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APUSH manifest destiny, antebellum, civil war, populist party

APUSH context based chapters 19,20, 21
vocab -necessary vocabulary, within the text, understand how to relate and apply defining in
reference to the impacts and significance.
-retaining the ideology of “manifest” destiny in which religiously justificated the expansion of superior
antics over land, the united states employs expansion as a proxy for nationalistic growth over land,
incentivizing the action through expansion and growth of transportation, indian relocation, low price land
grants , propaganda, resulting in economic development and increased agricultural productivity.
Gold and Silver Mining:
-within the 1850s and beyond, persons such as families ventre westward into the great plains region,
where, despite seeming unihabitat city due to “desert” like conditions, and presence of indians, migration
was incentivized through perspective of capitalistic opportunities of mining for gold, silver, or coal, and
growth of the cattle industry, each segued by the extension of the transcontinental railroad and
technological developments.
- lead to the creation of “boomtowns”, in which were township settlements as a result of
dependency of mining opportunities
-as raw materials became more scare, miners would need to utilize technological implication to
make profit, leading to mining practices such as the “wave cannon” would lead to environmental
destruction, resulting in the formation of the anti-debris corporation in california for farmers, in which
would win woodruff vs north bloomfield to end the specific practice
The treaty of Fort Laramie:
As the population moved west, american settlers continuously overtook indian land . Despite the treaty of
fort laramie, in which allowed white settlers to travel across indian land if granted defense claims and
ownership to land, was an interim solution that ultimately, dismembered and resulting in violence due to
infringement of policy, manifested through the indian wars.
Native American Wars:
Sand Creek massacre:
As a result of indian killing of white family, territorial government John evans of colorado encourages
white retaliation of action, launching 700 milta in sand creek, and despite alliance and surrendering, the
episode resulted in massive savagery and death of indians. Through this, the catalyst of the violence
chiving stan, lead the cation in support of evans, yet the truth eventually become known , leading to his
indictment, yet soon wagered a plan that eventually killed the sioux war chief, chief lf soule. From here,
the conflict ignites a war that lasted three years, resulting in devastation of either side. To this, the federal
government instituted an african american league and calvary west to assuage conflict and protect
citizens, resulting in the highly acclaimed “buffalo soldiers”.
lead to tangible evidence of the “native american issue”, leading to the reinstitution of the Treaty
of Fort Laramie (1868), in which the sioux indians agreed to settle on the Black Hills Reservation in the
dakota territory.
Red River War:
Against president grant’s intentions of creating a progressive citizenship pathway to natives westward
citizens victimized by indians, and other governmental leaders opposed, resulting in more violence
against natives through general sherman’ and military sherman, who inflict violence on southern indians
who refused to submit to reservations, such as in the red river war.
Little Bighorn:
Within the north, gold rush intentions in the black hills resulted in infringement of fort laramie in 1868,
invenighing indians, engendering a rebellion in which sitting bull defeated the integrity of the treaty land
and land sovereignty against general custer and encouragement by the government to sell land, resulting
in the great sioux war, a massive conflict in which confined over a year with impleading violence between
both parties, which despite indian victory, would soon be overtaken by sherman offense against
cheyenne indians and contrived subjugation of indians.
Ghost Dance:
Battle of Wounded Knee:
Within 1888, the last striffe of indians against white settlers occured in which wovoka, an indian,
experienced emotional deliverance that encourage rebellion through “ghost dance” in which would
protect natives against haram by whites, creating ghost dance movement, leading to banning of
practice,resulting in noncompliance and the battle of wounded knee, in which sherman ignited massive
battle against surrendered indians.
Helen Hunt, a century of dishonor, and Dawes Severalty Act:
-despite such negative action, political and religious efforts opposed such action, as notability helen hunt
jacobson publishes “a century of dishonor”, revealing the harsh truth of the brutalities and exploitation of
natives, which in effect, iinfluenced and encouraging the federal government to lessen the negative
extents of US policies, yet this is breeded out of economic practicality, as war is most costly, resulting in
the ignition of the Dawes Severalty Act of 1877, or general albimint act in which granted 160 acres to
each head of family, yet only perpetuated anger as india's must endure the “annexation” construct rather
than former, freelanced way of life.
Frederick Jackson Turner:
As in 1890, the frontier era was over as the continental united states had been entirely conquested,
frederick jackson turner publicitizes the frontier thesis in which in 1893, held that the experience of
success and strife associated with westward land explained american development, in which shaped the
national character as the element of the frontier through is individualistic, competitive liberty, pursuit
directly with the national character. Thus, now that the frontier was resolved the energy would be
channeled and translated into new endeavor.
-birth of progressivism
Seizing an american empire:
-As result of the civil war, american society sought isolationism in order to develop domestic normalities,
yet by the 1900s, when under the notion of “american greatness” with the aspiration to grow and expand
influence, to create an american imperial republic, rationalized through the innate superiority of american
culture and society. These ideas were held by strongholds such as theodore roosevelt,. Industrial
expansion, and religious and hierarchical need.
Toward new imperialism:
As european powers had increased dominance and conialization internationally, Alfred J Mahon
publishes “the influence of seapower upon history”, in which in order to garner political growth, the nation
must experience novel growth, an increased military sector, ad conialization so as to gain tradable goods.
These ideas were infused with cultural superiority, sacrificing the good of the minority race for self gain,
and justified through social darwinistic measures of “survival ofthe fittest”.
-propels and influences american government to expand westward into the pacific, indeed teh significant
of the asian market for raw materials and labor exploitation, demonstrated through the conquest of
multiple territories, as william seward would purchase the territory of alaska in 1867, the most monetarily
valuable purchase due to gold, silver, beginning the pacific expansion agenda.
in 1871, samoa agrees to the terms and treaty in which would hold that that the Us have a naval base
and extraterritoriality, or rights to implement US for americans, until territoriality causes civil war, in which
established terms at ran co-territoriality with germany, great britain, and US.
The US wanted to acquire hawaii due to influence of american missionary and prosperous sugar cane
industry, and accordingly, sign a reciprocal trade agreement, in which exchanged rights to crops and
rights to land in which formed the specified crops.Through this, american sugar industry expanded,
massimo grant laborer population, as natives were afflicted with disease such as smallpox to wheedle
out population, leaving american majority in which overthrew the monarchy, and eventually, american
The Spanish-American War- Causes:
As the sentiment of expansionism grow in asia, the Us sought to acquire cuba, other, asian territory in
which was colonized by spain.
“Free cuba”-Yellow Journalism:
Through spanish imperialism, cuban society had instagareted insurgencies against spain, including
revolution for independence. Here, as american expansionist have interest considering location and
investment, the affair and conflict was journalized in the New York Journal and new york world, in which
hyperbolically manipulated and characteristized the event in order to influence the american political
decision and public opinion, becoming known as Yellow Journalism.
USS maine: as the USS maine was docked within cuba, the new york journal publishes the De Lome
letter in which the spanish officials condemned US as weak, and as the “maine” is coincidentally
exploded, the Us rationalized spain as against the interests of the united states and thus, sought to wage
war. yet , president McKinley, fearing a deastiong war, attempts to wager neutrality, yet in time, does
overcome by public sentiments as “remember the maine” as a traffic offense, mobilization of democratic
leaders, such as teddy roosevelt, and republican imperialistic.
Spanish defeats and concessions:
Despite a final navel feat in attempt to secure victory, the spanish military was inflicted with numerous
causalities and overt draft, and thus, the spanish formally surrendered, issuing the Treaty of Paris 1898,
where cuba would be independant and the US would annex puerto rico, and occupy teh marina bay in the
-reinforced sentiments and travesties of social and cultural superiority, insisted oppression of territorial
power, and grew the geopolitics strength relations of america as a world power.
-the foraker act was signed by president Mckinley in order to establish a civil government in the territory of
puerto rico, in which appointed a governing body, representatives and a supreme court, without granting
US citizenship all while operating under US law.
-the insular cases, a series of supreme court rulings in which cemented the destruction of rights between
US states and territories through law would strengthen the legitimacy of the territories. Here, the court’s
ruling marked the alienness of the territorial constituents, justifying foreignness, and exploitation and no
pathway to statehood.
Imperialist rivalries in east asia- open door policy:
As a result of a weakened china state, europeans pursue annexation of chinese territory informally, and
despite not having the warrant nor rights to create a written affair, the united states publishes the “open
door policy”, in which secretary John Hay denounced that china should regard the economy will and trade
as other countries, and that no country should subsume power of aspects of terrority.
-the policy was rooted out of industrial ambitions of exploitation and motive, yet presented the facade of
defending the interests of china to placate non imperialists, yet, in effect, would have seldom legal
standing as an non implementable policy.
Big Stick Diplomacy:
As William Mckinley was murdered by a laborer anarchists, theodore roosevelt assumed the presidency
in which sequed the country into greater development through the lens of “big stick diplomacy”,
centralizing the US geopolitical affairs, the bonds of the constitution executive in order to strengthen the
position of america internationally.
-america should “talk quietly and carry a big stick”, meaning that the US need to have the capacity to
back behind its diplomacy
-roosevelt channeled his competitiveness, hardship, and glory of westward life into the course of his
presidency, using physical expansion or influence of nationalism as a proxy for progressive growth, in
which was continually justified through cultural egotism.
The panama canal:
As the Us becomes increasingly involved within the caribbean, international and domestic trade
development, the issue of the institution of the panama canal in which would lessen the economic strain
of trade through lesser labor intensiveness, and thus, the US construct the panama cancer in which
through legislation dispenses, implores panama to become independent from colombia. Despite success,
opponents argued that the action was overtly aggressive and extended teh bands of the constitution, yet
it was in effort in which increased internationally productivity through increased labor and massive
construction operations.
Roosevelt in latin america-corollary of the monroe doctrine:
Due to american infringement of latin american events through canal, international affairs and efforts to
collect debt, latin america's countries instituted the drago doctrine in which prohibited countries from
mandating repayment, yet is met with german and british naval blockade to propel repayment, and as this
violates the accords of the monroe doctrine in which created US hegemony in the western hemisphere,
roosevelt conceded the the US action must replace european influence as made known in the “roosevelt
corollary”, in which justified the US for interfering in latin american affairs by evading the countries from
european harm, yet, would be a facade to create US rights for exploitation and control.
As the united states experiences dramatic change through industrialization on immigration, wide scale
groups called reformers strive to improve the societal conditions and political changes to better the lives
of all americas through “progressivism”. Through the industrialized initiatives of progressive aired, hey in
majority wanted limited power of big business, improved democracy, and strengthened social justice, and
through the perspective of continuous change and betterment of society, the rational and mood would
shift from passive to active involvement in government works.
-era was ignited through the progressive spirit of roosevelt, and through the taft and wilson presidencies,
yet ended that the ignition of WW1 as it necessitated government and public attention to international
affairs rather than domestic issues.
-characteristics of progressives, heterogeneous collection of individuals fighting for specific change, and
held a commonality that society wa detrimentally affected by social and economic harms that needed
“correcting”,. Members of the urban middle class professionals, some member religious charged,
believing in governmental legislation as a vehicle for change.
The Muckrakers:
In order to propel the progressive sentiment into election,various newspaper sites shed light onto the the
dark realities of urban development, political corruption and more, identified as muckrakers.
- origins , one of the earliest muckrakers was henry demarest lloyd how castigated the standard oil
company in notable publications.
-Jacob Riis is One of the first, most prominent photojournalists captured the conditions and realities of the
urban poor through a new medium of images, appealing to ethos and pathos in order to strenghten
debelopment fo movement.
-Lincoln Steffens published the “shame of cities”, highlighting gd torted accounts of the bribery and
cupprotion associated with city parties.
-irish immigrant stan stanley mcclure founded the mcclure magazine in 1893 in which featured IDa
tarbell's “history of standard oil company”
Decline of muckrakers: the pursuit of the muckrakers publications experience decline after 1910 due to
lack of sponsorship of public story, corporate banking, economic pressures, and the reaction of
corporations to develop public relations listings to circumvent issue sexposed, yet proved to have a
lasting impact on the idea of progressivism and value of media.
Political reforms- direct primary, initiative referendum, recall:
Progressives held the believes that in the integrity of democracy through the respect of the voter
majority,, advocated for increasing the public influence on political decision in voting, seen through the
institute of direct primaries federal positions, and direct senate election to legislative branch.
Intaive, referendum, recall:
Progressives advocated for a way in which the government would react to the will of the people, through
initiatives to consider a bill, referendum, allowing citizens to vote on proposed laws on ballots, and
reclass, enabling voters to remake support and dissatisfaction from office through majority vote prior to
expired term.
Lewis Hine-Child labor:
As a result of the brutalities exposed of the conditioning of children in the labor force, progressives segue
the induction of various legal additions, including education and schooling requirement to keep children
out of mining or factories
-Muller vs Oregon, instituted female protection from long hours
-lewis Hine added momentum to the child labor removal movement through publication of photography
that worked to project the conditions of child labor to the public, garnering ethos and pathos.
Triangle shirtwaist fire:
The conditions in which allowed for massive devastation within the triangle shirtwaist factorys sparked an
increase in magnitude and primacy of worker’s advocate to press improved safety and living conditions,
yet backfired as it prelimited women from more taxing or laborious employment, so as to prevent equal
opportunity of women and men.
As the fundamental principle of progressivism to to strive to achieve moral perfectionism or the betterment
of society, temperance, or the move against the usage or distribution of alcohol grow in tandem with the
primacy reform movements, yet opinions or the issue were divided. Here, northeast reformers
disregarded motion of temperance as unnecessary, yet rural reformers believed the alcohol abuse lead to
widespread, multifaceted corruption, leading to the institution of the anti-saloon league, and, was
especially celebrated within the religious and women’s motives as it would tarnish the objective of people,
leading to the creation of the Women's Christian Temperance Union WCTU. Each of these efforts to
garner public and political opinion against alcohol were manifested in the 18th amendment, in which
instituted prohibition, or illegality of alcohol.
Theodore Roosevelt's Square Deal:
Against the previously business minded ruling against workers strikes such as hayes in railroad strike of
1877, and cleveland in pullman strike of 1894, roosevelt's implementation of the square deal favored
either party, as which as the production of coal, an american dependence, is threatened due to strike in
1901, the 1901 arcitite coal strike, both the leader of union and owner f both are threatened and
pressured by the president by the prospect of sending troops to mitigate conflict, ultimately creating
worker change and resulted in increased popularity from the american public.
TR on trust busting:
Through the implementation of the sherman antitrust act powerfully, roosevelt succeeded in dismantling
the noble standard oil company and railroad monopolies as well as other corperataionsthat threatned
competeition and allowed ones in which helps to foster the public good and manage efficiency or low
Elkins Act and Hepburn Act:
Roosevelt's elkin act (1903) and Hepburn Act(1906) strengthened the ability of the interstate commerce
commission, giving authority to stop railroads from inflicted unfair and subjective taxation, and under the
hepburn act, the commission could fix “just and reasonable” rates for railroads.
Upton Sinclair and The Jungle:
As a result of the book “the jungle”, bring into light the conditions of the meat packing industry in chicago,
progressives negotiated the pure food and drug act, manadating label on the sales, manufacturing,
distribution of foods and drugs, and the meat inspection act, regulating federal inspectors to implement a
standard of approval for meat plants.
Due to ourselves love of the outdoors, he administered actions on which had a lasting effect on recreation
and conservation, including the forest reserve act of 1891, setting aside 150 million acres of federal land
as national reserves and parks, and the newlands reclamation act, providing federal funding for the sale
of public land to facilitate irrigation developments westward.
Within the taft presidency- Due to the vast upset of motives of the taft presidency that progressives felt as
if had joined the conservative wing of the republican party for various reasons, including the pichot-ballot
conversatory, in which cabianant member robert ballinger issues public aslkan land to developers,
infringing on the national reserve act, castigated by gifford pinchot, who is corresponding fired by taft
despite ballinger's wrongdoing, further inflaming progressives.
16th and 17th amendments:
Under the taft administration, the 16th amendment is passed allowing the federal government to collect
income tax as a source of revenue, in which would help mobilize reform and govental action for the
people and through the 17th amendment, senate representative were voted by popular election of the
general republic, transitioning from being appointed by state legislatures in order to greater democratize
the political system.
Progressive Party or Bull moose party:
As a result of the split of the republican party due to taft’s neglection of the progressive agenda,
progressive republicans from the progressive or “bull moose” party in which notmateled theodore
roosevelt to the election of 1912 in the pursuit of continuing the agenda of the roosevelt presidency.
Federal Reserve:
Wilson, the first southern democrats elected to office since prior to the civil war, championed attacking the
“triple wall of privilege” of tariffs, bankking, and trust , New freedom, economic competition. throughout
his tenure, his reform efforts included tariff reduction, banking reform, and most notably business
regulation, comprising the “new freedom”, in which the clayton antitrust act, strengthening the idea of the
sherman antitrust act by contriving a clause in which unions could not be persecuted as trusts, further
leveraging workers against industry, and the federal trade commission act, in which instituted a new
regulatory agency to mitigate unfair trade practices within private industry.
-In addition, as gold standard banking too heavily favored wea;th, business , industry, Wilson institutes
the US federal reverse system in which twelve national banks would be regulated by the federal reserve,
creating federal reserve notes or dollar bills system.
African americans in progressivism:
Despite national sentiment of progressivism to create social betterment , these figures often overlooked
the prospect = of black americans, in which as a result of the supreme court ruling of plessy vs ferguson
“separate but equal” that legalized racial segregation, and the rise of racially charged lynching and mobs
in which degenerated the black platform from the reconstruction era.
In order to alleviate the african american conditions, two methodologies were undertaken,
economic deprivation and exploitation and denial of civil rights, in which was catalysed by booker
T washington and WEB du bois. Despite washington's jahizie on education and economic
progressivism to segue into political and social change, du bois argued that necessity of equal
rights for americans, in which would frontline the racial debate of the 20th century.
Ida B. Wells- notable african american reformer for raila and gender equity,lead a crusade against
lynching primacy in the south through investigative journalism.
Great Migration:
Through the end of the 1800s, heading into the early 1900s, american demographics shifted from
serveley suburban based to majority urban, as one million african americans moved from south to north.
This transition was due to deteriorating race relations, destruction of cotton crops, and insurutsial
employment opportunities within the north, as especially during WW1 as previously factory workers were
drafted into WW1, and continued throughout the rest of the century.
-Despite improved conditions from the south, racial hierarchy still permeated the north.
“Dollar Diplomacy”:
As a result of theodore roosevelt's interjection on latin american affairs through monetary exchange for
political influence, taft establishes “dollar diplomacy’, a policy in which would protect the economic
stability of the region in exchange for extending US government and financial interests, a justification of
increased international primacy and poverty control over land.
-through technological development and increasing economic = primacy globally, Washington’s inflamed
ideal of european isolationism shed as europe's “great war” grew, leading Wilson, morally convicted
despite initially championing of retaining from and passivity, to go to war due to infringement of US
srwinit, the “protection of democracy”, which ultimately, solidified the US role as a international power.
-Wilson initially wants the continuation and maintenance of neutrality due to unpreparedness, lack of
public morale or reasons, and as the action would threaten the progression of the “new freedom” agenda.
Causes of WW1:
The stem of the conflict was continuation of ethnic tensions within the austro-hungary empire, a collection
of heterogeneous cultures that strived to prevent the expansion of serbia, who wanted the two states to
combine to create yugoslavia, encomapssing all serbians within europe, and the rise of materialistic
germany, and power struggles from france and russia against the naval power of britain.
Specific gradation:
As gavrilo princip, a serbian nationalists in austria-hungary kills the heir to the austro hungary throne
archduke franz ferdinand, european conflict imploded. Here, autsrohngray, allegenced with germany =,
demanded serbia complete a specific set of reparations, and despite fulfilling this task, declare war on
serbia. In reaction, serbian ally russia delcrae swrar on autroshungrey, eventually leading to a mass
change of alliances forming the triple alliances or central powers of germany, austrohungrey, and italy,
against = the allied powers of france, britain, and russia.
As the german government saw war as a good avenue to pursue their militaristic expansionist
agenda, and seeking the conflict as a quick, easy war, the germans invaded neutral belgium,
propelling great britain to defeat belgium on the western front.
-US viewed the advent of conflict as centrally rooted, and therefore there was not viable reason to go to
war publically, yet president Wilson would work to provide financial assistance and supplies to various
powers such as france, great britain, and germany, and due to american electiness of populous through
immigration, naturally could be maintained due to no prevailing side.
Lusitania-Arabic Pledge-Sussex Pledge:
As britain upholds blockade around german warships, germany announces that it would employ ubotas,
sumerines, that would sink all enemy ships within the area, infringing on the internationally principle of
avoiding destruction against passenger ships. To this, wilson argues the strength of the war crime, and
threatens germany if US property is victimized. Thus, as british luxury unarmed ship the louisiana is sunk
with 128 americans on board, igniting sentiments of war within the public, and especially, teddy roosevelt.
Despite the fact that wilson attempts to remain neutral, bryant eagers the germany had to end u boat
practice and apologize, yet germany refuses, and as wilson begins to become aligned with the allied
powers, bryant resigns. Later, germany attacks the arabic, again reiterating the threat of germany to
american interest, and again, through sinking the sussex, resulting in the sussex pledge in which officially
ended the practice of sinking passenger ships. Even withstanding this doctrine, the US figmented the
enemy as germany, and understood it must engage in war.
-germany continues to infringe upon the sussex pledge, and wilson becomes more towards war depict
winning election on the assumption of neutrality, leading it to end diplomatic relations with germany
The Zimmerman Telegram:
After the US declares to end diplomatic relations with germany, the US intercepts a german telegraph that
explored mexico to invade the united state i exchange for lossed territory within the mexican american
war and “manifest destiny”. To this, the US sees germany as directly violating Us interests of sovereignty
and the monroe doctrine, solidifying resentment of germany.
America Enters War- “”the world must be made safe for democracy”
As germany continues to sink US ships in accompaniment with other harms, wilson calls for congress to
declare war on germany, and in order to garner public appeal, wilson delivers “the world must be made
safe for democracy” that idealized that an all encompassing war effort was a necessary expense to
triumph the democratic agenda, and to “end” all wars. Despite the fact that it would incepterpt
progressivism within the united states, it revealed the decision as a necessary evil.
Mobilization for War:
At the beginning of the declaration of war, the Us military was small, inexperienced, and lacked necessary
equipment, giving wilson the mission to prepare through recruitment, such as the selective service act,
and training an army to combat the german . As a result of this, the country limited rights and increase the
scope of the federal government through drafting , assumption of private and public interest and
economic mobilization, resulting tin the establishment of the selective service act , war industries board,
having the authority regulation production and consumption of material goods, and through the
appointment of herbert hoover in the food administration, having pioneered as “food wins wars”,
encouraging public food ratio, raising federal taxes, ad insustuting war bonds or liberty bonds,
investments in the war. These various effects eventually amounted to 20 billion dollars, ⅔ of expense of
The implementation of mass draffees through the selective service act withdrew massive
amounts of industrial workers from employment, generating new job opportunities that signed the
“working women” and great migration of african american s to assume northern jobs.
A Loss of Civil Liberties:
The war efforts resulted in continuous oppression and prejudice of any german influence, leading to the
establishment of espionage and sedition acts in which penizield helping the enemy, disloyalty, or refusal
of armed service as twenty year imprisonment and the later sedition act, that stated that refusing to sell
war bonds, or any verbal disloyalty against the government would end in imprisonment. After the war
ended, the US upheld the ruling of the spinach and sedition acts even with unconstitutionality after war in
Schenck vs United States, when the conviction for socialists leader that opposed war was reinforced, as
he was a “clear and present danger” to the country.
Fourteen Points:
In order to “end all wars”, wilson colonial house to organize a coalition of 15p0 experts to draft a peace
plan, or fourteen points that would outline the triumphs of the rights of mankind :through internationally, in
which compared for diplomacy rather than secret treaties, recognition of the rights of neutrality, rights to
continue maritime affairs in time of war, or “freedom of the seas”, removal of international trade barriers,
reduction of armament , and the transformation of colonial empires , and through the remains of the
treaty, to have europe secure stable barriers of countries albeit ethnic or national claims, and lastly, the
institution of a league of nations, and even though asked, did not add a clause regarding racial
-despite various items, the rejection of the league of nations, as it would sacrifice patriotism and
nationalism in the name of internationalism”, or decentralize the Us mission, undermining US morale and
reigate german militarism, wilson believes that an international moral would mitigate aggressors of a
newfound, idealistic status quo.
-after months of deliberation despite contentious illness, Wilson champion's the strength and
power of treaty, the american government and public disregard the league of nations, and thus, do not
sign the treaty
The Treaty of Versailles:
Within paris, Wilson achieve loss approval of france and britain due to the perspective of the inability of
the Us senate to sign any treaty of wned war, and as this holds, would concede many issues in order to
garner support of league of nations including assumption of germany territoriality and the ability of all
nations to create states. Yte, would stil institute independent nations of states of austro-hungary, pland,
yugoslavia, and czechoslovakia, finland, estonia, lavinia, and lavina. rather than establish german
colonies as independent states, the treaty allowed ownership to be transferred to france and great britain,
expressing value of imperialism and exploitation.
-against the aspiration of the united states, france and england wanted germany to pay for the entirety of
war expenses, and yet initially opposed, allowed the “war of guilt” to pass. In which would inveigh
germans, engendering stima to be associated with engenderment of WW2.
Deliberation of US ratification of treaty:
As wilson returned to the US in order to ratify the treaty, the senate decides that the league of nation
threatened american independence, as notably henry cabot lodge deemed it too overbearing and a threat
on america sovereignty, and accordingly, attempted too shall decision in order to strengthen public
disapproval, dividing the house into republican progressive isolations that feared the league would
threaten domestic reform, and reservationists ,who would approve the treaty of the league of nations wa
slimied, getting a large debate on the issue of the league of nations.
-after months of deliberation despite contentious illness, Wilson champion's the strength and power of
treaty, the american government and public disregard the league of nations, and thus, do not sign the
treaty, leading to the implementation of a non robust, interim, insufficient treaty to end ww1, creating
legislative gaps that alleviate the proposed subjugation of germany, allowing them to reconstitute, leading
to WW2.