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Coordination in humans
16.1 The human nervous system
(Book 2, p. 16-3)
There are two coordinating systems in humans: the (1) _______________ system (神經系統) and
the (2) _______________ system (內分泌系統).
A
The general plan of the nervous system
(Book 2, p. 16-3)
Our nervous system consists of two main parts:
-
The (3) _______________ nervous system (CNS) (中樞神經系統), which consists of the
(4) _______________ and the (5) _______________ _______________ (脊髓).
-
The (6) _______________ nervous system (PNS) (外圍神經系統), which consists of
(7) _______________ nerves (腦神經) and (8) _______________ nerves (脊髓神經).
B
The basic unit of the nervous system
(Book 2, p. 16-4)
(9) _______________ (神經元) are the basic unit of the nervous system.
1
Structure of a neurone
(10) _____________ _____________ (細胞體):
(15) _____________ _____________ (髓鞘):
-
-
contains a nucleus and cytoplasm with other
organelles
a layer of fatty material surrounding nerve
fibres
(11) _______________ (樹突):
(13) _______________ (軸突):
-
-
transmits nerve impulses
transmits nerve impulses
(12) _____________________
(14) _____________________
(towards / away from) the cell body
(towards / away from) the cell body
nerve fibres (神經纖維)
Key:
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transmission of nerve impulse
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The myelin sheath protects and (16) _______________ the nerve fibres. This serves to:
2
-
prevent the transmission of nerve impulses to the (17) _______________
-
(18) _______________ _______________ the transmission of nerve impulses.
Types of neurones
Type of neurone
Direction of nerve
impulse transmission
Location of
cell body
Appearance
From
(22) ____________
Has a
(19) ______________
(20) _____________
(Outside / Inside)
(23) ____________
neurone (感覺神經元)
to the
the CNS
dendron and a
(21) _____________
(24) ____________ axon
From the
(28) ____________
Has very
(25) ______________
(26) _____________ to
(Outside / Inside)
(29) ____________
neurone (運動神經元)
(27) _____________
the CNS
dendrons and a
(30) ____________ axon
From a
(34) ____________
Has short dendrons and
(32) _____________
(Outside / Inside)
short axons
(31) ______________
neurone to a
the CNS
(中間神經元)
(33) _____________
neurone or other
interneurones
C
The structure of a nerve
A (35) _______________ (神經) is a
(Book 2, p. 16-6)
a nerve
connective tissue
bundle of nerve fibres wrapped in
connective tissue.
a nerve fibre
myelin sheath
blood vessels
▲ Structure of a nerve
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16.2 Transmission of nerve impulses between neurones
(Book 2, p. 16-7)
Nerve impulses are (1) _______________ messages transmitted along nerve fibres at high
speed.
Nerve impulses are transmitted from the axon of a neurone to the dendron or cell body of the
next neurone across a (2) _______________ (突觸).
dendron
axon
nerve
Key:
transmission of
nerve impulse
A nerve impulse arrives.
axon
The (3) _______________
mitochondria
_______________
(突觸小體) releases (4) _______________
(神經遞質).
synaptic knob
The neurotransmitter (5) _______________
synaptic vesicle
containing
neurotransmitter
across the (6) _______________
_______________ (突觸間隙).
synaptic cleft
The neurotransmitter stimulates the dendron
to generate a (7) _______________
cell body or
dendron of next
neurone
_______________.
▲ Transmission of nerve impulses across a synapse
The importance of the synapses
They ensure that nerve impulses travel in (8) _______________ direction only.
They allow a neurone to (9) _______________ with many other neurones.
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16.3 The central nervous system
A
How is the CNS protected?
(Book 2, p. 16-9)
(Book 2, p. 16-9)
The central nervous system (CNS) consists of the brain and the spinal cord. They are protected
by:
-
(1) _______________: The brain is enclosed by the (2) _______________ (顱). The spinal
cord is protected by the (3) _______________ _______________ (脊柱).
-
(4) _______________: The CNS is covered by three membranes.
-
(5) _______________ _______________ (腦脊髓液): This fluid fills the space between the
inner and middle membranes and the (6) _______________ _______________ (中央管) of
the spinal cord.
(7) _______________
three
(8) _______________
brain
cavity filled with
(9) _______________
spinal cord
_______________
central canal
central canal
spinal cord
spinal nerve
three
(10) _______________
(11) _______________
_______________
Ventral
Dorsal
▲ Structures protecting the brain and the spinal cord
Functions of the cerebrospinal fluid:
-
Provides nutrients and oxygen to the (12) _______________ and removes waste from
them
-
Serves as a (13) ______________ ______________
-
Provides (14) ______________ support to the brain and the spinal cord.
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B
The brain
(Book 2, p. 16-10)
The brain consists of three main parts:
(15) _______________ (大腦)
(16) _______________ (小腦)
(17) _______________ _______________ (延髓)
Part of the
brain
Cerebrum
Structural feature
Function
Highly (18) _______________ at the
Site of
surface to hold more neurones, so
(22) _______________ (智力)
that (19) _______________ can be
Controls
more efficient
(23) _______________ actions
Outer layer made up of
(隨意動作)
(20) ______________ matter (灰質) ;
writing
e.g. speaking and
inner layer made up of
(21) ______________ matter (白質)
Cerebellum
Highly (24) _______________
(27) _______________ muscular
Outer layer made up of
movements for maintaining
(25) _______________ matter;
(28) _______________
inner layer made up of
_______________ when we move
(26) _______________ matter
Medulla
Outer layer made up of
(31) _______________ centre
(29) _______________ matter;
(反射中樞)
inner layer made up of
(反射動作),
(30) _______________ matter
swallowing and coughing
oblongata
for many reflex actions
e.g. saliva secretion,
Controls other
(32) _______________ actions
(不隨意動作),
e.g. breathing and
heart beat
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The grey matter consists mainly of the (33) _______________ _______________ of
neurones. Their nuclei give a grey colour to this region. The white matter consists of
(34) _______________ _______________. Their (35) _______________ _______________
give the white colour to this region.
The outer layer of the cerebrum is called the (36) ______________ ______________ (大腦皮層),
which is divided into different functional areas:
legs, trunk, arms,
face, tongue
touch, hearing,
smell, taste
sight
thinking, judgement
memory
B
Label
A
B
C
C
A
B
Area in cerebral cortex
A
Function
(37) _______________
Receives nerve impulses from receptors to give
area (感覺區)
(38) _______________
(39) _______________
Sends nerve impulses to effectors to produce
area (運動區)
(40) _______________
(41) _______________
area (聯合區)
(42) _______________ information from different
sensory areas, so that the brain can make decisions
before sending nerve impulses to motor areas
Go to
Practical 16.1
Examination of a human brain model
(Book 2, p. 16-13; Practical Workbook for SBA 2, p. 16-1)
C
The spinal cord
(Book 2, p. 16-15)
The outer region of the spinal cord is made up of (43) _______________ matter. The inner
H-shaped region is made up of (44) _______________ matter. At the centre of the grey matter
is the central canal which is filled with cerebrospinal fluid.
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(45) _______________ matter:
(46) _______________ matter:
-
-
consists of nerve fibres
consists mainly of the cell bodies of neurones
(47) _______________
neurone
nerve fibres
central canal
dorsal root
spinal nerve
ventral root
(50) _______________ _______________
(48) _______________
_______________ (背根節):
(49) _______________
-
neurone
contains cell bodies of sensory neurones
Key:
transmission of nerve impulse
▲ Structure of the spinal cord
Functions of the spinal cord:
-
It (51) _______________ nerve impulses between the brain and other parts of the body.
-
It is the (52) _______________ centre for many reflex actions involving the trunk and
limbs.
16.4 Reflex action and voluntary action
A
What is a reflex action?
(Book 2, p. 16-18)
(Book 2, p. 16-18)
A (1) _______________ _______________ is an inborn, rapid and automatic response to a
stimulus. It is also stereotyped (有固定形式的).
All reflex actions are involuntary because they do not involve the (2) _______________.
Reflex actions produce (3) _______________ (slow / fast) responses. They protect us from
danger.
Example of reflex action
Parts of CNS involved
Withdrawal reflex (退縮反射) and
(4) _______________ _______________ and
knee jerk reflex (膝躍反射)
(5) _______________ _______________
Saliva secretion, swallowing and
coughing
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(6) _______________ _______________
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B
1
Examples of reflex actions
(Book 2, p. 16-19)
The withdrawal reflex
from brain
to brain
motor neurone
V
spinal cord
ventral root
interneurone
VI
IV
dorsal root
sensory neurone
I
Step
II
III
Key:
transmission of nerve impulse
Description
I
a
The hand touches a sharp object.
II
b
The arm muscle (effector) contracts.
III
c
The hand withdraws to prevent damage.
IV
d
Nerve impulses travel along the sensory neurone to the spinal cord.
V
e
Pain receptors in the skin are stimulated and they generate nerve impulses.
VI
f
Nerve impulses travel along the interneurone and the motor neurone to the arm
muscle.
I: (7) __________
II: (8) __________
III: (9) __________
IV: (10) _________
V: (11) _________
VI: (12) _________
The withdrawal reflex does not involve the (13) _______________, but nerve impulses are
transmitted to the brain via another nervous pathway. Hence, we (14) _______________
(can / cannot) feel the pain.
The hand has already withdrawn before we can feel the pain. This (15) _______________ the
body from damage.
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2
The knee jerk reflex
to brain
dorsal root
III
II
sensory
neurone
knee
cap
spinal cord
I
ventral root
motor
neurone
IV
Key:
Step
transmission of nerve impulse
V
VI
Description
I
a
Nerve impulses travel along the sensory neurone.
II
b
The tendon just below the knee cap is tapped.
III
c
The leg kicks.
IV
d
Stretch receptor in the upper leg muscle is stimulated.
V
e
Nerve impulses travel along the motor neurone to the leg muscle.
VI
f
The leg muscle (effector) contracts.
I: (16) __________
II: (17) __________
III: (18) __________
IV: (19) _________
V: (20) _________
VI: (21) _________
The knee jerk reflex helps maintain (22) _______________ and (23) _______________.
We can feel the tapping when nerve impulses are transmitted to the brain via another nervous
pathway.
The nervous pathway that brings about a reflex action is called a (24) _______________
_______________ (反射弧). It involves a sensory neurone, an interneurone (absent in some
reflex arcs) and a motor neurone.
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C
What is a voluntary action?
(Book 2, p. 16-22)
A voluntary action is under (25) _______________ control of the cerebrum of the brain.
Voluntary actions may also be (26) _______________ by the cerebrum directly without
involving any stimuli.
Nervous pathway of voluntary actions:
-
After detecting a stimulus, the (27) _______________ generates nerve impulses which are
transmitted to the (28) _______________. (Some voluntary actions are initiated by the
(29) _______________ without involving any stimuli.)
-
The information is processed and (30) _______________ in the cerebrum which then
generates other nerve impulses.
-
These nerve impulses are transmitted to the (31) _______________ to produce a response.
16.5 Differences between reflex actions and voluntary
actions (Book 2, p. 16-25)
Reflex actions
Voluntary actions
Involves the (1) _____________
Always involves the (3) _______________
_____________ or the
Nervous
pathway
(2) _____________ _____________,
but not the cerebrum
A receptor is always involved
May not involve any (4) _______________ if
the action is initiated by the cerebrum directly
(5) ____________________
(7) ____________________
(Under / Not under) conscious
(Under / Not under) conscious control
control (i.e. (6) ______________)
Nature of
response
(8) ____________________
(9) ____________________
(Inborn / Not inborn)
(Inborn / Not inborn)
The same stimulus always results in
The same stimulus may result in
(10) ______________ (the same /
(12) ______________ (the same / different)
different) response(s) (i.e. a
response(s)
(11) _______________ response)
Speed of
response
Always (13) _______________
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May be fast or slow, depending on the
nervous pathway involved and the nature of
response
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16.6 The human endocrine system
(Book 2, p. 16-26)
The endocrine system consists of a number of (1) ______________ _____________ (內分泌腺),
which produce (2) _______________ (激素).
A
What is an endocrine gland?
(Book 2, p. 16-26)
Differences between endocrine glands and (3) _______________ ______________ (外分泌腺):
Endocrine gland
Exocrine gland
secretion diffuses
directly into the blood
secretion is released
through a duct
duct
inflow
of blood
outflow
of blood
secreting cell
Way of
releasing
secretions
secreting
cell
capillary
Diffuse directly into the
Through (5) _______________
(4) _____________
Pituitary gland (垂體), thyroid gland
Example and
substance
produced
adrenal glands (腎上腺),
Salivary glands that produce saliva, and
pancreas, ovaries and testes that
gastric glands that produce gastric juice
(甲狀腺),
produce various (6) _____________
Hormones are mostly (7) _______________ or (8) _______________ in nature. They are
important for the (9) _______________ of body processes and internal environment.
B
How does hormonal coordination work?
(Book 2, p. 16-28)
Hormones serve as chemical messengers. They are produced in very (10) _______________
(large / small) amounts. They diffuse into the blood from their site of production, and then
circulate in the (11) _______________ throughout the body. They will only act on
(12) _______________ organs.
The action of hormones is (13) _______________. One hormone may affect several target
organs at the same time. Their duration of effect is usually (14) ____________-____________.
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An example of hormonal coordination:
II
I
pancreas cell
insulin
capillary
glucose
liver cell
V
IV
Step
III
Description
I
a
Insulin diffuses into the blood.
II
b
The carbohydrates ingested are broken down into glucose. Glucose is absorbed
into the blood.
III
c
Cells in the liver (target organ) receive insulin and are stimulated to convert
excess glucose to glycogen (response). The blood glucose level returns to normal.
IV
d
Receptors in the pancreas detect an increase in blood glucose level (stimulus).
The pancreas (endocrine gland) produces more insulin (hormone).
V
e
Insulin is transported by blood to all parts of the body.
I: (15) __________
II: (16) __________
IV: (18) _________
V: (19) _________
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III: (17) __________
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16.7 Comparison between hormonal coordination and
nervous coordination (Book 2, p. 16-30)
Both hormonal coordination and nervous coordination are important for transmitting messages
to (1) _______________ to give proper (2) _______________.
Differences between hormonal coordination and nervous coordination:
Hormonal coordination
Nervous coordination
System
involved
(3) _______________ system
(4) _______________ system
Components
of the system
Endocrine glands, blood
Neurones, nerves, brain, spinal cord
(5) _______________
(6) _______________
(hormones)
(nerve impulses along nerve fibres)
Nature of
message
Chemical
((7) _______________ across
synapses)
Route of
transmission
Blood stream
Nerve fibres
Speed of
transmission
(8) _______________
(9) _______________
(Rapid / Slow)
(Rapid / Slow)
(10) _______________, one
(11) _______________, restricted
hormone may affect several target
to places with nerve supply
Areas of
response
organs at the same time
Duration of
effect
Body
processes
involved
Usually (12) _______________-
(13) _______________-
_______________
_______________
Reproduction, growth and
Voluntary actions, reflex actions
development, regulation of internal
and other involuntary actions
environment
(always (14) _______________)
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Answers
Ch 16 Coordination in humans
16.1
1
nervous
2
endocrine
3
central
4
brain
5
spinal cord
6
peripheral
7
cranial
8
spinal
9
Neurones
10
cell body
11
dendron
12
towards
13
axon
14
away from
15
myelin sheath
16
insulates
17
surroundings
18
speed up
19
Sensory
20
receptors
21
CNS
22
Outside
23
long
24
short
25
Motor
26
CNS
27
effectors
28
Inside
29
short
30
long
31
Interneurone
32
sensory
33
motor
34
Inside
35
nerve
5
diffuses
5
Cerebrospinal fluid
16.2
1
electrical
2
synapse
3
synaptic knob
4
neurotransmitter
6
synaptic cleft
7
nerve impulse
8
one
9
communicate
16.3
1
Bones
2
cranium
3
vertebral column
4
Membranes
6
central canal
7
cranium
8
membranes
9
cerebrospinal fluid 10
membranes
11
vertebral column
12
neurones
13
shock absorber
14
mechanical
15
cerebrum
16
cerebellum
17
medulla oblongata 18
folded
19
coordination
20
grey
21
white
22
intelligence
23
voluntary
24
folded
25
grey
26
white
27
Coordinates
28
body balance
29
white
30
grey
31
Reflex
32
involuntary
33
cell bodies
34
nerve fibres
35
myelin sheaths
36
cerebral cortex
37
Sensory
38
sensations
39
Motor
40
responses
41
Association
42
Integrates
43
white
44
grey
45
white
46
grey
47
sensory
48
interneurone
49
motor
50
dorsal root ganglion
51
relays
52
reflex
2
cerebrum
3
fast
4
Spinal cord / Spinal nerves
6
Medulla oblongata 7
a
8
e
16.4
1
reflex action
5
spinal nerves / spinal cord
9
d
10
f
11
b
12
c
13
cerebrum
14
can
15
protects
16
b
17
d
18
a
19
e
20
f
21
c
22
posture / balance
23
balance / posture
24
reflex arc
25
conscious
26
initiated
27
receptor
28
CNS
29
cerebrum
30
integrated
31
effector
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16.5
1
spinal cord / medulla oblongata
2
medulla oblongata / spinal cord
3
cerebrum
4
receptors
5
Not under
6
automatic
7
Under
8
Inborn
9
Not inborn
10
the same
11
stereotyped
12
different
13
fast
16.6
1
endocrine glands
2
hormones
3
exocrine glands
4
blood
5
ducts
6
hormones
7
protein / lipid
8
lipid / protein
9
regulation
10
small
11
blood
12
target
13
widespread
14
long-lasting
15
b
16
d
17
a
18
e
19
c
16.7
1
effectors
2
responses
3
Endocrine
4
Nervous
5
Chemical
6
Electrical
7
neurotransmitter
8
Slow
9
Rapid
10
Widespread
11
Localized
12
long-lasting
13
Short-term
14
involuntary
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