McGraw Hill - CLassifying Organisms PDF

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Chapter Resources for Differentiated Instruction
Classifying and Exploring Life
Title
Page
Lesson
1
Lesson
2
Lesson
3
Level
Get Ready to Read
1
all students
Quick Vocabulary
3
all students
Student Lab Safety Form
5
all students
Launch Lab
8
25
44
all students
Content Vocabulary ELL
9
26
45
all students
Lesson Outline ELL
10
27
46
all students
MiniLab
12
29
48
all students
Content Practice A
13
30
49
AL
OL
BL
Content Practice B
14
31
50
AL
OL
BL
Language Arts Support
51
all students
Math Skills
53
all students
all students
School to Home
15
32
54
Key Concept Builders
16
33
55
Enrichment
20
37
59
Challenge
21
38
60
AL
OL
BL
Lesson Quiz A
22
41
61
AL
OL
BL
Lesson Quiz B
23
42
62
AL
OL
BL
Skill Practice
AL
OL
BL
all students
39
all students
Lab A
63–65
AL
OL
BL
Lab B
66–68
AL
OL
BL
Lab C
69
AL
OL
BL
Chapter Key Concepts Builder
70
AL
OL
BL
Chapter Test A
71–73
AL
OL
BL
Chapter Test B
74–76
AL
OL
BL
Chapter Test C
77–79
AL
OL
BL
Answers (with Lesson Outlines)
AL Approaching Level
T2–T14
OL On Level
BL Beyond Level
ELL English-Language Learner
Teacher evaluation will determine which activities to use or modify to meet any ELL student’s proficiency level.
Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Permission is
granted to reproduce the material contained herein on the condition that such materials
be reproduced only for classroom use; be provided to students, teachers, and families
without charge; and be used solely in conjunction with the Glencoe Middle School
Science program. Any other reproduction, for sale or other use, is expressly prohibited.
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Glencoe/McGraw-Hill
8787 Orion Place
Columbus, OH 43240-4027
ISBN: 978-0-07-891452-2
MHID: 0-07-891452-3
Printed in the United States of America.
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 HES 15 14 13 12 11 10
To The Teacher
This book contains reproducible pages that support the Student Edition. Descriptions and frequencies
of these resources are listed in the table that follows.
Title
Get Ready
to Read:
What do
you think?
Frequency
Appropriate
For
Overview
Using the Get Ready to Read anticipation guide
in the Student Edition? This page matches the
1/Chapter
anticipation guide in the Student Edition. Students can
complete this at the beginning of a chapter and check
their responses at the end.
all students
Need some options to preteach vocabulary and
help students with vocabulary development ? By
Quick
Vocabulary
1/Chapter
folding the Quick Vocabulary sheet in half, students will
have an easy reference tool. Lesson vocabulary, along
with academic vocabulary, review vocabulary, or
multiple-meaning words, are listed and defined. Students
can add other words that they need to remember as well.
all students
Need a standard lab safety form? Each FastFile
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Student Lab
Safety Form
Launch Lab
Content
Vocabulary*
Lesson
Outline*
MiniLab
1/Chapter
includes this form that students can complete prior to
each lab. Students indicate that they understand all
aspects of the lab. There is a place for the student and
you to sign it.
1/Lesson
Want a lab recording page for Student Edition
Launch Labs ? Each recording page matches the
1/Lesson
Want to help students who need more vocabulary
practice? Content Vocabulary pages provide review and
Student Edition Launch Labs, so students do not need
to use their textbooks in the lab.
reinforcement activities. Use these pages to help
students master content terms.
all students
all students
all students
Want an outline of the chapter for a substitute
teacher, for absent students, or for students to
use for review ? Lesson outlines follow the head and
1/Lesson
1/Lesson
AL Approaching Level
subhead structure of the Lesson, emphasizing the major
content objectives. They can be used in many ways. In
addition to those listed above, they can help you
organize teaching notes and accompany student reading.
Want a lab recording page for Student Edition
MiniLabs ? This recording page matches the Student
Edition MiniLab, so students do not need to use their
textbooks in the lab.
OL On Level
BL Beyond Level
all students
all students
* ELL English-Language Learner
Teacher evaluation will determine which activities to use or modify to meet any ELL student’s proficiency level.
Classifying and Exploring Life
iii
Title
Frequency
Appropriate
For
Overview
Need more options for content review? Content
Content
Practice
(Leveled)
Practice A is designed to help students who have
difficulties learning and understanding the vocabulary
and Key Concepts of each lesson:
1/Lesson
• Form A—helps struggling students grasp lesson
content
AL
AL
AL
• Form B—provides on-level and beyond-level
reinforcement of lesson content
AL
OL
BL
Looking for a way to help students build reading
and writing skills in science? Language Arts
Language
Arts
Support
1/Chapter
Math Skills
1/Chapter
all students
Support pages provide practice using vocabulary,
language structure clues, and writing skills with science
content.
Want help for students who need to practice
math skills ? This page provides additional practice
all students
of the Math Skill in the Student Edition.
School to
Home
Enrichment
all students
for a home-learning partner to help a student better
understand the Big Idea of a chapter.
Have students who need more practice with Key
Concepts ? Key Concept Builders present the content
4/Lesson
1/Lesson
AL
in a context different from the Student Edition. These
pages can be used whenever a student is struggling
with any of the lesson’s Key Concepts.
Looking for ways to help students to broaden their
understanding of lesson concepts ? Use Enrichment
AL
AL
all students
pages to further explore information and Key Concepts
introduced in a lesson.
Want to motivate the independent learner ? The
Challenge
1/Lesson
Challenge activity extends information in the Student
Edition and challenges a student’s abilities. The activity
can be completed in class or at home.
AL
AL
BL
OL
BL
Need options to evaluate students after each
lesson? These quizzes are developed around the Key
Lesson
Quiz
(Leveled)
Concepts of a lesson:
1/Lesson
AL Approaching Level
• Quiz A—provides more guided questions
AL
• Quiz B—provides more short-answer and completion
questions
AL
OL On Level
BL Beyond Level
* ELL English-Language Learner
Teacher evaluation will determine which activities to use or modify to meet any ELL student’s proficiency level.
iv
Classifying and Exploring Life
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Key Concept
Builders
1/Lesson
Looking for a way to help students with the
content ? The School to Home page provides support
Title
Frequency
Appropriate
For
Overview
Need a lab recording page for the Skill Practice?
Skill
Practice
1/Chapter
This corresponds to the Skill Practice in the Student
Edition. Write-on lines are included for answers. Tables/
charts/graphs are included for recording observations,
or space is provided for drawing tables/charts/graphs.
Students do not need to use their textbooks in the lab.
all students
Want leveled lab recording pages for the Lab in
the Student Edition? These pages provide leveled
versions of the Student Edition Lab. Write-on lines are
included for answers. Tables/charts/graphs are often
included for recording observations, or space is provided
for creating tables/charts/graphs:
Lab
(Leveled)
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Chapter Key
Concepts
Builder
1/Chapter
1/Chapter
• Version A—This version follows the student edition
lab but each step of the procedure is broken down
sentence by sentence. Included are check-off boxes
that provide easier processing for struggling learners.
AL
AL
AL
• Version B—This version is the student edition lab.
AL
OL
BL
• Version C—This version is designed to be a challenge
for independent learners. Students must complete
version B before doing version C.
AL
AL
BL
AL
AL
AL
• Version A—provides students with more guided
questions
AL
AL
AL
• Version B—more short-answer and completion
questions
AL
OL
AL
• Version C—challenges students with more difficult
and open-ended questions
AL
AL
BL
Have students who need more practice with Key
Concepts related to the Big Idea? This practice
page is designed to reinforce chapter content for
struggling students before they take the chapter test.
Need options to assess each student according
to his or her abilities ? These leveled chapter tests
accommodate all students:
Chapter
Test
(Leveled)
1/Chapter
Teacher
Pages
AL Approaching Level
Want all the answers in one place? These pages
contain the answers for all the practice pages.
OL On Level
BL Beyond Level
* ELL English-Language Learner
Teacher evaluation will determine which activities to use or modify to meet any ELL student’s proficiency level.
Classifying and Exploring Life
v
Name
Date
Class
Get Ready to Read
Classifying and Exploring Life
What do you think?
Before you read, decide if you agree or disagree with each of these
statements. On the line before each statement, place an A if you agree or a
D if you disagree. As you read this chapter, see if you change your mind
about any of these statements.
Before You
Read
Statements
After You
Read
1. All living things move.
2. The Sun provides energy for almost all organisms on
Earth.
3. A dichotomous key can be used to identify an unknown
organism.
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
4. Physical similarities are the only traits used to classify
organisms.
5. Most cells are too small to be seen with the unaided eye.
6. Only scientists use microscopes.
What have you learned?
After you read each lesson, return to this worksheet to see if you have
changed your mind about any of the statements related to that lesson. Place
a C after each statement that is correct or an I for those that are incorrect.
Classifying and Exploring Life
1
Name
Date
Class
Quick Vocabulary
Lesson 1
Lesson 2
cell smallest unit of life
binomial nomenclature naming
homeostasis ability to maintain
steady internal conditions when
outside conditions change
multicellular made of two or more
cells
organism thing that has all the
characteristics of life
unicellular made of one cell
system that gives each organism a
two-word scientific name
cladogram branched diagram that
shows the relationships among
organisms
dichotomous key series of
descriptions arranged in pairs that
can be used to identify an unknown
organism
genus group of similar species
kingdom classification category that
ranks above phylum and below
domain
species group of organisms that have
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
similar traits and produce fertile
offspring
Classifying and Exploring Life
3
Name
Date
Class
Quick Vocabulary
Lesson 3
atom building block of matter
composed of protons, neutrons, and
electrons
compound microscope uses more
than one lens to magnify an image
electron microscope uses a magnetic
field to focus a beam of electrons
through an object or onto an
object’s surface
identify to determine the
characteristics of a person or thing
light microscope uses light and lenses
to enlarge an image of an object
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
4
Classifying and Exploring Life
Student Lab/Activity Safety Form
Teacher Approval Initials
Date of Approval
Student Name:
Date:
Lab/Activity Title:
• Carefully read the entire lab and respond to each of the following statements.
• Return this completed and signed safety form to your teacher to initial before you
begin the lab/activity.
1. Describe what you will be doing during this lab/activity. Ask your teacher any questions
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
you might have regarding the lab/activity.
2. Will you be working alone, with a partner, or with a group? (Circle one.)
3. What safety precautions should you take while doing this lab/activity?
4. Write any steps in the procedure, additional safety concerns, or lab safety symbols that
you do not understand.
Student Signature
Classifying and Exploring Life
5
Lesson 1 | Characteristics of Life
Student Labs and Activities
Page
Appropriate For:
Launch Lab
8
all students
Content Vocabulary ELL
9
all students
Lesson Outline ELL
10
all students
MiniLab
12
all students
Content Practice A
13
AL
AL
AL
Content Practice B
14
AL
OL
BL
School to Home
15
Key Concept Builders
16
Enrichment
20
Challenge
21
AL
AL
BL
Lesson Quiz A
22
AL
AL
AL
Lesson Quiz B
23
AL
OL
BL
all students
AL
AL
AL
all students
Assessment
Teacher Support
Answers (with Lesson Outlines)
AL Approaching Level
T2
OL On Level
BL Beyond Level
ELL English-Language Learner
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Teacher evaluation will determine which activities to use or modify to meet any ELL student’s proficiency level.
Classifying and Exploring Life
7
Name
Date
Launch Lab
Class
LESSON 1: 15 minutes
Is it alive?
Living organisms have specific characteristics. Is a rock a living organism? Is a dog? What
characteristics describe something that is living?
Procedure
1. Read and complete a lab safety form.
2. Place three pieces of pasta in the
bottom of a clear plastic cup.
4. Observe the contents of the cup for
5 minutes. Record your observations in
the Data and Observations section
below.
3. Add carbonated water to the cup
until it is 2/3 full.
Data and Observations
1. Think about living things. How do you know they are alive?
2. Which characteristics of life do you think you are observing in the cup?
3.
8
Key Concept Is the pasta alive? How do you know?
Classifying and Exploring Life
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Think About This
Name
Date
Content Vocabulary
Class
LESSON 1
Characteristics of Life
Directions: Unscramble each word. Then write the correct term next to its definition on the lines provided.
1. clel
2. samigron
3. rainullclue
4. steamhissoo
5. cruelmalltiul
6. made of one cell
7. the ability to maintain steady internal conditions when
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
outside conditions change
8. the smallest unit of life
9. made of more than one cell
10. a thing that has all the characteristics of life
Classifying and Exploring Life
9
Name
Date
Class
Lesson Outline
LESSON 1
Characteristics of Life
A. Characteristics of Life
1. All
things are organized, grow and develop, reproduce,
respond, maintain certain internal conditions, and use energy.
2. Things that have all the characteristics of life are called
.
B. Organization
1. Whether an organism is made of only one
—the
smallest unit of life—or many cells, all living things have structures that have
specific functions.
2. Living things that are made of only one cell are called
organisms.
3. Living things that are made of two or more cells are called
organisms.
4. Living things with more than one cell have a greater level of
because groups of cells function together.
C. Growth and Development
or increasing cell
number.
2. The changes that occur in an organism during its lifetime are
called
.
D. Reproduction
1.
is the process by which one organism makes one or
more new organisms.
2. Some organisms must have a(n)
to reproduce, but
others can reproduce without one.
E. Responses to Stimuli
1. All living things can
These changes are called
external.
2. Hunger and thirst are examples of
3. Some examples of
10
to changes in the environment.
and can be internal or
stimuli.
stimuli are light and temperature.
Classifying and Exploring Life
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
1. Living things grow by increasing
Name
Date
Class
Lesson Outline continued
F. Homeostasis
1. An organism’s ability to maintain steady internal conditions when outside
conditions change is called
. Maintaining these
conditions ensures that cells can
.
2. When your outside environment becomes too hot or too cold, your body responds
by sweating, shivering, or changing the flow of
maintain a body temperature of 37°C.
to
G. Energy
1. Cells continuously use
to transport substances, make
new cells, and perform chemical reactions.
2. For most organisms, the energy they use originally came to Earth from
.
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
the
Classifying and Exploring Life
11
Name
Date
MiniLab
Class
LESSON 1: 20 minutes
Did you blink?
Like all living organisms, you respond to changes, or stimuli, in your environment. When
you react to a stimulus without thinking, the response is known as a reflex. Let’s see what a
reflex is like.
Procedure
1. Read and complete a lab safety form.
2. Sit on a chair with your hands in your
lap.
3. Have your partner gently toss a soft,
foam ball at your face five times.
Your partner will warn you when he or
she is going to toss the ball. Record
your responses in your Science Journal.
4. Have your partner gently toss the ball
at your face five times without warning
you. Record your responses.
5. Switch places with your partner, and
repeat steps 3 and 4.
Analyze and Conclude
1. Compare your responses when you were warned and when you were not warned.
3.
12
Key Concept Infer why organisms have reflex responses to some stimuli.
Classifying and Exploring Life
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
2. Decide if any of your reactions were reflex responses, and explain your answer.
Name
Date
Class
Content Practice A
LESSON 1
Characteristics of Life
Directions: On the line before each definition, write the letter of the term that correctly matches it.
Each term is used only once.
1. a tadpole changing into a frog
A. growth and
development
2. a bacterium dividing and becoming two bacteria
B. homeostasis
3. eating because you feel hungry
C. organization
4. your body temperature staying the same
D. reproduction
5. what you need for doing all activities
E. response to stimuli
6. groups of cells working together
F. energy
Directions: Circle the term in parentheses that correctly completes each sentence.
7. Something that has only four of the six characteristics of life is
(a nonliving thing/an organism).
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
8. A living thing that is made of only one cell is a (multicellular/unicellular) organism.
9. Cells in a (multicellular/unicellular) organism usually are organized into groups that
have different jobs.
10. Light and temperature are two examples of (external/internal) stimuli.
11. The smallest unit of life is a (cell/tadpole).
12. (Growth/Homeostasis) allows living things to keep a steady internal environment.
Classifying and Exploring Life
13
Name
Date
Class
Content Practice B
LESSON 1
Characteristics of Life
Directions: Complete the concept map by filling in each of the six characteristics of life.
1.
2.
6.
3.
Characteristics
of Life
5.
4.
Directions: Answer each question on the lines provided.
7. How is the characteristic of organization in a unicellular organism different from
8. What is homeostasis?
9. What is the difference between internal stimuli and external stimuli? Give examples.
14
Classifying and Exploring Life
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
organization in a multicellular organism?
Name
Date
Class
School to Home
LESSON 1
Characteristics of Life
Directions: Use your textbook to respond to each statement.
1. Research each organism listed in the table. Then give an example of how each
organism exhibits the characteristic of life listed next to it.
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Organism
Characteristic of Life
Example
Sunflower
organization
a.
Tadpole
growth and development
b.
Snake
response to stimuli
c.
Oak tree
use of energy
d.
2. The ability to maintain a stable internal environment, or homeostasis, is another
characteristic of life. Give three examples that illustrate how your body maintained
homeostasis today.
Classifying and Exploring Life
15
Name
Date
Key Concept Builder
Class
LESSON 1
Characteristics of Life
Key Concept What characteristics do all living things share?
Directions: Living things have all the characteristics of life. Unscramble the letters to find a characteristic of
living things. Write the characteristic in the blank.
1. THOWGR DAN VELDEMEOPNT
Hint: You have changed since you were born.
2. MEOHOSTSISA
Hint: You sweat when you are hot.
3. IOGANORATNIZ
Hint: You have different body parts that have different jobs.
4. PRORETIONDUC
Hint: Baby birds are in a nest with their mother.
5. NSEPORES OT MULISTI
Hint: You are hungry and go to the kitchen.
6. SUE FO ERGYEN
Directions: Write your own hint for each of the six characteristics of living things on the lines provided.
7. Hint:
8. Hint:
9. Hint:
10. Hint:
11. Hint:
12. Hint:
16
Classifying and Exploring Life
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Hint: You have been playing soccer for an hour.
Name
Date
Class
Key Concept Builder
LESSON 1
Characteristics of Life
Key Concept What characteristics do all living things share?
Directions: On each line, write the term from the word bank that correctly completes each sentence. Some terms
may be used more than once.
development
energy
growth
organization
reproduction
stimulus
homeostasis
1. Specialized structures in cells are an example of
.
2. When a plant’s leaves and stems grow toward light, the plant is responding to an
external
.
3. A paramecium regulates
by pumping water out of the cell.
4. Multicellular organisms have a greater level of
than
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
unicellular organisms have.
5. Increasing cell size is
.
6. Changing from one kind of cell to a specialized cell is
.
7. The process that makes more living things is
.
8. All activities carried out by living things use
.
9. Drinking water helps your body maintain
Classifying and Exploring Life
.
17
Name
Date
Class
Key Concept Builder
LESSON 1
Characteristics of Life
Key Concept What characteristics do all living things share?
The use of energy is an important characteristic that all living things share. Food
webs describe how energy can pass from one organism to another.
Directions: Answer each question or respond to each statement on the lines provided.
1. List the characteristics of life that plants and animals in a food web share.
2. Name three ways the organisms in a food web get energy.
4. What are some ways individual cells in an organism use energy?
5. What do you have in common with other living things in a food web?
18
Classifying and Exploring Life
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
3. What are some ways the organisms in a food web use energy?
Name
Date
Class
Key Concept Builder
LESSON 1
Characteristics of Life
Key Concept What characteristics do all living things share?
All living things consist of cells. Some organisms are made of one cell. Other
organisms are made of organized groups of cells.
Directions: Read each sentence and decide which type of organism it describes. On the line before each item,
write U for unicellular, M for multicellular, or B for both unicellular and multicellular.
1. These organisms are made of two or more cells.
2. Some of these organisms lay eggs.
3. These organisms grow as the number of cells increases.
4. These organisms use energy for everything they do.
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
5. During development, the cells in these organisms become specialized.
6. These organisms are made of only one cell.
7. These organisms respond to internal and external stimuli.
8. These organisms have specialized cells for reproduction.
9. This organism grows only as the cell increases in size.
10. Homeostasis is necessary for these organisms to survive.
11. These organisms reproduce by dividing and becoming two cells.
Directions: Answer the question on the line provided.
12. What process is considered to be growth when it occurs in a multicellular organism and
reproduction when it occurs in a unicellular organism?
Classifying and Exploring Life
19
Name
Date
Enrichment
Class
LESSON 1
Tropism
Living things share certain characteristics,
one of which is the ability to respond to
changes in the environment. These changes
are called stimuli (singular, stimulus).
Phototropism
Like all living things, plants respond to
stimuli. Light, for example, is a stimulus.
Leaves and stems of plants often respond
to light by moving toward the light source.
Any movement of a plant toward or away
from a stimulus is called a tropism. In the
case of light, the movement of the plant is
called phototropism.
Charles Darwin and his son investigated
phototropism in the late 1800s. They used
five groups of seedlings in their experiments.
The table summarizes their results.
Based on their experiments, the Darwins
concluded that something in the tip of
a plant senses light and controls the
movement of the leaves and stems toward
the light source. Scientists later discovered
that hormones produced in the tip of the
stem are responsible for phototropism. The
hormones cause different parts of the plant
to grow at different rates.
Other Tropisms
Seedlings
Setup
Result
tips covered
with black caps
did not grow
toward the
light
Group 2
tips covered
with transparent
caps
grew toward
the light
Group 3
tips cut off
did not grow
toward the
light
Group 4
stems covered
with black tubes
grew toward
the light
Group 5
tips and stems
left uncovered
grew toward
the light
Applying Critical-Thinking Skills
Directions: Answer each question or respond to each statement.
1. Infer A plant’s movement away from a stimulus is called a negative tropism. What do
you think scientists call a plant’s movement toward a stimulus?
2. Sketch a diagram showing the Darwins’ experiment. Include labels and captions in
your diagram.
20
Classifying and Exploring Life
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Group 1
Hormones also cause plants to
respond to other stimuli. For example,
thigmotropism is a plant’s response to
touch. Grapevines exhibit thigmotropism
when they wrap around a wooden post.
Geotropism is the movement of a plant
in response to gravity. You can observe
geotropism by placing germinating seeds
and damp paper towels in a clear jar. After
the roots have developed, set the jar on
its side. In a day or two, the roots will
turn and grow downward, exhibiting
geotropism. The stem, however, will turn
and grow upward. In this case, the stem is
growing away from the force of gravity.
This is known as negative geotropism.
Name
Challenge
Date
Class
LESSON 1
Homeostasis
Imagine you are a medical doctor who wants to study the ability of the human body to
maintain homeostasis. You want to observe what happens to a person’s heart rate following
exercise.
Design an Investigation
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Design an investigation to find the answer to your question. You can use a volunteer to
help you gather data. You also will need a stopwatch to find the volunteer’s pulse rate in
three different situations—while resting, following exercise, and 5 minutes after exercise.
Make a hypothesis about how the person’s heart rate will change during the experiment.
Write each step of your experiment. How will you find the volunteer’s pulse? What
exercise will the volunteer do? How many trials should you run? What safety measures
should you take? How will you record your data?
Afterward, create a line graph showing changes in the volunteer’s pulse rate. Include a
brief explanation of why the pulse rate changed. Be sure to include the term homeostasis in
your explanation.
Classifying and Exploring Life
21
Name
Date
Class
Lesson Quiz A
LESSON 1
Characteristics of Life
Matching
Directions: On the line before each definition, write the letter of the term that matches it correctly. Each term is
used only once.
1. having specialized structures with specialized
functions
A. organization
B. homeostasis
2. smallest unit of life
C. cell
3. ability to maintain a stable internal environment
D. response to stimuli
4. process of becoming larger by adding cells and/or
E. growth
by increasing cell size
5. living things making new living things like
themselves
6. adjusting to changes in internal and external
F. reproduction
G. multicellular
H. unicellular
I. organism
environments
7. made up of many cells
8. something that has all the characteristics of life
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
9. made up of one cell
Multiple Choice
Directions: On the line before the question, write the letter of the correct answer.
10. How does a tree get energy?
A. It does not need energy.
B. It gets energy from the Sun.
C. It eats food in its environment.
22
Classifying and Exploring Life
Name
Date
Class
Lesson Quiz B
LESSON 1
Characteristics of Life
Completion
Directions: On each line, write the term that correctly completes each sentence.
1. A(n)
is the smallest unit of life.
2. An organism has all the characteristics of
.
3. Living things make more living things through the process
of
.
4. An organism’s ability to maintain a steady internal environment is
called
5. Living things
.
by increasing cell size and/or cell number.
6. Living things respond to
in their internal and external
environments.
7. Living things use
to carry out all life processes.
8. Multicellular organisms have a greater level of
than
unicellular organisms do.
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Short Answer
Directions: Respond to the statement on the lines provided.
9. Explain how a tree exhibits each characteristic of life.
Classifying and Exploring Life
23
Lesson 2 | Classifying Organisms
Student Labs and Activities
Page
Appropriate For:
Launch Lab
25
all students
Content Vocabulary ELL
26
all students
Lesson Outline ELL
27
all students
MiniLab
29
all students
Content Practice A
30
AL
AL
AL
Content Practice B
31
AL
OL
BL
School to Home
32
Key Concept Builders
33
Enrichment
37
Challenge
38
Skill Practice
39
all students
AL
AL
AL
all students
AL
AL
BL
all students
Assessment
Lesson Quiz A
41
AL
AL
AL
Lesson Quiz B
42
AL
OL
BL
Teacher Support
Answers (with Lesson Outlines)
AL Approaching Level
T4
OL On Level
BL Beyond Level
ELL English-Language Learner
24
Classifying and Exploring Life
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Teacher evaluation will determine which activities to use or modify to meet any ELL student’s proficiency level.
Name
Date
Launch Lab
Class
LESSON 2: 15 minutes
How do you identify similar items?
Do you separate your candies by color before you eat them? When your family does
laundry, do you sort the clothes by color first? Identifying characteristics of items can
enable you to place them into groups.
Procedure
1. Read and complete a lab safety form.
2. Examine twelve leaves. Choose a
characteristic that you could use to
separate the leaves into two groups.
Record the characteristic in your
Science Journal.
4. Choose another characteristic that you
could use to further divide group A.
Record the characteristic, and divide
the leaves.
5. Repeat step 4 with group B.
3. Place the leaves into two groups,
A and B, using the characteristic you
chose in step 2.
Think About This
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
1. What types of characteristics did other groups in class choose to separate the leaves?
2.
Key Concept Why would scientists need rules for separating and identifying items?
Classifying and Exploring Life
25
Name
Date
Class
Content Vocabulary
LESSON 2
Classifying Organisms
Directions: Use the clues and the terms listed below to complete the puzzle. Then on each line, write the term
from the word bank that correctly completes each sentence.
binomial nomenclature
cladogram
dichotomous key
genus
kingdom
species
6.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
1. A diagram called a
shows the relationships among
organisms.
2. The system of
gives every organism a two-word scientific
name.
is the classification category above phylum and below
domain.
4. A
can be used to identify an unknown organism.
5. A
is a group of organisms that have similar traits and
produce fertile offspring.
6. A
26
is a group of similar species.
Classifying and Exploring Life
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
3.
Name
Date
Class
Lesson Outline
LESSON 2
Classifying Organisms
A. Classifying Living Things
1. There have been many different ideas about how to
living things.
2. Aristotle placed all organisms into two large groups—plants
and
.
B. Determining Kingdoms
1. Carolus Linnaeus placed all organisms into two main
.
2. In 1969 an American biologist proposed a five-kingdom system for classifying
organisms that included kingdoms Monera, Protista,
Fungi, and Animalia.
,
C. Determining Domains
1. The current system used for classifying
is called
systematics. Systematics uses all the
about organisms to classify them.
that is known
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
2. Organisms are classified into one of three
—Bacteria,
Archaea, and Eukarya—and then into one of six
.
D. Scientific Names
1. When Linnaeus grouped organisms into kingdoms, he also developed a system for
naming organisms. His system of
gives each organism a
two-word scientific name, such as Ursus arctos for a brown bear.
2. A(n)
is a group of organisms that have similar traits
and produce fertile offspring.
3. In a scientific name, the first word is the organism’s
,
such as Ursus.
4. The second word in a scientific name identifies the
5. Similar species are grouped into one
are grouped into
kingdoms, and domains.
6. Each species has its own
.
. Similar genera
and then into orders, classes, phyla,
, which is the same all over
the world.
Classifying and Exploring Life
27
Name
Date
Class
Lesson Outline continued
E. Classification Tools
1. A(n)
is a series of descriptions arranged in pairs
that can be used to identify an unknown organism. The chosen description
leads to another pair of descriptions or to the identification of
the
.
2. A(n)
is a branched diagram that shows the
relationships among organisms. New characteristics appear before
each
.
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
28
Classifying and Exploring Life
Name
Date
Class
MiniLab
LESSON 2: 20 minutes
How would you name an unknown organism?
Assign scientific names to four unknown alien organisms from a newly discovered planet.
Procedure
1. Use the table to assign scientific names to identify each alien.
2. Compare your names with those of your classmates.
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Prefix
Meaning
Suffix
Meaning
mon–
one
–antennius
antenna
di–
two
–ocularus
eye
rectanguli–
square
–formus
shape
trianguli–
triangle
–uris
tail
Analyze and Conclude
1. Explain why you chose the two-word names for each organism.
2. Compare your names to those of a classmate. Explain any differences.
3.
Key Concept Discuss how two-word scientific names help scientists identify and
organize living things.
Classifying and Exploring Life
29
Name
Date
Class
Content Practice A
LESSON 2
Classifying Organisms
Directions: On each line, write the term from the word bank that correctly completes each sentence. Some terms
may be used more than once.
binomial nomenclature
cladogram
dichotomous key
domains
kingdoms
scientific name
species
systematics
genus
1. Based on similar structures, Linnaeus classified all organisms into two
.
2. As more discoveries were made, Whittaker proposed classifying organisms into five
.
3. The current system of classifying organisms uses molecular analysis and is called
.
4. The current system classifies organisms into three
and six
.
to give
each species a name.
6. Ursus arctos is the
for a brown bear.
7. Ursus is the brown bear’s
.
8. The word arctos is the brown bear’s
9. A
name.
is a series of questions that helps you identify an
unknown organism.
10. A branched diagram called a
can help you understand the
relationships among organisms.
30
Classifying and Exploring Life
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
5. Scientists still use Linnaeus’s naming system called
Name
Date
Content Practice B
Class
LESSON 2
Classifying Organisms
Directions: Answer each question or respond to each statement on the lines provided.
1. Aristotle classified all organisms into two groups—plants and animals. Why did
Whittaker propose a five-kingdom system?
2. What is the current system for classifying organisms called? What evidence does it use
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
to classify organisms?
3. What is binomial nomenclature?
4. Explain what makes up a scientific name.
5. How would you use a dichotomous key to identify an organism?
6. How does a cladogram show the relationships among organisms?
Classifying and Exploring Life
31
Name
Date
Class
School to Home
LESSON 2
Scientific Names
Directions: Use your textbook to answer each question or respond to each statement.
1. Research to find the scientific name for each of the organisms listed below. Write each
name in the table.
Organism
Scientific Name
Galápagos tortoise
a.
Labrador retriever
b.
Giant sequoia
c.
2. Look at the cladogram shown below. According to the cladogram, which plants are
flowering plants most closely related to?
Mosses and
relatives
Ferns and
relatives
Cone-bearing
plants
Flowering
plants
Flowers
Tissue to
move fluids
3. Research to find the name of the plant divisions represented by the cladogram. What
are some common names of plants in each division?
Division names:
Common names:
32
Classifying and Exploring Life
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Seeds
Name
Date
Key Concept Builder
Class
LESSON 2
Classifying Organisms
Key Concept What methods are used to classify living things into groups?
Directions: Use the terms from the word bank to answer each question on the lines provided. Some terms may be
used more than once.
Animalia
Archaea
Bacteria
Fungi
Plantae
Protista
Eukarya
1. Which terms are the names of domains?
2. Which terms are the names of kingdoms?
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
3. Which four terms represent organisms in the same domain?
Directions: Put a check mark on the line before each item in this list that is used to classify organisms.
4. cell types
5. number of organisms
6. habitats
7. how they obtain food and energy
8. amount of blood
9. common ancestry
10. molecular analysis
11. age of organisms
Classifying and Exploring Life
33
Name
Date
Class
Key Concept Builder
LESSON 2
Classifying Organisms
Key Concept What methods are used to classify living things into groups?
Directions: The system used to classify organisms has changed over time. Put each system listed below in the
order it was used, starting with the oldest system.
Aristotle’s two groups, plants and animals
Linnaeus’s two-kingdom system, plants and animals
Systematics
Whittaker’s five-kingdom system
1.
2.
3.
Directions: Answer each question on the lines provided.
5. What does Whittaker’s system have that Linnaeus’s system does not?
6. What does systematics have that the other systems do not?
7. Why is the system of classifying organisms still changing?
34
Classifying and Exploring Life
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
4.
Name
Date
Class
Key Concept Builder
LESSON 2
Classifying Organisms
Key Concept What methods are used to classify living things into groups?
Directions: Answer each question or respond to each statement on the lines provided.
1. Imagine that you just observed an insect landing on your desk. How can a
dichotomous key help you identify the kind of insect you saw?
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
2. Write two questions you might see in a dichotomous key for insects.
3. What is the diagram below called?
Salamander
Hamster
Lizard
Salmon
Lungs
Chimpanzee
Opposable thumbs
Fur, mammary glands
Claws or nails
4. Which organisms shown have claws or nails?
5. Which organisms shown do not have opposable thumbs?
Classifying and Exploring Life
35
Name
Date
Class
Key Concept Builder
LESSON 2
Classifying Organisms
Key Concept Why does every species have a scientific name?
Directions: Work with a partner to answer each question on the lines provided.
1. What system is used to give an organism a scientific name?
2. What are the two words in a scientific name?
3. Are more kinds of organisms in a species or in a genus? Explain your answer.
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
4. Why are scientific names important for scientists to use?
Directions: List each taxonomic group from largest to smallest on the lines provided.
class
domain
family
genus
kingdom
order
phylum
species
5.
36
Classifying and Exploring Life
Name
Date
Enrichment
Class
LESSON 2
Rethinking Classification Schemes
Early classification schemes for life
included only two kingdoms—Animalia
and Plantae. As time passed, more distinct
groups of organisms were discovered. After
microscopes were developed, scientists were
able to view tiny organisms not easily seen
by the unaided eye. Prokaryotes, which are
unicellular organisms, were discovered, and
a new kingdom—Kingdom Monera—was
added to the classification scheme.
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Still More Changes
Five kingdoms—Animalia, Plantae,
Fungi, Protista, and Monera were organized
under two domains—Prokarya and Eukarya.
Recall that prokaryotic cells do not contain
internal, membrane-bound structures.
Prokaryotes include bacteria and were
grouped in Kingdom Monera. In contrast,
the cells of eukaryotes do contain internal,
membrane-bound structures. Eukaryotes
include plants, animals, fungi, and protists.
In 1977 some scientists realized there
was much more to Prokarya than
previously thought. Previously, unicellular
organisms called archaea were considered
to be bacteria; they look very similar to
bacteria when they are viewed under a
microscope. However, genetic tests
showed that archaea are very different
from bacteria. For that reason, Prokarya is
now organized into two separate
domains—Bacteria and Archaea. Life is
now classified into three domains rather
than two—Bacteria, Archaea, and Eukarya.
Hardy Life-Forms
Archaea have an amazing ability to
thrive in harsh habitats. Scientists have
discovered these tiny life-forms near
scalding hydrothermal vents on the
seafloor. They also have been found in icy
antarctic waters. They even live 600 m
below ground.
Some of these same harsh conditions are
found on Mars and certain moons in the
solar system. Scientists theorize that
organisms similar to archaea could be
present below the surface of these bodies in
space.
Engineers also are studying archaea.
They hope these unusual life-forms can be
used in the production of common items.
For example, archaea might help improve
the cleaning ability of cold-water
detergents, make fragrances last longer, and
reduce food spoilage.
Applying Critical-Thinking Skills
Directions: Respond to each statement.
1. Consider Imagine you are a scientist. Decide what criteria you would consider before
establishing a new domain for a life-form.
2. Infer which facts indicate that ancestors of archaea might be among the first life-forms
on Earth.
Classifying and Exploring Life
37
Name
Date
Challenge
Class
LESSON 2
Classifying Life
Your friend has researched the biological classification of an organism. However, he
mistakenly scrambled the order of the different classification groups. In addition, he cannot
remember the common name of the organism. Your friend needs your assistance.
The list below shows his notes. Reorganize the information in the correct order,
beginning with the largest classification group and ending with the smallest. Use clues in
the scientific names to predict the identity of the organism. Then conduct research to see
whether your prediction is correct.
Notes on Unknown Organism
1. Order Falconiformes
2. Genus Haliaeetus
3. Class Aves
4. Species leucocephalus
5. Domain Eukarya
6. Phylum Chordata
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
7. Family Accipitridae
8. Kingdom Animalia
38
Classifying and Exploring Life
Name
Date
Skill Practice
Classify
Class
LESSON 2: 20 minutes
How can you identify a beetle?
A dichotomous key is one of the tools scientists use to identify an unknown organism and
classify it into a group. To use a dichotomous key, a scientist examines specific characteristics
of the unknown organism and compares them to characteristics of known organisms.
Learn It
Sorting objects or events into groups based
on common features is called classifying.
When classifying, select one feature that is
shared by some members of the group, but
not by all. Place those members that share
the feature in a subgroup. You can classify
objects or events into smaller and smaller
subgroups based on characteristics.
Try It
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
1. Use the dichotomous key to identify
beetle A. Choose between the first pair of
descriptions. Follow the instructions for
the next choice. Notice that each
description either ends in the name of
the beetle or instructs you to go to
another set of choices.
2. Record the identity of the beetle using
both its common name and scientific
name.
3. Repeat steps 1 and 2 for beetles B, C,
Dichotomous Key
1A. The beetle has long, thin antennae. Go to 5.
1B. The beetle does not have long, thin antennae.
Go to 2.
2A. The beetle has short antennae that branch.
Go to 3.
2B. The beetle does not have short antennae that
branch. It is a stag beetle Lucanus cervus.
3A. The beetle has a triangular structure between
wing covers and upper body. It is a Japanese
beetle, Popillia japonica.
3B. The beetle does not have a triangular structure.
Go to 4.
4A. The beetle has a wide, rounded body. It is a June
bug, Cotinis nitida.
4B. The beetle does not have a wide, rounded body. It
is a death watch beetle, Xestobium rufovillosum.
5A. The beetle has a distinct separation between
body parts. Go to 6.
5B. The beetle has no distinct separation between
body parts. It is a firefly, Photinus pyralis.
6A. The beetle has a black, gray, and white body with
two black eyespots. It is an eyed click beetle,
Alaus oculatis.
6B. The beetle has a dull brown body with light
stripes. It is a click beetle, Chalcolepidius limbatus.
and D.
Classifying and Exploring Life
39
Name
Date
Class
Skill Practice continued
Apply It
4. Think about the choices in each step of the dichotomous key. What conclusion can be
made if you arrive at a step and neither choice seems correct?
5. Predict whether a dichotomous key will work if you start at a location other than the
first description. Support your reasoning.
6.
Key Concept How did the dichotomous key help you classify the unknown
beetles?
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
40
Classifying and Exploring Life
Name
Date
Class
Lesson Quiz A
LESSON 2
Classifying Organisms
Multiple Choice
Directions: On the line before each question, write the letter of the correct answer.
1. What did Linnaeus use to classify living things?
A. DNA
B. domains
C. similar structures
2. Which term means “a group of organisms that have similar traits and are able
to produce fertile offspring”?
A. genus
B. species
C. domain
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
3. Which item is NOT a kind of evidence used in systematics?
A. cell type
B. common ancestry
C. presence of “red blood”
4. Which term shows the correct way to write a scientific name?
A. Carnivora
B. Ursus arctos
C. grizzly bear
Matching
Directions: On the line before each definition, write the letter of the term that matches it correctly. Each term is
used only once.
5. a series of questions with two possible answers
that is used to identify organisms
6. a way of classifying organisms that uses all the
evidence known about organisms
7. a branched diagram that shows how organisms
are related
A. genus
B. binomial
nomenclature
C. cladogram
D. dichotomous key
E. systematics
8. a naming system that gives each organism a
two-word scientific name
9. a group of similar species
Classifying and Exploring Life
41
Name
Date
Class
Lesson Quiz B
LESSON 2
Classifying Organisms
Completion
Directions: On each line, write the term that correctly completes each sentence.
1. Linnaeus classified living things based on their similar
.
2. The largest grouping used to classify living things today is
the
.
3. A way of classifying organisms that uses all the evidence known about organisms is
called
.
4. Ursus arctos is the
name for a grizzly bear and a brown bear.
5. The system that is used to give each organism a two-word scientific name is called
binomial
6. A(n)
.
is a group of similar species.
7. A species is a group of organisms that have similar traits and are able to
produce
.
Short Answer
8. Compare and contrast cladograms and dichotomous keys.
9. List the types of evidence used to classify organisms in systematics.
42
Classifying and Exploring Life
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Directions: Respond to each statement on the lines provided.
Lesson 3 | Exploring Life
Student Labs and Activities
Page
Appropriate For:
Launch Lab
44
all students
Content Vocabulary ELL
45
all students
Lesson Outline ELL
46
all students
MiniLab
48
all students
Content Practice A
49
AL
AL
AL
Content Practice B
50
AL
OL
BL
Language Arts Support
51
all students
Math Skills
53
all students
School to Home
54
all students
Key Concept Builders
55
Enrichment
59
Challenge
60
AL
AL
BL
Lab A
63
AL
AL
AL
Lab B
66
AL
OL
BL
Lab C
69
AL
AL
BL
Chapter Key Concepts Builder
70
AL
AL
AL
Lesson Quiz A
61
AL
AL
AL
Lesson Quiz B
62
AL
OL
BL
Chapter Test A
71
AL
AL
AL
Chapter Test B
74
AL
OL
AL
Chapter Test C
77
AL
AL
BL
AL
AL
AL
all students
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Assessment
Teacher Support
Answers (with Lesson Outlines)
AL Approaching Level
T5
OL On Level
BL Beyond Level
ELL English-Language Learner
Teacher evaluation will determine which activities to use or modify to meet any ELL student’s proficiency level.
Classifying and Exploring Life
43
Name
Date
Launch Lab
Class
LESSON 3: 15 minutes
Can a water drop make objects appear bigger or smaller?
For centuries, people have been looking for ways to see objects in greater detail. How can
something as simple as a drop of water make this possible?
Procedure
1. Read and complete a lab safety form.
2. Lay a sheet of newspaper on your
desk. Examine a line of text, noting the
size and shape of each letter. Record
your observations in the Data and
Observations section below.
3. Add a large drop of water to the
center of a piece of clear plastic.
Hold the plastic about 2 cm above the
same line of text.
4. Look through the water at the line of
text you viewed in step 2. Record your
observations.
Data and Observations
1. Describe how the newsprint appeared through the drop of water.
2.
44
Key Concept How might microscopes change your ideas about living things?
Classifying and Exploring Life
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Think About This
Name
Date
Class
Content Vocabulary
LESSON 3
Exploring Life
Directions: Use the clues and the terms listed below to complete the puzzle. NOTE: There is no empty square in
the puzzle between the words of two-word terms.
atom
compound microscope
identify
light microscope
electron microscope
5
4
1
2
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
3
Clues
Across
1. a tool that uses a magnetic field to
focus a beam of electrons
2. the building block of matter
3. a tool with more than one lens that is
Down
4. to determine the characteristics of a
person or thing
5. a tool that uses light and lenses to
enlarge an image of an object
used to enlarge an image of an object
Classifying and Exploring Life
45
Name
Date
Class
Lesson Outline
LESSON 3
Exploring Life
A. The Development of Microscopes
1. The invention of
allowed people to see details of living
things that cannot be seen with the unaided eye.
2. Two inventors of early microscopes were Anton van Leeuwenhoek and
Robert
.
3. Before microscopes, people did not know that living things are made
of
.
B. Types of Microscopes
1. One characteristic of all microscopes is that they
images. Magnification makes an image appear
really is.
2. Another characteristic of microscopes is
than it
—how clearly
the magnified image can be seen.
3.
microscopes use light and lenses to enlarge an image of
an object.
a(n)
microscope.
b. Light microscopes can be used to view
or nonliving
things.
c. Light microscopes can enlarge images up to
times
their original size.
4.
microscopes use a magnetic field to focus a beam of
electrons through an object or onto an object’s surface.
a. Because objects must be mounted in plastic and then sliced very thin, only
organisms can be viewed with an electron
microscope.
b.
microscopes usually are used to study extremely
small things, such as the structures inside a cell.
c.
microscopes usually are used to study the surface of
an object.
46
Classifying and Exploring Life
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
a. A light microscope that uses more than one lens to magnify an image is called
Name
Date
Class
Lesson Outline continued
C. Using Microscopes
1. People in
, such as doctors and laboratory technicians,
often use microscopes. Microscopes are used in surgery, such as cataract surgery and
surgery.
2.
scientists use microscopes to study evidence from crime
scenes.
3. The steel industry examines steel for
with the use of
microscopes.
stones.
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
4. Jewelers use microscopes to
Classifying and Exploring Life
47
Name
Date
MiniLab
Class
LESSON 3: 20 minutes
How do microscopes help us compare living things?
A microscope enables scientists to study objects in greater detail than is possible with the
unaided eye. Compare what objects look like with the unaided eye to those same objects
observed using a microscope.
Procedure
1. Read and complete a lab safety form.
2. Examine a sea sponge, a leaf, and
salt crystals. Draw each object in the
Data and Observations section below.
3. Observe microscope slides of each
object using a microscope on low
power.
4. Draw each object as it appears under
low power.
Data and Observations
1. Compare your sketches of the objects observed with your unaided eye and observed
with a microscope.
2.
Key Concept Explain how studying an object under a microscope might help
you understand it better.
48
Classifying and Exploring Life
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Analysis and Conclude
Name
Date
Class
Content Practice A
LESSON 3
Exploring Life
Directions: Circle the term in parentheses that correctly completes each sentence.
1. All microscopes (magnify/photograph) images.
2. How clearly an image can be seen depends on a microscope’s
(magnification/resolution).
3. Using a microscope, (Hooke/Leeuwenhoek) observed and named cells.
Directions: Write the name of the microscope that goes with each clue on the line provided. Each type of
microscope will be used more than once. Some lines will be filled in with more than one type of microscope.
compound microscope
electron microscope
light microscope
4. uses light and one lens to enlarge an image of an object
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
5. uses light and more than one lens to magnify an image
6. has an ocular lens and an objective lens
7. can be used to view living organisms
8. uses a magnetic field to focus a beam of tiny particles through or onto an object
9. has the highest magnification
10. has the lowest resolution
Classifying and Exploring Life
49
Name
Date
Class
Content Practice B
LESSON 3
Exploring Life
Directions: Answer each question or respond to each statement on the lines provided.
1. How did microscopes make the discovery of cells possible?
2. How were the first microscopes different from those used in classrooms today?
3. What are two characteristics of all microscopes, and what do they describe?
5. What are the differences between a transmission electron microscope and a scanning
electron microscope?
50
Classifying and Exploring Life
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
4. How are light microscopes different from electron microscopes?
Name
Date
Class
Language Arts Support
LESSON 3
Text-Analysis Activity: Noun Modifiers
Directions: In each sentence, find the nouns described by the underlined noun modifiers. Draw an arrow from
each underlined word or words to the modified noun. Some nouns have more than one group of modifiers.
NOTE: The noun appears soon after or shortly before the words describing it.
Most cells are so small that you cannot see them without some kind of magnifying device.
Before the invention of the microscope, people could not see microscopic cells or other tiny
things. They thought living things came from nonliving things. For example, it was
thought that ordinary flies came from rotting meat. People once thought every egg
contained a miniature version of an adult organism. They thought the organism’s structures
just had to grow bigger as the developing organism grew. After the invention of the
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
microscope, new evidence changed the way people understand the living world.
Classifying and Exploring Life
51
Name
Date
Class
Language Arts Support
LESSON 3
Reading Comprehension Activity
Directions: After you have read the Characteristics of Life section of your textbook, complete the multiplechoice exercise below. On the line before each question, write the letter of the correct answer.
1. What is an organism?
A. a part of the microscope
B. a structure that pumps water out of a cell
C. a thing that has all the characteristics of life
2. What is the smallest unit of life?
A. the cell
B. the atom
C. the species
3. Which object describes a multicellular organism?
A. a paramecium
B. a living thing made of one cell
C. a living thing made of two or more cells
4. Which situation describes a response to an external stimulus?
A. a person getting thirsty
B. a person getting hungry
C. a plant growing toward light
52
Classifying and Exploring Life
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
5. What is homeostasis?
A. a multicellular organism
B. a characteristic of a nonliving thing
C. an organism’s ability to maintain steady internal conditions
Name
Date
Class
Math Skills
LESSON 3
Use Multiplication
The magnifying power of a lens is expressed by a number and a multiplication symbol (×).
For example, a lens that makes an object look ten times larger has a power of 10×. To
determine a microscope’s magnification, multiply the power of the ocular lens by the power
of the objective lens.
Find the total magnification of an object viewed under a microscope with a 10× ocular lens
and a 10× objective lens.
Step 1 Identify the magnification power of each lens.
Ocular lens: 10×
Objective lens: 10×
Step 2 Multiply the power of the ocular lens by the power of the objective lens.
10 × 10 = 100×
Practice
1. If the ocular lens of a microscope has
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
10× magnification and the objective
lens has 40× magnification, what is
the total magnification?
4. A student observes a sample of onion
root cells under a microscope with a
10× ocular lens and a 50× objective
lens. How much larger do the cells
appear under the microscope?
2. A microscope has an ocular lens with a
power of 5× and an objective lens with
a power of 20×. What is the total
magnification of the microscope?
5. One microscope has a 5× ocular lens
3. A student observes a sample of pond
water under a microscope. The ocular
lens has a 2× magnification, and the
objective lens has a 40× magnification.
How much larger do the pond water
organisms appear under the microscope?
Classifying and Exploring Life
and a 50× objective lens. Another
microscope has a 10× ocular lens and a
40× objective lens. Which microscope
has the greater magnification power?
Explain.
53
Name
Date
Class
School to Home
LESSON 3
Exploring Life
Directions: Use your textbook to respond to each statement.
1. Complete the table below by filling in the type of microscope—light microscope, TEM,
or SEM—that would be used to explore each object or behavior listed.
Object/Behavior
Type of Microscope
Nucleus of a plant cell
a.
Surface of a dust particle
b.
Feeding behavior of a
microorganism
c.
Structure of a single white
blood cell
d.
2. Describe how an electron microscope produces an image.
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
54
Classifying and Exploring Life
Name
Date
Key Concept Builder
Class
LESSON 3
Exploring Life
Key Concept How did microscopes change our ideas about living things?
Directions: Answer each question on the lines provided.
1. How is a magnifying lens similar to the first microscope invented?
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
2. What did the invention of microscopes allow people to see?
3. Leeuwenhoek’s microscope could magnify an image about 270 times its original size.
What kinds of objects did he observe with his microscope?
4. In the 1700s, what important discovery about living things did Hooke make using his
microscope?
5. What can scientists today study about living things using microscopes?
Classifying and Exploring Life
55
Name
Date
Class
Key Concept Builder
LESSON 3
Exploring Life
Key Concept What are the types of microscopes, and how do they compare?
Directions: On each line, write the term from the word bank that correctly completes each sentence. Some terms
may be used more than once.
compound microscope
electron microscope
light microscope
scanning electron microscope
transmission electron microscope
1. A simple
uses one lens to magnify an
image.
2. The magnification of a(n)
is found by
multiplying the magnification of the ocular lens by the magnification of the
objective lens.
3. A(n)
is a type of light microscope.
4. A TEM is one type of
.
, electrons bounce off an object.
6. In a(n)
, electrons pass through an object.
7. A(n)
produces a three-dimensional
image of a cell’s surface.
8. A(n)
produces an image of the tiny
structures inside a cell.
9. The two main types of microscopes are the
and the
56
.
Classifying and Exploring Life
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
5. In a(n)
Name
Date
Key Concept Builder
Class
LESSON 3
Exploring Life
Key Concept What are the types of microscopes, and how do they compare?
Directions: Answer each question or respond to each statement on the lines provided. Compare your responses
with a partner’s responses.
1. Suppose you want to observe the movements of a unicellular organism. Explain which
type of microscope you would use and why.
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
2. What is the difference between magnification and resolution?
3. Compare the magnification and resolution of a light microscope with those of an
electron microscope. Include specific magnifications and resolutions.
4. What are a micrometer and a nanometer?
5. Give three examples of how people use microscopes today.
Classifying and Exploring Life
57
Name
Date
Class
Key Concept Builder
LESSON 3
Exploring Life
Key Concept What are the types of microscopes, and how do they compare?
Directions: Complete the table by writing the correct terms on the lines provided.
Two Main Types of Microscopes
Light microscopes
Specific Types
1.
2.
Electron microscopes
3.
4.
Directions: Write the types of microscopes you would use for the following on the lines provided. Be as specific
as possible. Discuss your answers with a partner.
5. You want to view a white blood cell magnified 100,000 times.
7. You want to view the detail of a three-dimensional image of the outside of a cell.
8. You want to view a white blood cell magnified 1,000 times.
9. You want to view the detail of the tiny structures inside a cell.
58
Classifying and Exploring Life
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
6. You want to view living yeast cells.
Name
Date
Enrichment
Class
LESSON 3
Microscope Inventor
Anton van Leeuwenhoek was not trained
as a scientist. Born in Holland in 1632, he
did not go to a university. His father made
baskets, and Anton began working as a
fabric merchant when he was 16.
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Starting Small
In his work, Leeuwenhoek used
magnifying lenses to inspect cloth. He soon
began inspecting objects in nature as well,
such as drops of water and plaque on teeth.
He had many of the qualities of a true
scientist—curiosity, persistence, creativity,
and intelligence. He made careful
observations and took detailed notes. He
could not draw well, so he hired someone
to make sketches based on his observations.
Here is his description of algae: “Passing
just lately over this lake ... and examining
this water next day, I found floating
therein divers earthy particles, and some
green streaks, spirally wound serpent-wise,
and orderly arranged, after the manner of
the copper or tin worms, which distillers
use to cool their liquors as they distil over.
The whole circumference of each of these
streaks was about the thickness of a hair of
one’s head ... all consisted of very small
green globules joined together: and there
were very many small green globules as
well.”
Milestones
By 1668 Leeuwenhoek began making his
own microscopes. Historians think he might
have been inspired by the work of Robert
Hooke, who observed and named cells.
Leeuwenhoek made more than
500 microscopes throughout his life.
He perfected a technique to grind lenses
but refused to share his secret method.
Leeuwenhoek discovered bacteria,
protists, sperm cells, and blood cells. In
1680 he became a member of the Royal
Society of England. Its membership was
made up of many famous scientists of the
day, including Hooke.
During his lifetime, Leeuwenhoek was
visited by Peter the Great of Russia and
Queen Anne of England. By the time of his
death in 1723, his contribution to science
was widely recognized. One admirer wrote:
“Leeuwenhoek considered that what is
true in natural philosophy can be most
fruitfully investigated by the experimental
method, supported by the evidence of the
senses; for which reason, by diligence and
tireless labor he made with his own hand
certain most excellent lenses, with the aid
of which he discovered many secrets of
Nature, now famous throughout the whole
philosophical World.”
Apply Critical-Thinking Skills
Directions: Answer each question or respond to each statement.
1. Critique What scientific skills did Leeuwenhoek have? What scientific skills did he
lack? Give examples to support your answer.
2. Originate Write a description of a microorganism that you have viewed through a
microscope or seen in a photograph.
Classifying and Exploring Life
59
Name
Date
Challenge
Class
LESSON 3
Compound Microscopes
You have been asked to help create a manual that explains how a compound microscope
works.
Model
• Sketch a compound microscope in the space below.
• Label these parts of the microscope:
base
lamp
coarse focus knob
objective lens
eyepiece
ocular lens
fine focus knob
stage
• Use arrows to show the path of light through the microscope.
• Add a caption explaining how to determine the magnification of an image by a
compound microscope.
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
60
Classifying and Exploring Life
Name
Date
Class
Lesson Quiz A
LESSON 3
Exploring Life
Matching
Directions: On the line before each definition, write the letter of the term that matches it correctly. Each term is
used only once.
1. uses light and one or more lenses to make an
object appear larger than it really is
2. a light microscope that uses more than one lens
A. compound microscope
B. electron microscope
C. light microscope
to make an object appear larger than it really is
3. uses a magnetic field and a beam of electrons to
make an object appear larger than it really is
Multiple Choice
Directions: On the line before each question, write the letter of the correct answer.
4. Which kind of microscope is best for observing the movement of a live cell?
A. SEM
B. TEM
C. compound
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
5. Which kind of microscope is best for studying the details on an object’s
surface?
A. light
B. SEM
C. TEM
6. Which statement best describes a transmission electron microscope (TEM)?
A. Electrons pass through an object.
B. Multiple lenses pass through an object.
C. Electrons bounce off the surface of an object.
Short Answer
Directions: Respond to the statement on the lines provided.
7. Explain how microscopes change people’s ideas about living things.
Classifying and Exploring Life
61
Name
Date
Lesson Quiz B
Class
LESSON 3
Exploring Life
Completion
Directions: On each line, write the term that correctly completes each sentence.
1. A(n)
microscope uses light and one lens to enlarge an
image of an object.
2. A(n)
microscope uses light, an ocular lens, and an objective
lens to enlarge an image of an object.
3. A(n)
microscope uses a magnetic field to focus a beam of
electrons on or through an object whose image is being magnified.
Short Answer
Directions: Answer each question or respond to each statement on the lines provided.
4. Apply What kind of microscope would you use to observe the movement of a live cell?
Explain your answer.
Explain your answer.
6. Describe how a transmission electron microscope (TEM) works.
7. Relate How did the invention of the microscope lead to other scientific discoveries?
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Classifying and Exploring Life
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
5. Apply What kind of microscope would you use to study the details on the surface of a cell?
Name
Date
Class
Lab A
45 minutes
Constructing a Dichotomous Key
A dichotomous key is a series of descriptions arranged in pairs. Each description leads you
to the name of the object or to another set of choices until you have identified the
organism. In this lab, you will create a dichotomous key to classify objects.
Question
How can you create a dichotomous key to identify objects?
Materials
a collection of objects
Procedure
1. Read and complete the lab safety form.
2. Obtain a container of objects from your teacher.
3. Examine the objects, and then brainstorm a list of possible characteristics. You might
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
look at each object’s size, shape, color, odor, texture, or function.
4. Choose a characteristic that would separate the objects into two groups.
Separate the objects based on whether or not they have this characteristic. This
characteristic will be used to begin a dichotomous key like the example below.
Dichotomous Key to Identify Office Supplies
The object is made of wood. Go to 1.
The object is not made of wood. Go to 2.
1. The object is longer than 20 cm. Go to 5.
3. The object is not longer than 20 cm. Go to 9.
2. The object is made of metal. Go to 6.
4. The object is not made of metal. Go to 10.
Classifying and Exploring Life
63
Name
Date
Class
Lab A continued
5. Write a sentence to describe the characteristic in step 4 and then write “Go to 1.”
Write another sentence that has the word “not” in front of the characteristic.
Then write “Go to 2.”
6. Repeat steps 4 and 5 for the two new groups. Give sentences for new groups formed
from the first group of consecutive odd numbers. Give sentences for groups formed
from the second group of consecutive even numbers. Remember to add the
appropriate “Go to” directions.
First group:
Second group:
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
7. Repeat steps 4–6 until there is only one object in each group.
Give each object an appropriate two-word name.
64
Classifying and Exploring Life
Name
Date
Class
Lab A continued
8. Give your collection of objects and your
dichotomous key to another group. Have them
identify each object using your dichotomous key.
Have them record their answers.
Lab Tips
• Base the questions in your key on observable,
measurable, or countable characteristics. Avoid
questions that refer to how something is used or
how you think or feel about an item.
• Remember to start with general questions and then
get more and more specific.
Remember to use scientific
methods.
Make Observations
Ask a Question
Form a Hypothesis
Test your Hypothesis
Analyze and Conclude
Communicate Results
Analyze and Conclude
9. Evaluate Was the other team able to correctly identify the collection of objects using
your dichotomous key? Why or why not?
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
10.
The Big Idea Summarize how dichotomous keys are useful in identifying
unknown objects.
Communicate Your Results
Create a poster using drawings or photos of each object you identified. Include your
two-word names for the objects.
Classifying and Exploring Life
65
Name
Date
Lab B
Class
45 minutes
Constructing a Dichotomous Key
A dichotomous key is a series of descriptions arranged in pairs. Each description leads you
to the name of the object or to another set of choices until you have identified the
organism. In this lab, you will create a dichotomous key to classify objects.
Question
How can you create a dichotomous key to identify objects?
Materials
a collection of objects
Procedure
1. Read and complete the lab safety form.
2. Obtain a container of objects from your teacher.
3. Examine the objects, and then brainstorm a list of possible characteristics. You might
look at each object’s size, shape, color, odor, texture, or function.
objects based on whether or not they have this characteristic. This characteristic will be
used to begin a dichotomous key like the example below.
Dichotomous Key to Identify Office Supplies
The object is made of wood. Go to 1.
The object is not made of wood. Go to 2.
1. The object is longer than 20 cm. Go to 5.
3. The object is not longer than 20 cm. Go to 9.
2. The object is made of metal. Go to 6.
4. The object is not made of metal. Go to 10.
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Classifying and Exploring Life
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
4. Choose a characteristic that would separate the objects into two groups. Separate the
Name
Date
Class
Lab B continued
5. Write a sentence to describe the characteristic in step 4 and then write “Go to 1.” Write
another sentence that has the word “not” in front of the characteristic. Then write “Go to 2.”
6. Repeat steps 4 and 5 for the two new groups. Give sentences for new groups formed
from the first group of consecutive odd numbers. Give sentences for groups formed
from the second group of consecutive even numbers. Remember to add the appropriate
“Go to” directions.
7. Repeat steps 4–6 until there is one object in each group. Give each object an
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
appropriate two-word name.
8. Give your collection of objects and your dichotomous key
to another group. Have them identify each object using
your dichotomous key. Have them record their answers.
Remember to use scientific
methods.
Make Observations
Ask a Question
Form a Hypothesis
Test your Hypothesis
Analyze and Conclude
Communicate Results
Classifying and Exploring Life
67
Name
Date
Class
Lab B continued
Lab Tips
• Base the questions in your key on observable, measurable, or countable characteristics.
Avoid questions that refer to how something is used or how you think or feel about an
item.
• Remember to start with general questions and then get more and more specific.
Analyze and Conclude
9. Evaluate Was the other team able to correctly identify the collection of objects using
your dichotomous key? Why or why not?
10.
The Big Idea Summarize how dichotomous keys are useful in identifying unknown
objects.
Create a poster using drawings or photos of each object you identified. Include your
two-word names for the objects.
Extension
Teach a peer how to use a dichotomous key. Let the peer use your collection to have a
firsthand experience with how a key works.
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Classifying and Exploring Life
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Communicate Your Results
Name
Date
Class
Lab C
Dichotomous Keys
Directions: Use the information and data from the Lab Constructing a Dichotomous Key to perform this lab.
You have created a dichotomous key to identify common objects. In biology, dichotomous
keys are used to identify different species of organisms. Develop a dichotomous key that
can be used to identify at least four different species of local plants based on their leaves.
Use leaves from plants that are not poisonous or protected.
Please note that you must complete Lab B before beginning Lab C. Also, have your
teacher approve your design and safety procedures before beginning your experiment.
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Dichotomous Key
Classifying and Exploring Life
69
Name
Date
Class
Chapter Key Concepts Builder
Classifying and Exploring Life
End-of-Chapter Practice
Directions: Work with a group. As a group, choose an organism you are familiar with or make up a new
organism. Then complete the following tasks.
1. Draw your organism and label it with a common name.
2. Write a paragraph or create a table that lists the characteristics of life and gives
evidence of each characteristic that your organism has.
3. Explain how your organism is classified. Include its domain, kingdom, genus, and
species. Label the drawing of your organism with a plausible scientific name.
4. Create a dichotomous key that will help other people identify your organism.
5. What could you learn about your organism by using a microscope? Which type of
microscope would you use?
6. Present your organism to the class.
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
70
Classifying and Exploring Life
Name
Date
Class
Chapter Test A
Classifying and Exploring Life
Multiple Choice
Directions: On the line before each question or statement, write the letter of the correct answer.
1. Which characteristic does NOT apply to all living things?
A. the ability to respond to stimuli
B. the ability to maintain homeostasis
C. the ability to reproduce by dividing
2.
make up an organism’s scientific name.
A. Class and family
B. Genus and species
C. Phylum and order
3. Which microscope uses electrons to study the surface of an object?
A. SEM
B. TEM
C. compound microscope
Matching
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Directions: On the line before each example or definition, write the letter of the term that correctly matches it.
Each term is used only once.
Matching Set 1
4. trees
A. Animalia
5. squirrels
B. Fungi
6. mushrooms
C. Plantae
Matching Set 2
7. a series of questions used to identify organisms
D. binomial nomenclature
8. shows the relationships among organisms
E. cladogram
9. gives each organism a two-word scientific name
F. dichotomous key
Classifying and Exploring Life
71
Name
Date
Class
Chapter Test A continued
Interpreting a Diagram
Directions: Use the diagram to respond to each statement.
Hind
Front
a. ______________
Hind
Front
b. ______________
Hind
Front
c. ______________
Dichotomous Key to Animal Tracks
1. a. toe print separate from sole print, go to 2
b. toe print attached to sole print, go to 3
2. a. toes with long claws, Mephitis mephitis
(skunk)
b. toes with short claws, Mustela vison (mink)
3. a. regular-shaped toes, go to 4
b. irregular-shaped toes, Didelphis virginiana
(opossum)
4. a. hind toes webbed, Castor canadensis (beaver)
b. hind toes not webbed, Marmota monax
(woodchuck)
Hind
Front
d. ______________
Hind
Front
e. ______________
each animal on the lines provided.
11. Describe the primary difference between a skunk’s track and a mink’s track.
12. Describe one similarity between an opossum’s track and a beaver’s track.
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Classifying and Exploring Life
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
10. Use the dichotomous key to identify each animal track. Write the common name of
Name
Date
Class
Chapter Test A continued
Short Answer
Directions: Respond to each statement on the lines provided.
13. List three characteristics of all living things.
14. Identify one discovery made possible by the invention of the microscope.
Concept Application
Directions: Respond to each statement on the lines provided. Use complete sentences.
15. During field research, a science class discovers a small organism that rolls into a ball
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
when disturbed. Joe calls the organism a pill bug. Samantha calls it a sow bug. Juan
calls it a roly poly. Explain one benefit of using the organism’s scientific name.
16. A science class discovers a slimy yellow mass on the ground. Propose two ways the
class could determine whether the object is living or nonliving.
17. Organism A is in the same phylum as organism B. Organism C is in the same class as
organism B. Explain whether organism A or organism C is more closely related to
organism B.
Classifying and Exploring Life
73
Name
Date
Class
Chapter Test B
Classifying and Exploring Life
Multiple Choice
Directions: On the line before each question, write the letter of the correct answer.
1. Which term describes the changes that occur in an organism during its
lifetime?
A. stimuli
B. homeostasis
C. organization
D. development
2. Which term is a scientific name?
A. Canis
B. Carnivora
C. Canis familiaris
D. German shepherd
3. Which microscope could be used to study the movement of protists in water?
A. SEM
B. TEM
C. electron
D. compound
Directions: On the line before each example or definition, write the letter of the term that matches it correctly.
Not all terms are used.
Matching Set 1
4. trees
A. Archaea
5. squirrels
B. Animalia
6. mushrooms
C. Fungi
D. Plantae
Matching Set 2
7. a series of questions used to identify organisms
E. binomial nomenclature
8. shows the relationships among organisms
F. cladogram
9. gives each organism a two-word scientific name
G. dichotomous key
H. protist
74
Classifying and Exploring Life
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Matching
Name
Date
Class
Chapter Test B continued
Interpreting a Diagram
Directions: Use the diagram to respond to each statement.
Hind
Front
a. ______________
Hind
Front
b. ______________
Hind
Front
c. ______________
Dichotomous Key to Animal Tracks
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
1. a. toe print separate from sole print, go to 2
b. toe print attached to sole print, go to 3
2. a. toes with long claws, Mephitis mephitis
(skunk)
b. toes with short claws, Mustela vison (mink)
3. a. regular-shaped toes, go to 4
b. irregular-shaped toes, Didelphis virginiana
(opossum)
4. a. hind toes webbed, Castor canadensis (beaver)
b. hind toes not webbed, Marmota monax
(woodchuck)
Hind
Front
d. ______________
Hind
Front
e. ______________
10. Use the dichotomous key to identify each animal track. Write the scientific name of
each animal on the lines provided.
11. Write an example of how the shape of an animal’s toe print can be used to identify
the animal.
12. State whether the front or hind tracks of the animals shown are more useful for
identifying the animal. Give an example to support your conclusion.
Classifying and Exploring Life
75
Name
Date
Class
Chapter Test B continued
Short Answer
Directions: Respond to each statement on the lines provided.
13. List six characteristics of all living things.
14. Write two examples of how the invention of electron microscopes changed people’s
understanding of living things.
Concept Application
Directions: Respond to each statement on the lines provided. Use complete sentences.
15. Explain the effect that molecular analysis of the DNA of organisms might have on the
classification of living things and the use of binomial nomenclature.
human.
17. Determine whether the discovery of a new phylum or the discovery of a new species
would have a greater impact on our understanding of the relationships between
organisms.
76
Classifying and Exploring Life
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
16. Apply Use the characteristics of living things to distinguish between a robot and a
Name
Date
Class
Chapter Test C
Classifying and Exploring Life
Multiple Choice
Directions: On the line before each question, write the letter of correct answer.
1. Which characteristic applies to all living things?
A. They require energy.
B. They respond to light.
C. They are multicellular.
D. They reproduce by dividing.
2. Which description identifies a genus?
A. a group of similar phyla
B. a group of similar orders
C. a group of similar species
D. a group of similar domains
3. Why might a scientist choose to use a compound microscope rather than an
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
electron microscope?
A. to study living specimens
B. to study nonliving specimens
C. to magnify things 100,000 times
D. to produce a three-dimensional image of an object
Completion
Directions: On each line, write the term or phrase that correctly completes each sentence.
4. Trees are members of the kingdom
5. The kingdom
.
includes squirrels.
6. Mushrooms are members of the kingdom
7. A(n)
.
uses a series of questions to identify an organism.
8. A branched diagram that shows the relationships among organisms is called
a(n)
9.
.
is a system for naming organisms by giving each organism
a two-word scientific name.
Classifying and Exploring Life
77
Name
Date
Class
Chapter Test C continued
Interpreting a Diagram
Directions: Use the diagram to respond to each statement.
Hind
Front
a. ______________
______________
Hind
Front
b. ______________
______________
Hind
Front
c. ______________
______________
Dichotomous Key to Animal Tracks
1. a. toe print separate from sole print, go to 2
b. toe print attached to sole print, go to 3
2. a. toes with long claws, Mephitis mephitis
(skunk)
b. toes with short claws, Mustela vison (mink)
3. a. regular-shaped toes, go to 4
b. irregular-shaped toes, Didelphis virginiana
(opossum)
4. a. hind toes webbed, Castor canadensis (beaver)
b. hind toes not webbed, Marmota monax
(woodchuck)
Hind
Front
d. ______________
______________
Hind
Front
e. ______________
______________
common names of each animal on the lines provided.
11. You discover an animal track that has short claw prints. Determine the additional
information you would need to identify the animal that made the track.
12. Suggest other characteristics that could be used to help identify the animals by their
tracks.
78
Classifying and Exploring Life
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
10. Use the dichotomous key to identify each animal track. Write the scientific and
Name
Date
Class
Chapter Test C continued
Short Answer
Directions: Respond to each statement on the lines provided.
13. Compare the organization of a unicellular organism with the organization of a
multicellular organism.
14. Assess whether light microscopes or electron microscopes would be more useful for the
study of living organisms.
Concept Application
Directions: Respond to each statement on the lines provided. Use complete sentences.
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
15. Hypothesize about why scientific names include the organism’s genus.
16. Evaluate this statement: A computer is a living thing.
17. Assess how the development of technology has affected how people classify living things.
Classifying and Exploring Life
79
Teacher Pages
T2
Answers
T6
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Lesson Outlines for Teaching
Classifying and Exploring Life
T1
Lesson Outline for Teaching
Lesson 1: Characteristics of Life
A. Characteristics of Life
1. All living things are organized, grow and develop, reproduce, respond, maintain
certain internal conditions, and use energy.
2. Things that have all the characteristics of life are called organisms.
B. Organization
1. Whether an organism is made of only one cell—the smallest unit of life—or many
cells, all living things have structures that have specific functions.
2. Living things that are made of only one cell are called unicellular organisms.
3. Living things that are made of two or more cells are called multicellular organisms.
4. Living things with more than one cell have a greater level of organization because
groups of cells function together.
C. Growth and Development
1. Living things grow by increasing cell size or increasing cell number.
2. The changes that occur in an organism during its lifetime are called development.
D. Reproduction
1. Reproduction is the process by which one organism makes one or more new
organisms.
without one.
E. Responses to Stimuli
1. All living things can respond to changes in the environment. These changes are
called stimuli and can be internal or external.
2. Hunger and thirst are examples of internal stimuli.
3. Some examples of external stimuli are light and temperature.
F. Homeostasis
1. An organism’s ability to maintain steady internal conditions when outside
conditions change is called homeostasis. Maintaining these conditions ensures that
cells can function.
2. When your outside environment becomes too hot or too cold, your body responds
by sweating, shivering, or changing the flow of blood to maintain a body
temperature of 37°C.
T2
Classifying and Exploring Life
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
2. Some organisms must have a(n) mate to reproduce, but others can reproduce
Lesson Outline continued
G. Energy
1. Cells continuously use energy to transport substances, make new cells, and perform
chemical reactions.
2. For most organisms, the energy they use originally came to Earth from the Sun.
Discussion Question
What are some differences between living and nonliving things?
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
All living things are organized, grow, and develop, reproduce, respond, maintain certain
internal conditions, and use energy. Nonliving things do not have all these characteristics.
Classifying and Exploring Life
T3
Lesson Outline for Teaching
Lesson 2: Classifying Organisms
A. Classifying Living Things
1. There have been many different ideas about how to classify living things.
2. Aristotle placed all organisms into two large groups—plants and animals.
B. Determining Kingdoms
1. Carolus Linnaeus grouped all organisms into two main kingdoms.
2. In 1969 an American biologist proposed a five-kingdom system for classifying
organisms that included kingdoms Monera, Protista, Plantae, Fungi, and Animalia.
C. Determining Domains
1. The current system used for classifying organisms is called systematics. Systematics
uses all the information that is known about organisms to classify them.
2. Organisms are classified into one of three domains—Bacteria, Archaea, and
Eukarya—and then into one of six kingdoms.
D. Scientific Names
1. When Linnaeus grouped organisms into kingdoms, he also developed a system for
naming organisms. His system of binomial nomenclature gives each organism a
two-word scientific name, such as Ursus arctos for a brown bear.
2. A(n) species is a group of organisms that have similar traits and are able to produce
fertile offspring.
4. The second word in a scientific name identifies the species.
5. Similar species are grouped into one genus. Similar genera are grouped into families
and then into orders, classes, phyla, kingdoms, and domains.
6. Each species has its own scientific name, which is the same all over the world.
E. Classification Tools
1. A(n) dichotomous key is a series of descriptions arranged in pairs that can be used
to identify an unknown organism. The chosen description leads to another pair of
descriptions or to the identification of the organism.
2. A(n) cladogram is a branched diagram that shows the relationships among
organisms. New characteristics appear before each branch.
Discussion Question
What are some different ways organisms can be classified?
Organisms can be classified according to size, structures, cell type, habitat, the way an
organism obtains food and energy, structure and function of its features, common ancestry,
or some combination of these factors.
T4
Classifying and Exploring Life
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
3. In a scientific name, the first word is the organism’s genus, such as Ursus.
Lesson Outline for Teaching
Lesson 3: Exploring Life
A. The Development of Microscopes
1. The invention of microscopes enabled people to see details of living things that
cannot be seen with the unaided eye.
2. Two inventors of early microscopes were Anton van Leeuwenhoek and Robert
Hooke.
3. Before microscopes, people did not know that living things are made of cells.
B. Types of Microscopes
1. One characteristic of all microscopes is that they magnify images. Magnification
makes an image appear larger than it really is.
2. Another characteristic of microscopes is resolution—how clearly the magnified
image can be seen.
3. Light microscopes use light and lenses to enlarge an image of an object.
a. A light microscope that uses more than one lens to magnify an image is called
a(n) compound microscope.
b. Light microscopes can be used to view living or nonliving things.
c. Light microscopes can enlarge images up to 1,500 times their original size.
4. Electron microscopes use a magnetic field to focus a beam of electrons through an
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
object or onto an object’s surface.
a. Because objects must be mounted in plastic and then sliced very thin, only dead
organisms can be viewed with an electron microscope.
b. Transmission electron microscopes usually are used to study extremely small
things such as the structures inside a cell.
c. Scanning electron microscopes usually are used to study the surface of an object.
C. Using Microscopes
1. People in health care, such as doctors and laboratory technicians, often use
microscopes. Microscopes are used in surgery, such as cataract surgery and brain
surgery.
2. Forensic scientists use microscopes to study evidence from crime scenes.
3. The steel industry examines steel for impurities with the use of microscopes.
4. Jewelers use microscopes to identify stones.
Discussion Question
What are some uses of microscopes?
to study evidence from crime scenes, to study fossils, to examine steel for impurities
Classifying and Exploring Life
T5
Answers
toward their heads and prepared themselves
not to react as they would in an actual reflex
response situation.
What do you think? (page 1)
1. Disagree; movement is not a characteristic of
all living things.
2. Agree
3. Agree
4. Disagree; physical similarities, molecular
similarities, and ancestral relationships are
used to classify organisms.
5. Agree
6. Disagree; microscopes are used by many
different types of people, including forensic
scientists, healthcare workers, and
manufacturing technicians.
Lesson 1
Launch Lab (page 8)
1. Living things are organized, grow and
develop, reproduce, respond, maintain certain
internal conditions, and use energy. Students
might also include or substitute characteristics
such as the ability to move, require food, and
other simpler terms.
2. When the bubbles form on the pasta, the
pasta rises through the water. The bubbles
burst and the pasta sinks. This appears as
movement, so students might suggest that
the pasta is using energy to move or that the
pasta is responding to its environment.
Content Vocabulary (page 9)
1. cell
2. organism
3. unicellular
4. homeostasis
5. multicellular
6. unicellular
7. homeostasis
8. cell
9. multicellular
10. organism
MiniLab (page 12)
1. Student responses might be the same or
different for the two tests. Responses might
include blinking, turning your head, or
protecting your face with hands, among others.
2. Students might determine some responses
were not really reflex responses because they
might have thought about the object coming
T6
Content Practice A (page 13)
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
A
D
E
B
F
6. C
7. a nonliving thing
8. unicellular
9. multicellular
10. external
11. cell
12. Homeostasis
Content Practice B (page 14)
1–6. (in any order) organization, growth and
development, reproduction, response to
stimuli, homeostasis, use of energy
7. Possible answer: In a unicellular organism,
structures within the cell have specific
functions. In a multicellular organism,
different cells usually perform different
functions and are organized into groups that
have a specialized function.
8. Homeostasis is an organism’s ability to
maintain steady internal conditions when
outside conditions change.
9. Possible answer: Internal stimuli are changes to
the environment inside an organism. Feeling
hungry is an internal stimulus. External stimuli
are changes to the environment outside an
organism. Light is an external stimulus.
School to Home (page 15)
1. Possible answers: a. Different parts of a
sunflower, such as the leaves, stems, and
roots, have different functions. b. A tadpole’s
size and shape change as it grows into a frog.
c. A snake hunts for food when it gets hungry.
d. The leaves of an oak tree use sunlight,
carbon dioxide, and water to make food.
2. Possible answers: shivering to keep warm,
sweating or flushing to stay cool, breathing
faster after exercise, and getting rid of excess
fluid and waste
Classifying and Exploring Life
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
3. No, the object is not alive. I know this
because the pasta shows only some, not all,
of the characteristics that living things
possess.
3. Students’ comments should reflect an
understanding that an organism sometimes
needs reflex responses to survive in its
environment. An example might be animals
scurrying for cover as the result of a loud
sound.
Answers continued
Key Concept Builder (page 16)
1. growth and development
10. B
2. homeostasis
11. U
3. organization
12. cell division
4. reproduction
Enrichment (page 20)
5. response to stimuli
1. positive tropism
6. use of energy
2. Diagrams should use the information shown
in the table.
7–12. Students’ hints should reflect the
characteristics of life as taught in Lesson 1.
Key Concept Builder (page 17)
1. organization
2. stimulus
3. homeostasis
4. organization
5. growth
6. development
7. reproduction
8. energy
9. homeostasis
Key Concept Builder (page 18)
1. organization, growth and development,
reproduction, response to stimuli,
homeostasis, use of energy
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
9. U
2. Possible answer: Plants get energy from the
Sun. Some animals get energy from eating
plants. Some animals get energy from eating
other animals.
3. Possible answer: Living things in a food web
use energy for everything they do, such as
grow and develop, reproduce, respond to
stimuli, and maintain homeostasis. Individual
cells use energy to transport substances, make
new cells, and perform chemical reactions.
Challenge (page 21)
Possible procedure: Have a volunteer sit quietly in a
chair. The volunteer should rest one arm on a table
with the inner wrist facing up. Lightly place two
fingers on the volunteer’s inner wrist, just below the
palm. Find the volunteer’s pulse. Use a stopwatch to
determine the volunteer’s resting pulse rate. Count
the pulses for a period of 30 seconds. Use the data to
calculate the number of pulses per minute. Have the
volunteer jog in place for 1 minute. Determine the
volunteer’s pulse rate after exercise. Wait 5 minutes
and then find the volunteer’s pulse rate. Record all
data in a chart.
The x-axis of each graph should be labeled Pulse
Rates; the y-axis should be labeled Time. The normal
resting pulse rate for students will vary from 60 to
100 beats per minute. The graphs should show the
pulse peaking during exercise and then returning to
normal 5 minutes later. In their explanations,
students should note that the pulse rate returned to
normal due to homeostasis, which works to return
the body to a steady internal state.
Lesson Quiz A (page 22)
Matching
1. A
2. C
3. B
4. E
4. Possible answer: Individual cells use energy to
transport substances, make new cells, and
perform chemical reactions.
5. F
5. Possible answer: Like other living things, I
have the characteristics of life and need to get
and use energy.
7. G
Key Concept Builder (page 19)
6. D
8. I
9. H
1. M
Multiple Choice
10. B
2. M
Lesson Quiz B (page 23)
3. M
Completion
1. cell
4. B
5. M
6. U
7. B
8. M
Classifying and Exploring Life
2. life
3. reproduction
4. homeostasis
5. grow
T7
Answers continued
6. stimuli
7. energy
8. organization
Short Answer
9. A tree grows and develops from a seed
(growth and development) and can produce
new trees through its seeds (reproduction). A
tree is made of cells (organization). It grows
toward the Sun (responding to stimuli) and
uses energy from the Sun. A tree maintains a
steady internal environment (homeostasis) by
taking in water and giving off water through
its leaves to keep the water level balanced.
Lesson 2
Launch Lab (page 25)
1. Answers will vary but will likely include
characteristics such as leaf margins (edges),
branching or parallel veins, lobes (indents),
and so on.
2. Scientists use rules for separating and
identifying items so that all scientists arrive
at the same result if they were classifying the
same organism.
Content Vocabulary (page 26)
1. cladogram
2. binomial nomenclature
3. Kingdom
4. dichotomous key
6. genus
MiniLab (page 29)
1. Answers should indicate that students based
the names on each organism’s characteristics.
2. Accept any reasonable responses.
3. Because each organism is given a specific twoword scientific name, scientists worldwide
will use the same name for that organism
and classify it the same way.
Content Practice A (page 30)
2. systematics; It uses all the evidence that is
known about an organism to classify it,
including its cell type, its habitat, the way it
obtains food and energy, the structure and
function of its features, its common ancestry,
and an analysis of its molecules.
3. a naming system that gives each organism a
two-word scientific name
4. the organism’s genus name and species name
5. Possible answer: I would use a dichotomous
key by answering a series of questions with
two possible answers. My answer to each set
of questions directs me to another set of
questions until I identify the organism.
6. Possible answer: A cladogram shows relationships
among organisms in a diagram with a series of
branches. Each branch begins with a new
characteristic. The characteristic is found in all
the organisms to its right. Organisms to its left
do not have the characteristic.
School to Home (page 32)
1. a. Geochelone nigra; b. Canis lupus familiaris;
c. Sequoiadendron giganteum
2. cone-bearing plants
3. division names: mosses and relatives—
bryophyta; ferns and relatives—pterophyta;
cone-bearing plants—gymnosperms; flowering
plants—angiosperms; common names:
(possible answers) club moss, marsh fern,
spruce tree, apple tree
Key Concept Builder (page 33)
1. Bacteria, Archaea, Eukarya
2. Bacteria, Archaea, Protista, Fungi, Plantae,
Animalia
3. Protista, Fungi, Plantae, Animalia
4–11. Checkmarks next to 4, 6, 7, 9, 10
Key Concept Builder (page 34)
1. kingdoms
1. Aristotle’s two groups, plants and animals
2. kingdoms
3. systematics
2. Linnaeus’s two-kingdom system, plants and
animals
4. domains, kingdoms
3. Whittaker’s five-kingdom system
5. binomial nomenclature
4. Systematics
6. scientific name
5. 5 kingdoms
7. genus
6. domains and the consideration of molecular
evidence
8. species
9. dichotomous key
10. cladogram
T8
1. because more had been learned about
organisms and new organisms had been
discovered
7. Possible answer: More is being learned about
organisms and new species are still being
discovered.
Classifying and Exploring Life
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
5. species
Content Practice B (page 31)
Answers continued
Key Concept Builder (page 35)
1. Possible answer: A dichotomous key can help
me by giving me a series of questions about
an insect’s characteristics. By observing my
insect and answering the questions, I can
identify my insect.
2. Possible answer: The insect has wings. The
insect does not have wings.
3. a cladogram
4. lizard, hamster, chimpanzee
5. salmon, salamander, lizard, hamster
Key Concept Builder (page 36)
1. binomial nomenclature
2. the organism’s genus name and species name
3. Possible answer: A genus has more kinds of
organisms because a species is one kind of
organism and a genus contains different species.
4. Possible answer: Scientific names are
important to use so scientists who want to
communicate about organisms refer to the
same species. The same common name can
refer to a number of different species.
5. domain, kingdom, phylum, class, order,
family, genus, species
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Enrichment (page 37)
1. Possible answer: A molecular study of the lifeform would determine how different it is
from organisms in other domains. Other
criteria might be the life-form’s ancestry and
its physical and behavioral adaptations.
2. Possible answer: Early Earth was characterized
by harsh conditions; archaea thrive in harsh
conditions.
Challenge (page 38)
5. A dichotomous key will likely not work if
you do not start with the first description.
The first description begins the sorting
process and sends you to different sections of
the key, depending on which subgroup your
organism belongs to. If you start with a
description other than the first one, it is
possible you could be trying to identify an
organism using a part of the key that was
written for a subgroup to which your
organism does not belong.
6. The dichotomous key helped me identify the
beetle by using the beetle’s characteristics to
navigate through the questions, narrowing
the possibilities of the identification of the
beetle. Eventually the beetle I was identifying
was singled out and identified based on its
characteristics.
Lesson Quiz A (page 41)
Multiple Choice
1. C
2. B
3. C
4. B
Matching
5. D
6. E
7. C
8. B
9. A
Lesson Quiz B (page 42)
Completion
1. structures
2. domain
1. Domain Eukarya
3. systematics
2. Kingdom Animalia
4. scientific
3. Phylum Chordata
5. nomenclature
4. Class Aves
6. genus
5. Order Falconiformes
7. fertile offspring
6. Family Accipitridae
7. Genus Haliaeetus
8. Species leucocephalus
Students should predict that the organism is an
animal. Some students might know that the class
Aves refers to birds and the order Falconiformes refers
to certain raptors. The organism is a bald eagle.
Skill Practice (page 39)
4. If neither choice seems correct, one must
conclude that an error was likely made in
answering a previous question in the key.
Classifying and Exploring Life
Short Answer
8. Both are classification tools. A cladogram is a
branching diagram that shows how organisms
are related to one another. A dichotomous key
is a series of questions that have two possible
answers and is used to identify organisms.
9. Systematics uses cell type, habitat, the way an
organism obtains food and energy, structure
and function of its features, the common
ancestry of organisms, and molecular
analysis.
T9
Answers continued
Lesson 3
Launch Lab (page 44)
1. The letters looked bigger.
2. Answers will vary but might include that
microscopes enable us to see more details
about living things.
Content Vocabulary (page 45)
5. A transmission electron microscope passes
electrons through an object to produce an
image. A scanning electron microscope
bounces electrons off the object and produces
a three-dimensional image.
Language Arts Support (page 51)
Most→cells←small
some→kind
1. electron microscope
magnifying→device
2. atom
microscopic→cells
3. compound microscope
tiny→things
4. identify
living→things
5. light microscope
nonliving→things
MiniLab (page 48)
ordinary→flies
1. Students’ sketches of the magnified objects
should show more detail and be of a smaller
area than the sketches completed without
magnification.
rotting→meat
2. Students should suggest that magnifying the
objects enables them to see more detail, which
provides information about each object.
adult→organism
Content Practice A (page 49)
1. magnify
2. resolution
3. Hooke
4. light microscope
5. compound microscope
7. light microscope, compound microscope
8. electron microscope
9. electron microscope
10. light microscope
Content Practice B (page 50)
1. Microscopes allowed people to see details of
living things that cannot be seen with the
unaided eye. People could see the tiny cells
that make up living things.
2. Possible answer: The first microscopes used
only one lens and could not magnify images
as much.
3. magnification and resolution; Magnification
describes how much larger a microscope makes
an image. Resolution describes how clearly the
magnified image can be seen.
4. Possible answer: A light microscope uses light
and lenses to magnify an image. An electron
microscope uses a magnetic field to focus a
beam of electrons through an object or onto
an object’s surface to magnify its image. An
electron microscope also has a much higher
magnification and resolution.
T10
miniature→version
organism’s→structures
developing→organism
new→evidence
living→world
Language Arts Support (page 52)
1. C
2. A
3. C
4. C
5. C
Math Skills (page 53)
1. 400×
2. 100×
3. 80×
4. 500×
5. the second microscope, because 400× is
greater than 250×
School to Home (page 54)
1. a. TEM; b. SEM; c. light microscope; d. TEM
2. An electron microscope uses a magnetic field to
focus a beam of electrons through an object or
onto an object’s surface. The object must be a
dead organism because it has to be mounted in
plastic and sliced thinly. The electrons that pass
through the object or bounce off its surface are
used to produce an image of the object.
Key Concept Builder (page 55)
1. Possible answer: Like the first microscope, a
magnifying lens uses light and one lens to
magnify images.
Classifying and Exploring Life
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
6. compound microscope
every→egg
Answers continued
2. Possible answer: The invention of microscopes
allowed people to see images of objects that
could not be seen with the unaided eye. It
allowed them to observe the cells that make
up all living things.
6. I would use a compound light microscope
because I want to view a living organism.
3. Possible answer: Leeuwenhoek observed objects
such as blood cells, small insects, and pond water.
8. I would use a compound light microscope
because it can magnify 1,000×.
4. Hooke observed and named cells.
9. I would use a transmission electron
microscope because it passes electrons
through an object and is used to study
extremely small things.
5. Possible answer: Scientists can study the tiny
structures inside cells.
Key Concept Builder (page 56)
1. light microscope
2. compound microscope
3. compound microscope
4. electron microscope
5. scanning electron microscope
6. transmission electron microscope
Enrichment (page 59)
1. Possible answer: Leeuwenhoek had the ability
to carefully observe and take accurate notes, as
shown by his description of algae. He was not
good at collaborating, given that he refused to
share his technique for grinding lenses.
2. Descriptions should be scientifically accurate.
7. scanning electron microscope
Challenge (page 60)
8. transmission electron microscope
Student diagrams should correctly label the basic
parts of a compound microscope and show the
path of light moving from the lamp through the
lenses to the eyepiece. The magnification of a
compound microscope is found by multiplying
the magnifications of the ocular lens and the
objective lens.
9. light microscope, electron microscope
Key Concept Builder (page 57)
1. Possible answers: I would use a compound
microscope because I can observe a living
organism with it. I can put the unicellular
organism directly under the microscope and
observe its movements.
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
7. I would use a scanning electron microscope
because it is used to study the surface of an
object and makes a three-dimensional image.
2. Possible answers: Magnification is how much
larger an image looks, but it doesn’t mean
that the image can be seen clearly. Resolution
is how clearly the magnified image can be
seen, regardless of how much it is magnified.
3. A light microscope can magnify an image up
to 1,500× with a resolution of
0.2 micrometers. An electron microscope can
magnify an image up to 100,000× with
a resolution as small as 0.2 nanometers.
4. A micrometer is two-millionths of a meter. A
nanometer is two-billionths of a meter.
5. Possible answers: Healthcare professionals use
microscopes to analyze body fluids.
Microscopes are also used during surgeries.
Forensic scientists use microscopes to study
evidence from crime scenes. Scientists use
microscopes to study fossils.
Key Concept Builder (page 58)
1–2. (in either order) simple light microscope,
compound light microscope
3–4. (in either order) transmission electron
microscope, scanning electron microscope
5. I would use an electron microscope because it
is the only kind that can magnify 100,000×.
Classifying and Exploring Life
Lesson Quiz A (page 61)
Matching
1. C
2. A
3. B
Multiple Choice
4. C
5. B
6. A
Short Answer
7. Answers will vary but should include the fact
that microscopes allowed people to see living
things and parts of living things that they
could not see before the invention of
microscopes.
Lesson Quiz B (page 62)
Completion
1. simple light
2. compound
3. electron
Short Answer
4. a light microscope or a compound microscope
(which is a type of light microscope), because
the process used to prepare organisms for
viewing with an electron microscope kills the
organism
T11
Answers continued
5. SEM, because the electrons bounce off the
surface of the object being viewed and
produce a three-dimensional image
6. In a TEM, electrons pass through an object,
magnifying its interior structure.
7. Answers will vary but should include
information about how the invention of the
microscope enabled scientists to view details
they could not see before. The microscope led
to the discovery of cells, cell structures, and
other details about living things.
Labs A and B (pages 63, 66)
8. Students should use their draft to create a
dichotomous key. Remind them to use the
form shown in the keys they have seen in
previous activities. They will set up pairs of
questions that offer a yes or no choice. At each
choice, one of two things will happen: Either
they have come to the identification, or they
will give directions of where to look next in
the key. When they reach the end of the key,
each object stands alone, is identified, and
has a name.
9. Students’ answers will vary. Answers should
indicate an understanding of how
dichotomous keys work. If the answer is “No,
the other team was not able to correctly
identify the collection of objects using the
dichotomous key,” students should be able to
determine how the key fell short.
Communicate Your Results Posters will depend upon
objects identified and the two-word names given to
the objects by the students.
B. Extension To extend this investigation, arrange to
have your class visit a class of younger students and
act as mentors. They will be able to explain how a
dichotomous key works, and give the younger
students a firsthand experience in using a
dichotomous key to identify objects in a collection.
Lab C (page 69)
Please note:
• Students must complete Lab B before they are
assigned Lab C.
• The procedure given below is just one
possibility of many.
• If you have students perform the labs they
design, make sure proper safety precautions
are included before allowing them to proceed.
Sample Procedure:
Ask a Question How can you create a dichotomous
key to identify plants based on their leaves?
T12
Test Your Hypothesis Testing procedures may vary,
but the following is an example of a possible
procedure:
• Obtain at least four different leaves from your
teacher. Examine the leaves and then
brainstorm a list of possible characteristics.
You might look at each leaf’s size, shape, color,
vein structure, or leaflet arrangement.
• Choose a characteristic that would separate
the leaves into two groups. Separate the leaves
based on whether they have this
characteristic. This characteristic will be used
to begin a dichotomous key.
• Write a sentence to describe the characteristic
in step 3 and then write “Go to 1.” Write
another sentence that has the word not in
front of the characteristic. Then write “Go
to 2.”
• Repeat steps 3 and 4 for the two new groups.
Give sentences for new groups formed from
the first group of consecutive odd numbers.
Give sentences for groups formed from the
second group of consecutive even numbers.
Remember to add the appropriate “Go to”
directions.
• Repeat steps 3–5 until there is one leaf in each
group.
Analyze and Conclude Students should present an
analysis of their data and some conclusion.
Key Concept Builder (page 70)
1. Drawings can be of a known organism or a
new organism with a common name labeled.
2. Paragraphs or tables should include all the
characteristics of life (organization, growth
and development, reproduction, response to
stimuli, homeostasis, use of energy) and
evidence of the characteristic in the organism.
3. The domain name should be one of the
following: Bacteria, Archaea, Eukarya. The
kingdom name should be from one of the
following: Bacteria, Archaea, Protista, Fungi,
Plantae, Animalia. The genus and species
names will vary. The drawings should be
labeled with a binomial nomenclature to
indicate the genus name and the species name.
4. Dichotomous keys should include a series of
questions about the organism’s characteristics
in sets of two that lead to another set of
questions or to the identification of the
organism.
Classifying and Exploring Life
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
10. Dichotomous keys help to identify objects by
narrowing possible choices in a step-by-step
process, eventually leading you to the name
of an object.
Form a Hypothesis Student hypothesis may vary, but
the following is an example: If other students base a
dichotomous key on the leaves I use, then the
dichotomous key might be different from the one I
made because we might use different characteristics
to describe the same leaves.
Answers continued
5. Possible answer: I could learn about the kinds
of cells that the organism has. I would use a
compound microscope.
6. Students’ presentations should cover the
classification and identification of their
organisms.
Chapter Test A (page 71)
Multiple Choice
1. C
2. B
3. A
Matching Set 1
4. C
16. Possible answers: The class could observe the
yellow mass to see whether it responds to
stimuli. They could observe whether it grows,
develops, reproduces, or uses energy. They
could observe it using a microscope to
determine whether it is made of cells.
17. Organisms that are in the same class are more
closely related than organisms that are in
the same phylum. Therefore, organism C is
more closely related to organism B because
they are members of the same class.
5. A
Chapter Test B (page 74)
6. B
Multiple Choice
1. D
Matching Set 2
7. F
8. E
9. D
Chapter Test A (page 72)
Interpreting a Diagram
10. a. beaver; b. opossum; c. woodchuck; d. skunk;
e. mink
11. Skunks have toes with long claws and minks
have toes with short claws.
12. Beavers and opossums leave tracks that have
toe prints attached to the sole prints.
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
that each species has only one scientific name.
This ensures that the identity of the organism
is clear to everyone.
Chapter Test A (page 73)
Short Answer
13. Answers will vary but should include any
three of the following: Living things are made
of cells and have structures with specific
functions. Living things grow and develop.
Living things reproduce. Living things
respond to their environment. Living things
use energy. Living things maintain a stable
internal environment, or homeostasis.
14. The microscope allowed people to observe
features of living things they had not been
able to observe before. For example, the
invention of the microscope led to the
discovery of cells. The discovery of cells
enabled people to further explore and classify
living things.
Concept Application
15. Possible answer: Joe, Samantha, and Juan are
using common names for the organism. If
people use an organism’s common name, there
can be confusion about the identity of the
organism, because an organism might have
several common names, or one common name
might be used for a number of different species.
The benefit of using binomial nomenclature is
Classifying and Exploring Life
2. C
3. D
Matching Set 1
4. D
5. B
6. C
Matching Set 2
7. G
8. F
9. E
Chapter Test B (page 75)
Interpreting a Diagram
10. a. Castor canadensis; b. Didelphis virginiana;
c. Marmota monax; d. Mephitis mephitis;
e. Mustela vison
11. The shape of an animal’s toe print can be used
to help distinguish between opossums and
beavers or woodchucks. If the animal has
regular-shaped toes, it is a beaver or a
woodchuck. If it has irregular-shaped toes,
it is an opossum. If its hind toes are webbed, it
is a beaver. If its hind toes are not webbed, it is
a woodchuck.
12. The hind prints are more useful for
identifying the animal, because the hind
tracks of the animals are more varied. For
example, the presence or absence of webbing
on the hind track can be used to distinguish
between beavers and woodchucks.
Chapter Test B (page 76)
Short Answer
13. Living things are made of cells. Living things
grow and develop. Living things reproduce.
Living things respond to their environment.
Living things use energy. Living things
maintain a stable internal environment, or
homeostasis.
T13
Answers continued
14. Electron microscopes allowed people to see
structures inside cells and to see much greater
detail in three-dimensional images of cells.
Concept Application
15. Possible answer: As people learn more about
organisms through DNA analysis, systems of
classification might change. Just as they have
in the past as people learned more about
organisms through the use of microscopes. As
systems of classification change, methods of
naming organisms might also change.
16. Possible answer: A robot requires energy to
function, has specialized structures, and
responds to stimuli, but it is not made of
cells, and it does not grow and develop or
reproduce. Humans, on the other hand, have
all the characteristics of life.
17. A phylum is a much higher level of
classification than species. Many species
belong to a given phylum. Therefore, the
discovery of a new phylum would change our
understanding of the relationships between
species more significantly than the discovery
of a new species would.
Chapter Test C (page 77)
Multiple Choice
1. A
2. C
3. A
5. Animalia
6. Fungi
7. dichotomous key
8. cladogram
12. Possible answer: Size and depth of the tracks
could provide useful information to help
identify the animal that made the tracks.
Chapter Test C (page 79)
Short Answer
13. A unicellular organism has structures with
specific functions. A multicellular organism
has groups of cells with specific functions.
14. Possible answer: Light microscopes would
probably be more useful because they can be
used to observe living and dead organisms.
Electron microscopes can only be used to
observe dead organisms.
Concept Application
15. The scientific name includes the genus,
because the genus indicates which group of
species the organism belongs to. The use of
the genus name allows people to quickly
understand how the organism is related to
other species.
16. Possible answer: A computer requires energy
to operate and is able to maintain stable
internal conditions. Computers also respond
to stimuli, such as commands. However,
computers are not made of cells, they are
unable to reproduce, and they do not grow
and develop, so they are not living things.
17. Initially people classified living things by
characteristics they could observe with the
unaided eye. Then, with the invention of the
light microscope, people could see more details,
and that changed the way they classified living
things. As more powerful tools and techniques,
such as DNA analysis, are developed, the
classifications are likely to change.
9. Binomial nomenclature
Chapter Test C (page 78)
Interpreting a Diagram
10. a. beaver, Castor canadensis; b. opossum,
Didelphis virginiana; c. woodchuck, Marmota
monax; d. skunk, Mephitis mephitis; e. mink,
Mustela vison
T14
Classifying and Exploring Life
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Completion
4. Plantae
11. You would need to know whether the toe
print was separate from the sole print.
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