Cells

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area, concentration gradient, cell tissue depth, blood supply, active transport, mineral ions, sugar molecule
Eukaryotes and prokaryotes;
Animal and plant
cells have;
Animal and plant cells;
Animal and plant cells share some
structures, but plant cells have more
Bacterial cells
have;
• Cell membrane
• Cytoplasm
• Genetic material
in nucleus
Cytoplasm
Cell membrane
Cell wall
Single DNA loop
Small rings of
DNA – plasmids
• Smaller than
eukaryotes.
Plant cells only;
• Chloroplasts, which absorb
light to make food
photosynthesis
• A permanent vacuole filled
with cell sap
• A cell wall made of cellulose,
which strengthens the cell.
•
•
•
•
•
Plants;
• Palisade cell
• Absorbs light for
photosynthesis – lots
of chloroplasts,
regular shape
Plants;
• Root hair cell
• Absorbs water
and mineral
ions – long
‘finger-like’
section with
thin wall, large
surface area
Specialised cells;
Animal and plant cells can be
specialised to carry out
particular roles
Plants;
• Phloem cell
• Movement of sugar
and amino acids –
made of living cells,
moves all around
plant
Plants;
• Xylem cell
• Movement of water – made of dead
cells, waterproof, from root to plant
Both animal and plant cells;
• A nucleus, which controls
the activities of the cell
• Cytoplasm, in which most
of the chemical reactions
take place
• A cell membrane, which
controls the passage of
substances into and out of
the cell
• Mitochondria, which is
where aerobic respiration
takes place
• Ribosomes, which are
where protein synthesis
occurs.
Animals;
• Muscle cell
• Contracts to move
• Sperm cell
the body – filaments
• Fertilises an egg cell
that slide over each
– tail to move,
other to shorten
mitochondria for
energy in middle
section, enzymes in
head
Animals;
Animals;
• Nerve cell
• Carries electrical impulses
around the body – long,
connections at each end
chloroplasts, phloem, xylem, vacuole, magnification, diffu
diffusion, osmosis, semi permeable membrane, centi,
Keywords; eukaryotes, animal cells, plant cells, prokaryotes, bacterial cells, plasmid, nucleus, cell membrane, cytoplasm, mitochondria, ribosomes,
milli, micro, nano, sperm cell, nerve cell, muscle cell, root hair cell, stem cells, chromosomes, mitosis, bone marrow, meristem, diabetes, dialysis, surface
Mitosis;
This is the process of
making an identical copy of
a cell
Chromosomes;
Found in the nucleus of
every cell, made of DNA,
contains a large number of
genes, usually found in pairs
Animal cells;
Stem cells;
• From human
This is an undifferentiated cell of
embryos
an organism that is capable of
• Can make most
making more cells of the same
types of human
type, or make new cells
cells
• Adult bone
Plants;
marrow cells
Treatment;
Normal
• Meristem tissue
can form many
• Stem cells may help to
Cell;
in plants can form
cells including
treat diabetes and
any plant cell type
blood
paralysis
DNA copies
• This can happen
Therapeutic cloning;
itself,
at any time
• Embryo is made with the throughout the
Diffusion is affected by;
pulled to
Diffusion ;
same genes as the
• Temperature
plants life
each end of
Movement of
patient
•
Concentration
•
Can produce plant
the cell;
substances from a • No rejection = medical
• Surface area
clones quickly and
HIGH
treatment
economically
concentration to a • May object on religious
How
... Like
things get
oxygen
LOW concentration
grounds
in and out
and
through
a
semi
of cells...
glucose.
Active
permeable
Cytoplasm &
transport;
membrane – no
cell membrane
Movement
Microscopy;
energy is needed
divides; 2 new
AGAINST
a
Have lead to a better
identical cells
concentration
understanding of cells
gradient – needs
Transport in cells;
energy
Cell differentiation;
Movement
of
substances
Both animal and plant
Light:
Electron;
into and out of a cell across
cells specialise
First
can magnify in
a membrane
developed,
greater detail,
basic
higher
Plants;
Animals;
understanding
magnification
Can
continue
to
Most cells develop
of cells
differentiate
during embryo
Osmosis;
throughout a
development, in
Osmosis is the diffusion of water
plants life
later life this is
particles from a dilute solution to a
repair and
concentrated solution through a
replacement
partially permeable membrane.
Down the
concentration
gradient
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