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(J126134) W SINO - Assignment 02

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Assessment Information
J368 ADVANCED DIPLOMA OF
ENGINEERING TECHNICAL - (MECHANICAL)
MEM23006A - WE919 (B) APPLY FLUID AND THERMODYNAMICS PRINCIPLES
IN ENGINEERING
Lecturer:
A. SHAMS
Assessment 2
This assessment is a research and description of Heat properties and safety gear (herein known as PPE), (Task 1). Task 2 is the experimental report about the specific heat
capacity of tap water
Due:
Week 11 - Semester 1/2018
J126134, W. SINO
[email protected]
ASS1- MEM23006A (B) Apply fluid and thermodynamics principles in engineering
WE919- Reviewed AS: 11/05/2016
This document complies with Standard 1 Standard for RIO’s 2015
©North Metropolitan TAFE 2016
Page 0 of 9
Assessment - 2
Assessment-2 Marking Guide & Feedback
Qualification National Code and Title
Unit National Code and Title
J368 Advanced Diploma Engineering Technical (Mechanical)
MEM23006A (B) Apply fluid and thermodynamics principles
in engineering WE919
ASSESSMENT
Student name:
Assessor name
DATE
Task No.
1
2
ASSESSMENT 2 - PROJECT 2
WILLIAM H SINO
Student I.D.:
J126134
Andrew Shams
IMPORTANT NOTE: Any resubmissions are due within two weeks of this date
Student is able to …
Apply fluid and thermodynamic principles in engineering and define:
a)
• Sensible heat, latent heat and specific heat capacity at constant volume
and constant pressure (cv & cp)
• Phase change, latent heat, enthalpy and enthalpy diagram.
• Heat transfer processes.
b)
• Lists five of Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) are important in
workplace and in thermodynamic and fluid mechanics labs.
Submit a report that includes:
Introduction /Test theory: Brief an overview of the test rig, equipment design
specification, and required equipment’s and test procedure.
Data:
• Processing of the results
• Research summary: this is to include the sources that you used
(correctly referenced) and the technical principle(s) that you studied in
stage 1, 2 and 3.
Conclusion which includes:
• The experiment results.
• The experiment procedure: How would you improve the setting and/or
procedure of the lab experiment?
Assessment Result
D or
NYD
Final assessment result is indicated as Demonstrated or Not Yet Demonstrated
Assessment Feedback
Resubmission Requirements
Student and Assessor sign here to acknowledge the assessment result and any further action to be
taken
Assessor name/signature
Date
Student name/signature
Date
040809058, W. SINO – MEM23006A-WE919/Semester 2/2016
Page 1 of 9
Assessment - 2
TASK I:
DEFINITION OF TECHNICAL TERMS
1. Sensible Heat1
Sensible Heat (Qs) is the energy (exchanged by a body or thermodynamic system) that
changes the temperature (ΔT) (and some macroscopic variables of the substance or
System) but leaves unchanged (certain other macroscopic variables of the body or system,
such as) the volume or pressure (cV. & cp). Thus, Sensible Heat is the internal energy
of a body that can be sensed or felt
Where:
𝑸𝑸𝒔𝒔 = 𝒎𝒎𝒄𝒄𝒗𝒗 ∆𝑻𝑻
Or
𝑸𝑸𝒔𝒔 = 𝒎𝒎𝒄𝒄𝒑𝒑 ∆𝑻𝑻
Qs is Sensible Heat. ΔT is the Change in Temperature
cV & cp are specific heat capacities (at constant volume and constant pressure respectively)
2. Latent Heat
Latent Heat implies the energy (∆Q) released or absorbed (by a unit Substance (m) or a
thermodynamic system) that causes Phase change during a constant-temperature
process (mL). For instance, the Latent Heat of Fusion (L), melting ice, at a specified
temperature and pressure. Thus, Latent Heat is the internal energy affecting the phase
change (solid / liquid / gas) of a material but does not affect its temperature
Where:
∆𝑸𝑸 = 𝒎𝒎𝒎𝒎
→
𝑳𝑳 =
∆Q is the change in energy (heat)
L is the Specific Latent Heat
m is the unit mass of a substance
∆𝑸𝑸
𝒎𝒎
3. Specific Heat Capacity (cp & cV.)2
The Specific Heat Capacity (c) is defined as the amount of energy (Q) supplied by
heating process to raise the temperature (ΔT) of the unit mass (m) of a given substance
(or matter) by a given amount (usually 1 oC or 1 K)
4. Phase Change3
𝑸𝑸 = 𝒎𝒎𝒎𝒎∆𝑻𝑻 →
𝒄𝒄 =
𝑸𝑸
𝒎𝒎∆𝑻𝑻
A Phase Change from one state to another occurs as a result of Energy Transfer into
or out of the Substance under consideration. Most substances can exist in each of the
three (3) states, namely:
Gas
Liquid
or
Solid
Figure 1: Phases of matter
040809058, W. SINO – MEM23006A-WE919/Semester 2/2016
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Assessment - 2
For Phase Change, both the Latent Heat (∆Q) and Sensible Heat (Qs) Formulae are
needed to compute the outcome:
∆𝑸𝑸 = 𝒎𝒎𝒎𝒎
𝑸𝑸𝒔𝒔 = 𝒎𝒎𝒄𝒄𝒑𝒑 ∆𝑻𝑻
5. Enthalpy4
Enthalpy (Symbol: H) is a measurement of energy in a thermodynamic system. It is the
thermodynamic quantity equivalent to the total heat content of a system. It is equal to the
internal energy of the system plus the product of pressure and volume
Where:
H is the enthalpy of the system
U is the internal energy of the system
p is the pressure of the system
V is the volume of the system
𝑯𝑯 = 𝑼𝑼 + 𝒑𝒑𝒑𝒑
6. Enthalpy Diagram5
Enthalpy Diagram can be derived from the State Function of a Substance or a
Thermodynamic System. This is always as a result of the enthalpy change (ΔH)
associated with any chemical process, the amount of matter that undergoes change and
on the nature of the initial state of the reactants and the final state of the products. i.e:
Where:
∆𝑯𝑯(𝑹𝑹𝑹𝑹𝑹𝑹𝑹𝑹𝑹𝑹𝑹𝑹𝑹𝑹𝑹𝑹) = � ∆𝑯𝑯(𝑷𝑷𝑷𝑷𝑷𝑷𝑷𝑷𝑷𝑷𝑷𝑷𝑷𝑷) ± � ∆𝑯𝑯𝑹𝑹𝑹𝑹𝑹𝑹𝑹𝑹𝑹𝑹𝑹𝑹𝑹𝑹𝑹𝑹
ΔH is the reactive change in enthalpy
∑ΔH are the sums of the standard changes of enthalpies of the products and reactants
respectively
Thus:
The Enthalpy diagram of water (T-H Diagram of water @ cp) as researched on Wikipedia6
and Swans Commentary6 is:
Figure 2: T-H Diagram (@ cp) of Water
040809058, W. SINO – MEM23006A-WE919/Semester 2/2016
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Assessment - 2
7. Heat Transfer Process
Heat Transfer Process is the delivery of Energy from one source to another, here-in
defined as the fundamental principle of Thermodynamics a.k.a the First Law of
Thermodynamics (‘R. Kinsky’, page 48). Energy can neither be created nor destroyed,
therefore, the total energy remains in equilibrium before-during-and-after any change in
form.
There are three (3) basic ways in which heat is transferred:
• In fluids, heat is often transferred by Convection, in which the motion of the fluid itself
carries heat from one place to another
• Another way to transfer heat is by Conduction, which does not involve any motion
of a substance, but rather is a transfer of energy within a substance (or between
substances in contact)
• The third way to transfer energy is by Radiation, which involves absorbing or giving
off electromagnetic waves.
The direction of heat transfer is from a region of high temperature to another region of
lower temperature, and is governed by the Second Law of Thermodynamics. Heat
transfer changes the internal energy of the systems from which and to which the energy
is transferred. Heat transfer will occur in a direction that increases the entropy of the
collection of systems.
8. Personal Protective Equipment (PPE)
Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) is clothing and equipment worn by employees,
students, contractors or visitors to protect or shield their bodies from workplace hazards.
In accordance with the Occupational Safety and Health Act 1984/Occupational Safety
and Health Regulations 1996, the following PPEs are prescribed:
Table 1: PPE
PPE Type
Use in Lab/Workplace
Respiratory protection
To guard against toxic fumes, dust, loose particles and splatter
Eye protection (goggles)
To guard against flying particles, splatter, dust, glare and sparks
Hearing protection (plugs/muffs)
To guard against accidental loud bangs, continuous noise or music
Hand protection (gloves)
To guard against abrasives, chemical, sharps, heat, chills, germs
Foot protection (steel-Cap)
To reduce trips, slips, stress, falling loads, sharps and crushes
Figure 3: PPE Signs
040809058, W. SINO – MEM23006A-WE919/Semester 2/2016
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Assessment - 2
TASK II:
LABORATORY REPORT
Aim
The aim of this experiment is to examine the Specific Heat Capacity (cp) of Tap Water
through Energy Transfer over time. According to theory, the Specific Heat Capacity of pure
water is calculated to be 4190 J/kgK. The hypothesis under consideration is to calculate the
Energy consumption (Q) at varying temperatures (ΔT), while keeping the Specific Heat
Capacity (cp), of normal tap constant at atmospheric pressure.
As earlier noted, the Specific Heat Capacity (c) is defined as the amount of energy (Q)
supplied by heating process to raise the temperature (ΔT) of the unit mass (m) of a given
substance (or matter) by a given amount (usually 1 oC or 1 K):
𝒄𝒄 =
𝑸𝑸
𝒎𝒎∆𝑻𝑻
(J/kgK)
Where:
‘m’ is mass of substance, ‘c’ is specific heat capacity, and ∆𝑻𝑻 is change in
temperature. And ‘Q’ is the heat energy
Also:
NOTE:
0 oC ≡ 273.16 K
𝑝𝑝𝑝𝑝𝑝𝑝𝑝𝑝𝑝𝑝, 𝑃𝑃 =
𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒
𝑡𝑡𝑡𝑡𝑡𝑡𝑡𝑡
=
𝑄𝑄
𝑡𝑡
(W)
Figure 4: Experimental Apparatus
040809058, W. SINO – MEM23006A-WE919/Semester 2/2016
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Assessment - 2
Experimental Equipment & Material
The apparatus included, but not limited to the following:
 A Water Kettle (1.7L - 2200W)
 A Power mains Extension
 A Digital Thermostat (HD 2307.0 RTD)
 A Stopwatch
 A Stick Thermometer
 A Digital Multimeter
 A Digital Scale
 Tap Water
 Water container (Mug)
 Pen and paper (Whiteboard)
 Calculator/Smartphone Camera
 Other Accessories
Procedure
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
Health and Safety risks were assessed
Required minimum PPE’s were employed
Water was poured into mug and weighed on scale
Water temperature was recorded before heating
The Kettle was each time filled with measured amount of water
Time was monitored and recorded using a Stop-Watch
The water was heated at Atmospheric pressure (avoiding boiling)
The parameters of the experiment were taken and recorded (See Table 2 below)
The Experiment was then concluded
Figure 5: Procedural Data Collection Gadgets
040809058, W. SINO – MEM23006A-WE919/Semester 2/2016
Page 6 of 9
Assessment - 2
The Experiment (Sketches and Visualisation)
Conduct the experiment as instructed in class and collect the following data:
Initial mass/ volume of water: … 1.4965 ….kg… or …1.5…L
Kettle mass ………0.593…..….kg.
Kettle material specific heat capacity (Plastic 75% + Metallic 25%) / (3179 + 460)…J/kgk
Type of kettle used, model number, serial number:
Figure 6: kettle model number and Rating
Advertised power consumption of kettle: …… 1850 – 2200 W …….
During the experiment, the following data was collected:
Initial temp
(ºC)
25.10
25.80
28.40
31.60
34.40
37.50
40.40
43.40
46.50
49.80
Final temp
(ºC)
25.80
28.40
31.60
34.40
37.50
40.40
43.40
46.50
49.80
52.20
Time
(s)
Wattmeter
(W)
Input energy
(J)
21340.00
21340.00
21340.00
21340.00
21340.00
21340.00
21340.00
21340.00
21340.00
21340.00
Heat Input
Kettle (Qk)
1037.44
3853.34
4742.58
4149.75
4594.37
4297.96
4446.17
4594.37
4890.78
3556.93
Heat Input
H2O (QW)
20302.56
17486.66
16597.42
17190.25
16745.63
17042.04
16893.83
16745.63
16449.22
17783.07
Average Cw
No:
Water Specific
Heat cW (J/kgK)
19381.00
4494.24
3465.88
4102.49
3609.63
3926.87
3762.97
3609.63
3330.85
4951.29
3917.10
5463.49
Gross m (kg) ΔTemp T (K) Power P (W) Temp ΔT (K) Energy Q (kJ) Mass of water: Mass of Kettle
1.00
2.09
0.70
2134.00
273.70
11083916.43
2.00
2.09
3.30
1067.00
275.60
2588083.56
3.00
2.09
6.50
711.33
276.20
2000230.37
4.00
2.09
9.30
533.50
275.80
2364198.62
5.00
2.09
12.40
426.80
276.10
2082436.78
6.00
2.09
15.30
355.67
275.90
2263814.99
7.00
2.09
18.30
304.86
276.00
2170109.81
8.00
2.09
21.40
266.75
276.10
2082436.78
9.00
2.09
24.70
237.11
276.30
1922993.64
10.00
2.09
27.10
213.40
275.40
2849213.69
1.50
0.59
3140743.47 Average Q
040809058, W. SINO – MEM23006A-WE919/Semester 2/2016
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Assessment - 2
Energy (Q) v Temp (T)
0.01
50.01
Energy (Q)
100.01
150.01
y = -1E+06x + 3E+08
R² = 0.9914
200.01
250.01
300.01
275.2
275.4
275.6
275.8
Temp (K)
276.0
276.2
276.4
Figure 7: (Graph1): Energy - Temperature Trend
Draw a sketch of your experiment below (clearing showing all the instruments used):
Figure 8: Other Instruments Used
Results and Calculations
Energy Transfer,
𝑸𝑸 = 𝒎𝒎𝒄𝒄𝒑𝒑 ∆𝑻𝑻 (kJ)
𝑸𝑸 = 𝟏𝟏𝟏𝟏𝟏𝟏𝟏𝟏 ∗ 𝟒𝟒𝟒𝟒𝟒𝟒𝟒𝟒 ∗ 𝟒𝟒𝟒𝟒. 𝟓𝟓
= 𝟐𝟐𝟐𝟐𝟐𝟐. 𝟐𝟐 ∗ 𝟏𝟏𝟏𝟏𝟑𝟑 (kJ)
040809058, W. SINO – MEM23006A-WE919/Semester 2/2016
Page 8 of 9
Assessment - 2
Observations
Computing data from the experiment, the following observations were made:
Energy takes many forms, only some of which can be seen or felt, it is defined by its effect
on matter (water). Energy transferred over time is Power
Power transfer over time, 𝑷𝑷𝑷𝑷 = 𝑾𝑾 is work and 𝒄𝒄 =
water absorbs the heat, changing temperature
Conclusion
𝑾𝑾(𝒕𝒕)
𝒎𝒎(∆𝒕𝒕)
the Specific Heat capacity of
After observing the experiment, and researching information about the Specific Heat
Capacity of water, the conservation of energy and temperature-pressure effects, the heat
capacity of water was proven to be proportional to the energy fed. This was proved by
graphing the change in temperature and change in energy and the graph showing a straight,
diagonal line showing the proportionality of heat capacity. It can be noted that the experiment
was compliant with theory. Any discrepancies in the data is due to handling and
measurement errors.
References
1. Text Material
 Lab Handout & Lecture Notes
 ‘R. Kinsky’, Thermodynamics and Fluid Mechanics – an Introduction (Sydney),
McGraw-Hill - December 1994
2. Online Resources
 https://obelfeyzaselcuk.files.wordpress.com/2012/03/specific-heat-capacity-oftap-water.docx1
http://schoolworkhelper.net/determining-heat-capacity-of-water-lab-answers2
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:States_of_matter_En.svg3
http://www.dummies.com/education/science/physics/how-to-calculate-the-latentheat-needed-to-cause-a-phase-change/
 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Enthalpy4
 http://chem.libretexts.org/Core/Physical_and_Theoretical_Chemistry/Thermodyn
amics/State_Functions/Enthalpy/Standard_Enthalpy_Of_Formation5




 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Properties_of_water6
 http://www.swans.com/library/art19/mgarci68.html6
040809058, W. SINO – MEM23006A-WE919/Semester 2/2016
Page 9 of 9
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