of guest who is going to reside in their premises even before they get into staying
in the hotel. This gives the management the possibility to know how to deal with people of
different categories.
Full scope of the hotel to the guests; with the current system, the guests are in position to identify
the status of the hotel even when they are still visiting the hotel for the first time in order to
reserve the rooms. Here the guests are able to make a decision of whether to stay in that hotel or
to find a hotel that can suit their preference.
Ease in management; the current system is quite easy to manage since it requires manual labor in
entering records and filling reports that is quite affordable. This system does not need any
programming language to be implemented; it only requires a language that customers normally
use in their day today operations.
Mr. Ode Obaba,(2009) cost effective; Using the current system is not as expensive as compared
to using computerized system that requires a qualified IT professional to design, test and validate
the system. This makes it affordable for the management.
Ease in purchasing the resources; buying the reams of paper, pens, pencils (stationery) does not
necessitate making and order from the factory or travelling longer distances to purchase them.
One just needs to move to the nearby stationery shop to buy these items which are also easy to
afford compared to purchasing a full set of computer system.
Mr. Ode Obaba,(2009) free from electricity problems; Issues like load shedding, electric bills
and maintenance does not affect the current system at all. Unlike the use of computers that
require electricity for their operation, the manual system does not. This makes it easy and cheap
to run the system.
2.3.2 The Weaknesses
The following are the weaknesses of the current system;
Bardi, (2010) the use of stationery which are costly make the Hotel to incur more expenses in
purchasing reams of paper, file folders, spring files and box files, which stationery are prone to
damage by poor keeping methods, and sometimes rain water or even wet surfaces.
Much time is being spent by the customers on travelling from their places of residence to the
Hotel in order to find accommodation and yet if this system was computerized, Guests would
reserve rooms at their convenient time and from anywhere as long as they access the web page of
the Hotel.
This lead to loss of records of the customers who accommodate the Hotel due to the improper
keeping methods. Since these records are being kept in file folders, spring files and box files,
they are misplaced because it is not permanent for them to stay in one point as the hotel may
experience restructuring.
Sometimes wrong information is being captured with the current system as different people have
different accent. This can also make the Hotel to keep records of a different person.
In the billing process, there can be inaccuracy in calculating the bills for the customers.
Sometimes the customers are charged highly because of the errors in the process of calculation
or the customer pays less for the services acquired because the calculations are not proper. But if
this system is computerized, the calculations would not be done manually.
The current system does not allow international guests to get access to the Hotel as it is limited to
only the internal scope due its manual system.
2.4
Related work
This section gives a write up of what other people have done.
2.4.1 Online Computerized Hotel Management System: A case study of Satellite Motel
Ilorin, Nigeria.
Origima,et al., (2014)pointed out that; findingaccommodation or a hotel after having reached a
particular destination is quite time consuming as well as expensive. Here comes the importance
of Online Hotel Booking facility. Hotel Management System is one of the latest techniques in the
arena of internet that allows travelers to book a hotel located anywhere in the world and that too
according to your tastes and preferences. In other words, online hotel booking is one of the
awesome facilities of the internet. Booking a hotel online is not only fast as well as convenient
but also very cheap. Nowadays, many of the hotel providers have their sites on the web, which in
turn allows the users to visit these sites and view the facilities and amenities offered by each of
them. So, the proposed Hotel Management System is set to find a more convenient, well
organized, faster, reliable and accurate means of processing the current manual system of the
hotel for both near and far customer.
2.4.2 Online Hotel Reservation and Management System. A case study of College of
International Tourism and Hospitality Management (CITHM)
Glenda, et al., (2013) pointed out that; Online Hotel Reservation Software (OHRS) is easy to
use, an arrangement that enables agents and guests to reserve rooms directly via the internet once
they have confirmed availability of rooms in accordance with the itinerary. OHRS is efficient
and brilliant software, yet it is easy and uncomplicated to use. OHRS grants complete authority
and power on hotel or motel room booking over the internet. This entails that one can
accumulate all guest payments; enter own room descriptions, facilities, rates and allocations into
the Reservation System. OHRS also allows to confirm accommodation in real-time at hotel’s
web site.
There are several benefits of OHRS. It makes the reservation process computerized and thus
helps one to undertake a large amount of transactions at a low cost. It lets the hotel in charge of
over margins and pricing strategy. It enables one to check available inventory and complete an
online booking form making the reservation process more efficient and less time consuming. The
clients can settle the room rates and special offers at no extra cost. OHRS assists hotel’s guests
and agents with different payment options such as credit/debit cards. The system can track
hotel’s performance on a regular basis as all information concerning payments is updated online
and sent to the reservation manager by means of e-mail or mobile messages.
2.5 Summary of the Literature Review;
Based on the literature review, the study concludes that the manual file-based system can
influence the Hotels to encounter so many challenges that sometimes make the Hotel to invest in
a lot of money to recover the losses that will be made. The study also concludes that the guests
spend a lot of money travelling to the Hotel to make reservations which would have been done
Online anywhere at any convenience. Therefore in order to reduce on the expenses that both the
Hotel Management team and the Guests encounter, it will opt for a Computerized
Hotelinformation Management System to maximize the operational benefits.
2.6 Proposed Work
Basing on the study, the researcher will came up with HotelManagement System that will help
register the Guests Online, and manage the hotel services, (Pizam, 2005, p. 551). The system will
help to reduce on the expenses that willbe faced with the manual system.
CHAPTER THREE
METHODOLOGY
3.1
Introduction
This chapter presents detailed data collection techniques that will be used to achieve the specific
objectives of the project.
3.2
Research Design
In the design,the System Development Life Cycle (SDLC) will be used beginning from the first
phase to the last phase that is testing and validation. The six stages of the SDLC; requirement
identification, analysis of the findings, and system design as per the requirements will find,
coding, testing and implementation will be put into account. These stages will lead to the use of
design model like DFD that shows how data enters into the system, and FLOW CHART that
shows the logical structure of the system.
3.2.1
Research Approach
For this particular project work, Qualitative approach to research will be used, however other
approaches will include Quantitative, Experimental, Inferential, and Simulation.
Qualitative approach will be used because it enables the researcher to have assessments on the
current system and its workability, getting opinions from respondents and the behaviors of the
guests when using the manual system. This will be helpful in coming up with solidified findings
that will be used in developing the Hotel Order Management System.
3.2.2Research Methods
This refers to the ways in which data will be collected basing on the available resources. This
research study will involve primary data collection methods such as Interview, Observation,
Questionnaires, and some secondary methods like case studies basing on what other researchers
have done, and Diaries.
3.3
Data Collection
Data collection refers to the systematic collection techniques that will be used to gather relevant
information related to the topic of study. These techniques will includeinterviews, which is a
data-collection technique that involves oral questioning of respondents, either individually or as
a group. A questionnaire which is a data collection tool in which written questions are presented
that are to be answered by the respondents in written form. Observation is a technique that
involves systematically selecting, watching and recording behavior and characteristics of living
beings, objects or phenomena.
3.3.1 Sampling
Random sampling will be used in carrying out the research study. The research based on
systematic sampling willfacilitate the study on the topic systematically and in a simple format
unlike the use of non-random sampling where the risk of biasness is great.
3.4
Data Analysis
Data analysis will be based on the findings on questionnaires, observations, library research, and
interview methods. This data analysis will enable consistency and reliability in the research study
that the research will be based on.
3.5 Requirement Identification
Questionnaire
Questions were availed to customers in form of questionnaire guides in accordance to the
objectives of the topic of study to the organization for which were responded to and provided the
necessary information needed to come up with the project.
Interview
Questions will be posed to the management of HILLTOP VIEW hotel through face to face
interaction. This will help in getting first-hand information being possible through the use of the
interview guide that will be followed.
Observation
A four (4) days observation will be done at HILLTOP VIEW VIEWHotel which will help in
gathering first-hand information and this will in turn help fillin learning about the sensitive issues
that the agency or participants were not willing to talk about.
Observation provides a good insight of how different participants behave and interact for which
might have been taken for granted in the learning context.
Library Research
This data collection technique will involve reading recommended text books, related journals,
posted articles, Newspapers and magazines will be used to come up with related work.
3.6 System Design
The system will be designed basing on process model and relational model. The process model
involves the use of DFD that entails how the data enters into the system, formulated and stored.
The relationalwill be determined by the use of FLOW CHART that shows the logical structure of
the system.
3.7 System Implementation
The system will be implemented using the following tools;
Physical database design
The database will be implemented using the MySQL server localhost which enables the storage
of data entered into the system. This is because it is free open source software, fast and free.
User interface
User interfaces will be designed using Adobe Dreamweaver CS6, sublime text template and
Adobe Photoshop CS6 this is because of the skills and capabilities that I have in using them,
Flexibilities in Adobe Dreamweaver, its speed, and its availability also will be a motivation to
using this Software.
Linking the interfaces to the database
A database will becreated where table adapter will beadded and configured using the connection
string bearing database name, user name and password. This connection will becreated in Adobe
Dreamweaver CS6 through the server behavior panel. This will bepossible through the following
4 steps
Testing server; here the server is selected that hosts my pages on the web for the case of this
project I use the host server.
Record set; this step helps user form to post the records into the MySQL database using a
defined connector.
3.8
System Testing and Validation
The system will betested by entering some data and check for errors; Errors that are found will
debugged. The system will bethen validated by the users in terms of its functionality.
3.8.1 Testing
The system will betested by running it with the aim of identifying and debugging errors. Testing
the new system will becarried out to evaluate the general functional capabilities of the system,
identifying and eliminating any bugs.
3.8.2 Validation
The system will bevalidated by entering the data to check if it performs the intended purpose for
which it will perform to do following user requirements. For example a customer ordering for the
service at the hotel and it willbe successful that a customer will beable to make the order
successfully.
.
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