International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET)
Volume 10, Issue 06, June 2019, pp. 399-410, Article ID: IJCIET_10_06_038
Available online at http://www.iaeme.com/ijciet/issues.asp?JType=IJCIET&VType=10&IType=06
ISSN Print: 0976-6308 and ISSN Online: 0976-6316
© IAEME Publication
Hayder Rezzaq Abed
Postgraduate Student, Department of Civil Engineering, University of Diyala, Baquba,
Diyala, Iraq
Wadhah Amer Hatem
Assistant Professor, Baquba Technical Institute, Middle Technical University, Baquba,
Diyala, Iraq
Nidal Adnan Jasim
Assistant Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, University of Diyala,
Baquba, Diyala, Iraq
Too many workers are exposed to injury and death in the construction industry each
year, due either to the weakness and neglect of the application of health and safety
measures or weaknesses in the identification of risks related to the construction site.
The approach to safety risk assessment and the development of site safety plans is based
on 2D drawings and handwritten, fragmented and uncoordinated notes. BIM is
characterized by its ability to create a virtual environment similar to reality based on
concepts of visualization and simulation. The purpose of this research is to study how
this technology can be used in Iraqi construction industry to identify risks at different
project stages and to find appropriate mitigation strategies. The results of comparing
the site safety plan by using a traditional method with the BIM technique showed that
the BIM technique is more accuracy in management and analysis of the work site.
Finally, the BIM technology showed that the application of the safety measures in site
will increase the duration of the project by (3.66%). Analytical study.
Keyword head: Safety, Risk, BIM, Visualization, Traditional approach, 4D.
Cite this Article: Hayder Rezzaq Abed, Wadhah Amer Hatem and Nidal Adnan
Jasim, Possibility of Bim Technology in Site Safety Analysis at Iraqi Construction
Industry. International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology, 10(06), 2019,
pp. 399-410
[email protected]
Hayder Rezzaq Abed, Wadhah Amer Hatem and Nidal Adnan Jasim
Health and Safety of the workplace is a global challenge to civilization and sustainable
development [1]. In fact, the weakness of government support in the implementation of safety
measures and the poor culture of workers in the importance of safety in construction sites is an
important cause of a large number of injuries [2]. Construction management tends to ignore
safety constraints during the construction process; therefore, unless making good integration
between construction management and safety management, any construction project cannot
arrive optimum benefits of the vital objectives i.e. cost, time [3].
Usually, contractors use CAD drawings in construction to plan safety. CAD system
provides isolated and static design process. These CAD model provide specific architectural
features, topological description of buildings, they are not suitable to identify hazards in job
site [4]. So according to the changing nature and complicated of the construction project,
manual checking is often error-prone and labor-intensive [5].
BIM is a process works on a single virtual model that provide more efficiently and
accurately than traditional process, also offers more collaborative among team member (client,
architect, contractor, engineer, suppliers) [6].
The advantage of BIM starting through using it in an early conceptual design stage, where
the owner will have benefit from that. BIM can help the owner through provides a conceptual
design based on his budget and target. Without any complex design team, the feasibility of the
project can be analyzed depending on developing the conceptual design. When the conceptual
design is decided, cost estimation can be calculated. Depending on the cost of the project and
its feasibility the modification of the concept and design of the project will be easy without any
additional costs or create multi design ideas and compared between them to improve the
building [7].
The employment of BIM technologies can effect in improving occupational safety by mean
of connecting the safety issues to construction planning, providing methods to manage and
visualize up-to-date plans, and site status information. The use of BIM encourages other project
stakeholders to share in both planning and risk assessment [8].
There is a certain belief that BIM technology is always useful in identifying and
communicating risks to the project team because BIM technology allows simulation of the real
conditions of the site [9].
In this research, the researcher adopted on case study approach in analyzing safety problems
and with a view to being able to use benefit from the possibilities that BIM technology offered
to generate a platform that helps in identifying, managing multiple hazards depending on the
concept of visualization and simulation, through creating a 4D BIM model that is somewhat
consistent with the realistic work site, then linking the safety guidelines (OSHA rules
(Occupational Safety and Health Adminstration,US), Iraqi Safety Blog) to this model. For this
research, the researcher used the following technology in site safety analysis:
 Visualization.
 Simulation.
 Animation.
The software uses for this research is: Revit software which consider one of the best
software in modeling, to model the case study, Synchro software, which is one of the best
[email protected]
Possibility of Bim Technology in Site Safety Analysis at Iraqi Construction Industry
programs used in the field of 4D planning and safety analysis, MS project to create scheduling.
Figure (1) explains the framework of the safety analysis workflow:
Figure 1. Shows framework of the safety analysis workflow
2.1. Creating 3D Model of Case Study
For this research, Secondary School Building (16 Class) in Thi-qar province was adopted as a
case study. This type of project considers widespread in Iraq. This case consists of seven
buildings. Each building differs from another in dimensions. The total area of the project is
(8848 m2). The other details about the project summarized as following:
 Start date: January 2014
The project is incomplete and stalled due to the economic crisis in the country
Type of Contract is unit price contract.
Height of (classrooms, Administration, Laboratory) Buildings is 7.36m
Height of Assembly building 6.18m
Height of (students’ toilets, guard room) is 3m
Ground floor begins from level (0.5) to level (3.68)
First Level begins from level (3.68) to level (7.36)
Figure (2) explain the 3D model of the secondary school building created by Revit
Figure 2. Shows 3D BIM model of case study
[email protected]
Hayder Rezzaq Abed, Wadhah Amer Hatem and Nidal Adnan Jasim
2.2. Creating Time Schedules
The researcher created a time schedule of the projects by using M.S project software (Microsoft
project) which considers one of the important software in construction management, which
includes activities description, duration of activities and the relationship between them.
2.3. Creating 4D Model of Case Study
The researcher imports SPX file that exported from Revit software to Synchro software. The
time schedule was imported as an XML file to Synchro Software, then transforming the 3D
model to the 4D model to create a virtual simulation for the construction sequences, and adding
animation for workers and machines to be the site more reality Figure (3) shows 4D model:
Figure 3. Shows 4D model of case study
In this research, the researcher depends upon five safety executors, their experience ranging
from 3 to 13 years. The HSE (Health and Safety Executors) suggested that two plans be
prepared to study site safety analysis:
1. Site safety arrangements: for traffic, storage, entrances, and site fencing.
2. Emergency response plan for the site.
The HSE will prepare traditional site safety plans by using 2D drawings to identify any
hazards or any necessary arrangement related to the construction project, then shows the 4D
model as dynamic model for them to identify hazards and to compare results of 2D with results
of 4D, to see which one is a better approach in identifying hazards and using a suitable safety
4.1. Site Safety Arrangement
The HSE will prepare a construction site plan which shows how the site area will be used for
arranging the required construction operations, then analyzing and identifying the hazards
relating to this arrangement. According to OSHA and Iraqi Safety Blog, the site layout plan
should include:
 Site preparation (location and number of office facilities).
[email protected]
Possibility of Bim Technology in Site Safety Analysis at Iraqi Construction Industry
Construction of storage areas for building materials and loading away from workers'
 Organizing the traffic inside the site during the different stages of the work to ensure
the safety of workers from the movement of vehicles
 Keep the site clean by collecting and removing work waste that may be hazardous
to workers
Figure (4) shows the traditional site safety plan depending on 2D drawings:
Figure 4. Shows traditional site safety plan
When compared this plan with the 4D BIM model, the results were the followings:
1. They explained the 4D model is more realistic than 2D drawings, that can help in
the daily training of workers on the details of the site that maybe change during any
period of time. Figures (5), (6) show that:
Figure 5. Shows installing exterior temporary fence
Figure 6. Shows changing in details of the site in different period
[email protected]
Hayder Rezzaq Abed, Wadhah Amer Hatem and Nidal Adnan Jasim
2. With the help of the 4D BIM model, the HSE noted that 29 days after the project
began, there would be a conflict between the location of the caravan No. 3 and the
excavator used to drill the footing of the outer fence, and therefore the presence of
the caravan at this place would endanger the lives of its occupants. Figure (7) shows
Figure 7. Explain conflict the excavator with caravan no.3
3. They found that the road between the buildings will be narrow over a certain period
of time due to excavation work and because of the use of safety barriers around
these excavations, where the 4D model shows that the width of this road may reach
less than 3m; therefore, the machines cannot move safely because of maybe lead to
overturning in the excavations. Figure (8) shows that:
Figure 8. Shows narrow roads of the site between the buildings
Then, they found after (86 day) from beginning the project, it is possible to increase the
width of the road after finishing backfilling works, figure (9) shows that, while the road
between the assembly building and the administration building cannot use it until finishing
installation works of steel structure because of the danger from the crane machines, figure (10)
shows that:
[email protected]
Possibility of Bim Technology in Site Safety Analysis at Iraqi Construction Industry
Figure 9. Increase width of road
classrooms and laboratory
Figure 10. Explain hazard in this part of road between
between assembly building and administration
4. According to the problems that appeared in point 1, 2, the HSE found it necessary
to create new arrangements for the site. With helping of 4DBIM model, they found
an ability to create a new entrance between the administration building and the
building of the classrooms, and they proposed to make this entrance just for workers
and placing a caravan no. 3 in the new entrance to check the workers' wearing of
safety equipment. Figure (11) shows that:
Figure 11. Shows the new proposed entrance for workers
Since it was difficult to use the previous entrance due to excavation work and subsequent
installation works of the steel structure and to minimize the movement of the machines inside
the site to maintain workers' safety, the HSE proposed creating a new entrance allowing only
the mechanisms to reach for the administration building and guard room. Figure (12) shows
Figure 12. Shows the proposed entrance reach to Administration building
[email protected]
Hayder Rezzaq Abed, Wadhah Amer Hatem and Nidal Adnan Jasim
5. Through the 4D model, the HSE found that the storage space of the materials
installed in the 2D drawings can be adopted because it does not conflict with the
site's works at all time, and create a special entrance for materials trucks. Figure
(13) shows that:
Figure 13. Shows the temporary fence around materials inside site
6. The HSE believes that the BIM 4D model is more accurate in showing all the details
of the site, especially showing the lighting of the location and the monitoring
system, which is somewhat inaccurate and unclear in the 2D drawings, where these
things are often handwritten notes. Figure (14), (15) show that:
Figure 14. Shows the location of cameras
Figure 15. Shows location of lighting
7. During the 4D model, traffic can be organized at the site during different project
durations, while that would be complex or may be impossible in the 2D model
because of that need multiple schemes for each scenario, while in the 4D model all
scenarios in a single model. Figure (16) (17) show that:
Figure 16. Shows the traffic barriers during
cast of footing for safe site.
Figure 17. Shows location of traffic
barriers to explain hazard from machine
[email protected]
Possibility of Bim Technology in Site Safety Analysis at Iraqi Construction Industry
4.2. Emergency Response Plan
According to Iraqi safety blog and OSHA, the emergency plan should have:
 Prepare copies of the emergency plan to ensure the safety of workers.
 These copies should explain the exit routes and places of emergency equipment and
first aids.
 Identifying materials which are potential fire hazards.
 Two exit routes at least must be available in the workplace to allow prompt
evacuation of workers
 Provides training to workers with regard to fire hazards or other hazards which they
may be exposed.
Figure (18) explains the emergency action plan in 2D drawings was:
Figure 18. Emergency response plan by traditional approach
Where the HSE drawings show the escape routes and the location of the signs of the exits,
in addition, show the places of fire extinguishers, first aids in the site. The results from
comparison with the 4D BIM model were:
8. Through the 4D model, the HSE have found the possibility of using the workers'
entrance as the third exit for emergencies. The 4D model is more realistic for
emergency roads compared to 2D schemes. Figure (19) shows emergency route
with red color, and figure (20) shows emergency signs.
Figure 19. Shows the emergency routes
Figure 20. Shows the emergency sign
9. The 4D model explained that during the first month of the project there is one place
containing first- aid and fire extinguishers (other caravans were not installed due to
excavation works). Figure (21) explains that. Then, in February month, fire
extinguishers and first-aid are providing at each caravan and near storage of
[email protected]
Hayder Rezzaq Abed, Wadhah Amer Hatem and Nidal Adnan Jasim
materials. This will make workers aware of emergency equipment places during
project times. Figure (22) explain that:
Figure 21. show the first aid and extinguishers
first month
Figure 22. Show first aid and extinguishers in in
February month
10. After (6 months) from beginning the project, the HSE discovered through the 4D
BIM model, that during the timber framework of the first floor of the buildings there
is a danger of the exposure of these timbers for fires, so they found it necessary to
use the escape ladder for each building and put an emergency sign to explain that it
is only for emergencies. The reason for using the emergency ladder and not relying
on the building stair is contains the wooden columns that support the roof shuttering
figures (23), (24) show that:
Figure 23. Shows emergency ladder for
administration building
Figure 24. Shows emergency ladder for
classroom building
11. The HSE engineers find that the 4D model can be used to train workers on how to
use emergency routes, first-aid places, and fire extinguishers at any time in the
project, through create training movie, while in the 2D drawings will be so difficult.
Figures (25) shows creating animation movie for a project during different times:
[email protected]
Possibility of Bim Technology in Site Safety Analysis at Iraqi Construction Industry
Figure 25. Shows ability of the software in record training movies for safe arrangement of site to train
4.3. Effect Safety Analysis on Total Time of Project
In fact, the implementation of the safety measures led to an increase in the time of the project.
The planning engineers found it difficult to determine the increase based on the traditional
methods due to the overlap of works and changes in the site, while they found that it is very
easy to calculate the exact additional time the 4D model. Table 1 show this increase:
Table 1 Shows effect of safety procedure on the project time
Duration of project without safety procedure
Duration of project with safety procedure
The percentage of increase of time
Note: percentage of increase = ((duration with safety - duration without safety)/ duration
without safety) * 100%
= ((311-300)/300) *100% = 3.666%
In Iraq, the construction industry has caused more injuries and deaths than in other industries.
This is due to the weakness of knowledge of the concept of safety by designers, which results
in many of the safety hazards inherent in the project drawings. In fact, it is difficult for
contractors to identify all safety risks at the planning and pre-construction stage of a project.
BIM technology can help to create an environment that is similar to the real environment
through which the problems related to the safety of workers and equipment will be solved and
provide a safe working environment. For this reason, BIM technology can help improve site
safety by linking the four-dimensional BIM model to safety regulations (OSHA and Iraqi
Safety Blog).
This research seeks to demonstrate the weakness of traditional risk management methods
based on 2D drawings, and to improve workplace safety through the use of BIM technology to
assist safety managers in accurately identifying risks to different phases of the project, finding
appropriate strategies for site safety and preventing any conflicts or Delay due to the application
of safety measures. Safety managers through comparisons, explain that BIM was more accurate
and more realistic in identifying risks to the workplace and it will be a good tool to solve all
[email protected]
Hayder Rezzaq Abed, Wadhah Amer Hatem and Nidal Adnan Jasim
safety problem in the planning stage before physical build. Finally, the BIM technology
explained that the application of the safety measures at the site will increase the project duration
by (3.66%).
Peter Uchenna Okoye, John Ugochukwu Ezeokonkwo, Fidelis Okechukwu Ezeokoli.
Building Construction Workers’ Health and Safety Knowledge and Compliance on Site.
Journal of Safety Engineering, 5(1), 2016, pp 17-26.
Hatem, W, A., Evaluation of Safety Systems in Iraqi Construction Projects, International
Journal of Applied Engineering Research. 12, 2017, pp. 11714-11726.
Vacharapoom Benjaoran, Sdhabhon Bhokha. An Integrated Safety Management with
Construction Management Using 4D CAD Model. Journal of Safety Science, 48, 2009, pp
Rozenfeld, O., Sacks, R. and Rozenfeld, J. Construction Hazard Assessment with Spatial
and Temporal Exposure. Journal of Construction Management and Economics, 27(7),
2009, pp 625-638.
Zhang, S., Teizer, J., Lee, J.-K., Eastman, C.M., Venugopal, M. Building information
modeling (BIM) and safety: automatic safety checking of construction models and
schedules. Journal Automation in Construction. 29, 2013, pp 183–195.
Azhar, K., Khalfan, & M., Maqsood, T., Building Information Modelling (BIM): Now and
Beyond. Australasian Journal of Construction Economics and Building. 12 (4), 2012, pp
Estman, C., Teicholz, P., Sacks, R. and Liston, K. BIM Handbook: AGuide to Building
Information Modeling for Owners, Managers, Designers, Engineers and Constructors, 2 nd
ed. John Wiley and Sons, NY, 2011.
Sulvankivi, K.; Teizer, J., Kiviniemi, M.; Eastman, C.M., Zhang, S., and Kim, K.
Framework for integrating safety into Building Information Modelling. Proceeding of the
CIB W099 International Conference on “Modelling and Building Health and Safety”,
2012, Singapore, pp 93-100.
Azhar, S., Behringer, A., Sattineni, A., & Mqsood, T. BIM for Facilitating Construction
Safety Planning and Management at Jobsites. In Proceedings of the CIB-W099
International Conference: Modelling and Building Safety, Singapore, 2012, pp 82-92
[email protected]
Random flashcards
Arab people

15 Cards


39 Cards


30 Cards

African nomads

18 Cards

Create flashcards