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chapter 43 Test Review with Answers

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Chapter 42 Circulatory System Mastering Biology
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1.
An advantage of gas exchange
in fresh water, compared with
gas exchange in air, is that...........
Water loss through
evaporation across the
respiratory surface can be
minimized
16.
_______ in carbon dioxide in your
red blood cells, which causes
______ in pH, causes your breathing
to speed up.
Increase, drop
2.
atrial systole.....
Occurs at the same time
as ventricular diastole
17.
3.
Blood cells that function to
fight infection are called.....
Leukocytes
In order for blood to always flow
unidirectionally through a closed
circulatory system, the .......
Blood vessels farthest
from the heart must
have valves
18.
Erythropoietin; kidney
Blood returning to the
mammalian heart in a
pulmonary vein drains first into
the....
Left atrium
________ is a hormone that is
released from the ______ to
stimulate the production of red
blood cells.
19.
Blood returns to the heart via
the _____.
pulmonary veins
Most of the carbon dioxide
produced humans....
Is produced by
bicarbonate ions
20.
6.
cellular respiration produces ......
CO2 and ATP
A normal event in the process of
blood clotting is the......
7.
Cooperativity in enzymes
refers to......
One enzyme subunit
altering the behavior of
others.
activation of
prothrombin to
thrombin
21.
Partial pressure
8.
diagnosis of hypertension in
adults is based on ......
Blood pressure being
greater than 140 mm Hg
systolic and/or greater
than 90 mm Hg diastolic
The ________ of oxygen in blood
increases as it flows through the
gill capillaries.
22.
A closed circulatory
system
9.
A EEG provides information
about
The rhythm of heart
contractions
Organisms with a circulating body
fluid that is distinct from the fluid
that directly surrounds the body's
cells are likely to have.......
23.
10.
From the capillaries of the
abdominal organs and hind
limbs, blood flows to the _____.
Inferior vena cava
11.
From the pulmonary veins,
blood flows to the _____.
left atrium
The partial pressure of oxygen at
a particular point in the
bloodstream is 100 mm Hg. Under
what circumstances will there be
a net diffusion of oxygen from
the water into the bloodstream at
this location?
12.
From the superior vena cava,
blood flows to the _____.
right atrium
There will be a net
diffusion of oxygen
from the water into the
bloodstream only if the
partial pressure of
oxygen in the water is
greater than 100 mm
Hg.
24.
4,900 mL/min
The greatest difference
between the concentration of
respiratory gases is found in
what pair of mammalian blood
vessels?
The pulmonary vein and
the superior vena cava
A patient with a heart rate of 70
bpm and a stroke volume of 70
ml/bpm will have a cardiac output
of......
25.
Nasal cavity
In a adult mammalian heart......
Blood in he right
chambers of the heart
cannot enter the left
chambers without passing
through the lungs.
The primary functions of the
_______ are to warm, filter, and
humidity air.
26.
pulmonary circulation is the
________.
Lower-pressure circuit
to the lung.
27.
The smallest airway through which
air passes before gas exchange
occurs in the mammalian lungs is
the.....
Bronchiole
28.
Stroke occurs when ______.
A blood clot enters the
cerebral circulation,
blocking an artery and
causing the death of
brain tissue.
4.
5.
13.
14.
15.
In an open circulatory system,
blood is......
Not always confined to
blood vessels and is
under lower pressure than
in closed circulatory
systems.
29.
systemic
circulation is the
______.
Higher-pressure circuit to the rest of
the body.
42.
What is the function of the
circulatory system?
It brings a transport liquid
into close contact with all
the cells in the body.
30.
The velocity of
blood flow is
lowest in
capillaries
because......
The total cross-sectional area of the
capillaries is greater than the total
cross-sectional area of the arteries or
any other part of the circulatory
system.
43.
What is the function of the
left ventricle?
It pumps oxygenated blood
around the body via the
systemic circulation.
44.
What is the function of
valves?
Voice sounds are
produced by the
_____.
larynx
They prevent the back flow
of blood into the atria and
ventricles.
45.
What are used to
control the blood
pressure in the
closed circulatory
system of
vertebrates?
Changing the force of hear contraction,
constricting and relaxing smooth
muscle in the walls of arterioles,
opening or closing precapillary
sphincters
Why do the circulatory
systems of land vertebrates
have separate circuits to the
lungs and to the rest of the
body?
The large decrease in blood
pressure as blood moves
through the lungs may
prevent efficient circulation
through the rest of the body.
46.
Platelets are not function
properly or there are too
few to be effective.
33.
What develops the
greatest pressure
on the blood in the
mammalian aorta?
Systole of the left ventricle
You cut your finger, and after
putting pressure on the
wound for several minutes
you are still bleeding
profusely. What is the
problem?
34.
What does the gas
exchange system
in fish allow them
to do?
Enables oxygen to diffuse from the
water into the blood over the entire
length of the hill capillaries.
35.
What event occurs
during atrial and
ventricular
diastole?
The atria and ventricles are relaxed,
and the blood flows into the atria.
36.
What event occurs
when systolic
blood pressure is
measured?
The ventricles contract, carrying blood
into the aorta, and blood flows into the
relaxed atria.
37.
What happens
when you exhale?
Diaphragm and rob muscles relax,lung
volume decreases, air moves out of
alveoli, air moves up
bronchioles/bronchi/trachea, air leaves
through nose or mouth
38.
What happens
when you inhale?
Diaphragm and rob muscles contract,
lung volume increases, air moves into
nose and down
trachea/bronchi/bronchioles, air enters
alveoli, O2 diffuses into blood; CO2
diffuses into alveoli.
39.
What is diastole?
The relaxation phase of the cardiac
cycle where blood can passively enter
the chambers of the heart.
40.
What is systolic
blood pressure?
The peak blood pressure, resulting
from the contraction of the ventricles.
41.
What is the
function of
arteries?
Arteries carry blood away from the
heart
31.
32.
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