Chapter 42 Circulatory System Mastering Biology Study online at quizlet.com/_4oe4w8 1. An advantage of gas exchange in fresh water, compared with gas exchange in air, is that........... Water loss through evaporation across the respiratory surface can be minimized 16. _______ in carbon dioxide in your red blood cells, which causes ______ in pH, causes your breathing to speed up. Increase, drop 2. atrial systole..... Occurs at the same time as ventricular diastole 17. 3. Blood cells that function to fight infection are called..... Leukocytes In order for blood to always flow unidirectionally through a closed circulatory system, the ....... Blood vessels farthest from the heart must have valves 18. Erythropoietin; kidney Blood returning to the mammalian heart in a pulmonary vein drains first into the.... Left atrium ________ is a hormone that is released from the ______ to stimulate the production of red blood cells. 19. Blood returns to the heart via the _____. pulmonary veins Most of the carbon dioxide produced humans.... Is produced by bicarbonate ions 20. 6. cellular respiration produces ...... CO2 and ATP A normal event in the process of blood clotting is the...... 7. Cooperativity in enzymes refers to...... One enzyme subunit altering the behavior of others. activation of prothrombin to thrombin 21. Partial pressure 8. diagnosis of hypertension in adults is based on ...... Blood pressure being greater than 140 mm Hg systolic and/or greater than 90 mm Hg diastolic The ________ of oxygen in blood increases as it flows through the gill capillaries. 22. A closed circulatory system 9. A EEG provides information about The rhythm of heart contractions Organisms with a circulating body fluid that is distinct from the fluid that directly surrounds the body's cells are likely to have....... 23. 10. From the capillaries of the abdominal organs and hind limbs, blood flows to the _____. Inferior vena cava 11. From the pulmonary veins, blood flows to the _____. left atrium The partial pressure of oxygen at a particular point in the bloodstream is 100 mm Hg. Under what circumstances will there be a net diffusion of oxygen from the water into the bloodstream at this location? 12. From the superior vena cava, blood flows to the _____. right atrium There will be a net diffusion of oxygen from the water into the bloodstream only if the partial pressure of oxygen in the water is greater than 100 mm Hg. 24. 4,900 mL/min The greatest difference between the concentration of respiratory gases is found in what pair of mammalian blood vessels? The pulmonary vein and the superior vena cava A patient with a heart rate of 70 bpm and a stroke volume of 70 ml/bpm will have a cardiac output of...... 25. Nasal cavity In a adult mammalian heart...... Blood in he right chambers of the heart cannot enter the left chambers without passing through the lungs. The primary functions of the _______ are to warm, filter, and humidity air. 26. pulmonary circulation is the ________. Lower-pressure circuit to the lung. 27. The smallest airway through which air passes before gas exchange occurs in the mammalian lungs is the..... Bronchiole 28. Stroke occurs when ______. A blood clot enters the cerebral circulation, blocking an artery and causing the death of brain tissue. 4. 5. 13. 14. 15. In an open circulatory system, blood is...... Not always confined to blood vessels and is under lower pressure than in closed circulatory systems. 29. systemic circulation is the ______. Higher-pressure circuit to the rest of the body. 42. What is the function of the circulatory system? It brings a transport liquid into close contact with all the cells in the body. 30. The velocity of blood flow is lowest in capillaries because...... The total cross-sectional area of the capillaries is greater than the total cross-sectional area of the arteries or any other part of the circulatory system. 43. What is the function of the left ventricle? It pumps oxygenated blood around the body via the systemic circulation. 44. What is the function of valves? Voice sounds are produced by the _____. larynx They prevent the back flow of blood into the atria and ventricles. 45. What are used to control the blood pressure in the closed circulatory system of vertebrates? Changing the force of hear contraction, constricting and relaxing smooth muscle in the walls of arterioles, opening or closing precapillary sphincters Why do the circulatory systems of land vertebrates have separate circuits to the lungs and to the rest of the body? The large decrease in blood pressure as blood moves through the lungs may prevent efficient circulation through the rest of the body. 46. Platelets are not function properly or there are too few to be effective. 33. What develops the greatest pressure on the blood in the mammalian aorta? Systole of the left ventricle You cut your finger, and after putting pressure on the wound for several minutes you are still bleeding profusely. What is the problem? 34. What does the gas exchange system in fish allow them to do? Enables oxygen to diffuse from the water into the blood over the entire length of the hill capillaries. 35. What event occurs during atrial and ventricular diastole? The atria and ventricles are relaxed, and the blood flows into the atria. 36. What event occurs when systolic blood pressure is measured? The ventricles contract, carrying blood into the aorta, and blood flows into the relaxed atria. 37. What happens when you exhale? Diaphragm and rob muscles relax,lung volume decreases, air moves out of alveoli, air moves up bronchioles/bronchi/trachea, air leaves through nose or mouth 38. What happens when you inhale? Diaphragm and rob muscles contract, lung volume increases, air moves into nose and down trachea/bronchi/bronchioles, air enters alveoli, O2 diffuses into blood; CO2 diffuses into alveoli. 39. What is diastole? The relaxation phase of the cardiac cycle where blood can passively enter the chambers of the heart. 40. What is systolic blood pressure? The peak blood pressure, resulting from the contraction of the ventricles. 41. What is the function of arteries? Arteries carry blood away from the heart 31. 32.