LESSON ONE: GLOBALIZATION 2. DEFINITION OF GLOBALIZATION: 3. 1. 2. Joseph Nye and John Donahue: “Globalism is a state of the world involving networks of independence at the multi-continental distances.” World Bank: “Globalization is the growing integration of economies and societies around the world.” COMPONENTS OF GLOBALIZATION A. B. GLOBALIZATION C. Is the process of interaction and integration between people, companies, governments, and governments of different nation. A process driven by investments and international trade and aided by information technology. This process has effects on the environment, on culture, on political systems, on economic development; and prosperity and on human physical well-being in the societies around the world. Peace Dividend – Those engaged in globalization have too much to lose in war. Democratic Dividend – Free movement of information with markets produces drive for freedom and liberty (seeds of democracy). Economic Globalization – refers to the interconnectedness of economies through trade and exchange of resources. Political Globalization – refers to the amount of political cooperation that exists between different countries. Cultural Globalization – refers to the sharing of ideas and information between and through different countries. QUESTION: IS THERE A GLOBAL ECONOMY? IF SO, IS THIS GOOD? Globalizers (Integrationists): “Yes!” Increased integration has brought a higher volume of trade. This means more goods and services for most of the world. Increased Gross Domestic Products (GDP) and overall standard of living for those that participate. IS ECONOMIC GLOBALIZATION GOOD? “All boats rising” (for those who participate) but different rates. Raised incomes, not through equal. More individual choice and freedom in the marketplace. Costs of goods and services go down. at THOMAS FRIEDMAN, “THE LEXUS AND THE OLIVE TREE” A globalist system has replaced the cold war system. The new system has unique rules, logic, pressures and incentives driven by international capitalism (free trade) Features integration: free flow of capital, goods, ideas more broadly, faster, deeper, than any time in the past. The “Golden Straight jacket”, must abide by goals of free market principles, efficiency. Rewarded if you do. New key players: “The Electric Herd” Globalization promotes cultural homogenized the “Big Mac”. THOMAS FRIEDMAN: GLOBALIZATION’S NEW STRUCTURE AND BALANCE OF POWER Traditional balance between states (countries, U.S. is the paramount player. Balance between states and global markets: states can’t ignore the market any longer without costs. Balance between individuals and states: people influence governments through the market at home and abroad (for good and evil). Globalization produces: “super-empowered individuals” ADVANTAGES OF GLOBALIZATION DISADVANTAGES OF GLOBALIZATION IMPORTANT CONCLUSIONS FROM THOMAS FRIEDMAN’S ARGUMENT 1. Rewards – Those who participate in globalization are rewarded, though there are winners and loss. Globalization can make nations vastly interconnected. It helps on the development of each nation and to have less wars and less armed conflict. Also broke the boundaries or barriers between different countries. Globalization brings people together. People can easily travel around the world, come together, to celebrate the cultures of one another, even the religious festivities. Globalization helps consumers. People can get cheaper goods, better services, technologically enhanced products, one gets more choices. Globalization empowers a business. Allows every region to offers its finest products or services to other regions. Globalization offers a larger market for businesses. It helps startups business to grow, it helps established businesses to become larger and better, and to jobseekers as well. Globalization can ruin the environment. Moving things from one area to another using wastes oil, etc. Globalization can ruin local economies. There is a movement that wants to buy local-especially organic foods. Globalization can give too much dominance to a limited number of countries. Whoever gets to dominate global trade and commerce or has the resources to be the primary supplier and not consumer, will have the upper hand. Globalization can make a poor country, poorer. It can lead to an economic collapse of countries that struggle to change with time and there is an overwhelming challenge of competition that can become unwinnable. Globalization favors regions in rich resources. These resources can be natural or manmade. From education to skilled labor, fertility of the soil and thus agricultural produce, economic policies to geographical advantages; all factors provide unfair but unavoidable advantage to some countries. “DEVELOPMENT CYCLE”: WORKING WELL Economies in post-industrial societies increasingly depend on the service sector. Developing countries are industrializing. By the late 1990’s almost 50% of total world manufacturing jobs were located in developing economies while over 60% of developing country exports to the industrialized world were manufactured goods. ORGANIZATION OF THE UN Purposed of the UN: 1. 2. AMERICA? Loss of manufacturing jobs natural 2.6 million between 1979 and 1999, but overall job increases, especially in the 1990’s. Increasing role of the service sector: IT, banking, insurance, service industries-help raise GDP per capital and the overall standard of living. Cheaper goods and services with global market. LESSON 2: UNITED NATIONS 3. The Charter formerly established six (6) principal organs of the United Nations: 1) UN General Assembly All UN member states are represented in the General Assembly. Each member state has one vote. To discuss any questions relating to international peace and security. To make recommendations for the peaceful settlement of any situation which might harm the friendly relations among nations. To request studies and make recommendations to promote international cooperation, the development of international law, the protection of human rights, and international collaboration on economic, social, cultural, educational, and health issues; etc. 2) UN Security Council Primary responsibility for maintaining international peace and security. The Council may convene at any time, whenever peace is threatened by calling for negotiations to resolve the problem. The UN Secretary General or his representative talks to the countries involved and urges them to settle the problem. All member states are obligated under the UN Charter to carry out the Security Council’s decisions. There are 15 Council members. The permanent members are: China, France, Russia, and United Kingdom. The other 10 are elected by the General Assembly for two-year terms. An international organization designed to make the enforcement of international law, security, human rights economic and social progress easier for countries around the world. 193 Member State countries. Headquarters in New York City. HISTORY OF THE UNITED NATIONS The League of Nations was the predecessor to the UN, it was founded I 1919 and was responsible for ensuring peace and cooperation between world nations. The term “United Nation” was coined in 1942 by Winston Churchill and Franklin D. Roosevelt. Main principles: Save future generations from war, reaffirm human rights, and establish equal rights for all nations. United Nations Day is celebrated on October 24. The UN was founded on October 24, 1945, when the Charter of the UN was drafted at the UN Conference on International Organization in San Francisco. The conference was attended by 50 nations and several nongovernmental organizations. THE BIRTH OF THE UNITED NATIONS Maintaining international peace and security. Developing friendly international relations among world nations. Solving international problems of any nature (economic, cultural, social, humanitarian...) THE UN STRUCTURE WHAT IS UN? On the 26th of June 1945, representative of 50 countries sign the charter of the United Nations at a conference in San Francisco. UN officially comes into existence on the 24th of October 1945 The United Nations was created at the end of the Second World War, replacing the League of Nations. US President Franklin D. Roosevelt was a driving force behind the creation of United Nations. The name “United Nations” was used by Roosevelt to describe the alliance fighting the Axis Powers in World War 2. 3) 4) Member States continue to discuss changes in Council membership and working methods to reflect today’s political and economic realities. Decisions of the Council require 9 yes votes. Not all members are equal: permanent members have the power of veto. In more than 50 years, they have only authorized military action in: Korea, Somalia, Bosia, Gulf War. All of these cases have undertaken military action with the permission of the UN. UN Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC) The Council plays a key role in fostering international cooperation for development. Maintaining a vital link between the United Nations and civil society. The Council has 54 members, elected by the General Assembly for three-year terms. Holds a major session in July. Discusses major economic, social and humanitarian issues. UN Secretariat Includes the Secretary General and the Secretary Staff. The Secretary General holds office for five years per term. The first ever Secretary General was Trygve Lie, the office is currently held by Pan Ki-moon (Korean) Carries out the substantive and administrative work of the UN as directed by the General Assembly, the Security Council and other organs. To gather and prepare background information on various issues. To help carry out the decisions made by the different organs of the United Nations. To organize international conferences. To translate speeches and distribute documents in the UN’s official languages. To keep the public informed about the work of UN. The eleven Trust Territories were: (1) Togoland (British) (2) Somaliland (Italian) (3) Togoland (French) (4) Cameroons (French) (5) Cameroons (French) (6) Tanganyika (British) (7) Ruanda-Urundi (Belgian) (8) Western Samoa (Belgian) (9) Western Samoa (New Zealand) (10) Nauru (Australia) (11) New Guinea (Australia) The Council was suspended its operations in 1994. In addition, separate organizations often subordinate to principal organs, have been created to solve specialized tasks. the THE FOUR POLICEMEN World peace was to be maintained by what Roosevelt described as the ‘four policemen’: United States, United Kingdom, Russia, and China, acting together to prevent conflict. These four policemen, along with France, became the five permanent members of the UN Security Council. The Russia initially opposed China’s inclusion as one of the ‘policemen’, but Roosevelt insisted. Churchill was not happy about it either. THE UN SYSTEM The United Nations family, however, is much larger, encompassing 15 agencies and several programmers and bodies. The United Nations System is the whole network of: International Organizations Treaties and, Conventions That was created by the United Nations. 5) 6) International Court of Justice (World Court) The main judicial organ of the UN. It was established in June 1945 by the Charter of the UN and began work in April 1946. The seat of the Court is at the Peace Palace in The Hague (Netherlands). The only organ that is not located in New York (USA). The Court’s role is to settle, in accordance with international law, legal disputes submitted to it by States. To give advisory opinions on legal questions. Trusteeship Council Established to provide international supervision for 11 Trust Territories. To make sure that adequate steps were taken to prepare the Territories for self-government or independence. THE WEAKNESS OF THE UN SYSTEM IN ENFORCING PEACE Veto Power: the UN can only take serious action when all the “policemen” agree: “Decisions of the Security Council shall be made by an affirmative vote of nine members including the concurring votes of the permanent members.” When one or other great power has been involved, the UN has been powerless (i.e., Hungary in1956 and Vietnam). The exception was Korea in 1950. LESSON 3: REGIONAL GLOBAL SOUTH VS. GLOBAL NORTH A) B) A division based only loosely on geography (the line is approximately 30 degrees North latitude) and more on the degree of development—the Global North includes Australia and New Zealand. Some distinguish—the “Global East”. These terms increasingly replace the First World, Soviet block and Third World, which have lost favor since the fall of communism. GLOBAL SOUTH (THIRD WORLD) “developing / less countries”. Most countries in Asia. Economically disadvantaged nation-states. A post-cold war alternative to Third World. At least 80% - 85% of world’s population lives than $10 a day (where income differentials are widening. CHARACTERISTICS Most are not democratic (a democratic government for the people). Low use of technology. Rapid growth of population. Ecologically imbalance. High corruption rate. Ineffective institution/government. GLOBAL NORTH (FIRST WORLD) “developed countries.” ‘aging’ (majority of senior civilians in the population). Only 15% of the world’s population. Their wealth is around 80% - 85% CHARACTERISTICS Democratic Technologically Innovative Wealthy Low population ‘aging. Low corruption rate. Effective institution/governments. FACTORS OF THE DISADVANTAGE OF THE GLOBAL SOUTH 1. 2. 3. 4. Geographical Location. Culture, weather, tropical diseases on both human and animal. Ineffective or lack of strong authority of the institution/government. Resulted in high corruption, lack of discipline of the civilians. Lack access of transportation. Most population of the Global South are from rural areas; they lack better transportation. Have no access of technological advancement. Only 5% of the population who can accessed the internet. Thus, resulted in less productivity.