Threshold Exam Study Notes: Ideal Design Methodology: The Test Vee Constructing knowledge (attribute of engineering) Constructivism suggests that learning is an active contextualised process of constructing knowledge rather than ‘acquiring’ it. We construct our own understanding and knowledge through experiencing things and reflecting on those experiences, organising facts, ideas and associations into a meaningful system of relationships Engineering Requirements: Requirement should specify what the system will do, not how it Abstract will be implemented. Each requirement should have a single unambiguous meaning and Unambiguous be stated with short complete sentences Should ideally be measurable and have an associated target value Verifiable or range Each requirement should be traceable to the needs of the user (i.e. Traceable it exists because the user needs/wants it) Collective Properties of Requirements: Is the property of orthogonality met for the Requirements Specification? o There should be no overlap or redundancy between requirements Is the property of completeness met? o Are all the end-user needs addressed in the Requirements Specification? Is the property of consistency met? o The Requirements should not be self-contradictory. Types of Engineering Requirements: Performance and functionality, eg.: The car will be able to accelerate from 0 to 100kph in 5 seconds Reliability and availability, eg.: The system will be operational 99% of the time Energy, eg.: The system will have average power consumption of the 500 W Environmental, eg.: The system must be waterproof and function while submerged in water up to 3 m deep when the water temperature is between 5°C and 35°C. Innovation versus Origination Innovation: modification of something that exists – o Most successful designs are incremental changes to existing forms Internal combustion engine incrementally improved over last 100+ years o However, does not hurt to look at problem from completely new perspective Origination: something brand new o Design that is a substantial and fundamental departure from existing Concept Generation: Different approaches to Engineering Design: Selection design o Design involves selecting standard components and assembling in straightforward manner to achieve design objective. o Reduces opportunity for innovative approaches Configuration design o Typically involves use of standard components, components located and arranged to improve performance or reduce size. Parametric design o Primary design challenge is to vary performance or design parameters to achieve design objectives o Parameters may be embedded in equations that express relationship between design parameters, objectives and/or constraints. Original design o Design that is a substantial and fundamental departure from existing products or processes. Creative Thinking Model 1. Exploration: active and concerted search for new ideas Often ends in frustration due to inability to generate sufficient new ideas. 2. Incubation: extended period of relaxation during which there is no conscious effort to address the problem 3. Intimation: feeling you get when you realise you’re on the right track are making progress resumption of purposeful pursuit with a belief that you’re making progress 4. Illumination: breakthrough that produces an attractive new Barriers to Creative Thinking: 1. Perceptual barriers: prevents clear understanding of the design problem. 2. Cultural barriers: discourage non-traditional approaches that violate social norms. 3. Environmental barriers: anything in your immediate surrounding which inhibits creativity, poor lighting, background noise etc. 4. Emotional barriers: feelings that discourage you from considering a solution or distract you from the problem. e.g. Discomfort with risk. 5. Intellectual barriers: insufficient knowledge of a topic to incorporate it into the design. Vertical Thinking VS Lateral Thinking: Vertical thinking: o Typical way people approach problem solving o Moving down a solution path by evaluating information logically and objectively o Move in sequential steps, each step justified by logic and fact Lateral thinking: o Helps breakout of vertical patterns by: Reorganising dominant assumptions that polarise perception of problem Searching for different ways to look at things Relaxing rigid control of thinking Encourages other ideas Engineering Design Life Cycle: 1. Requirements analysis 2. System design 3. Detailed design 4. Production 5. Distribution 6. Consumption 7. Retirement Guiding Principles in Ethics: 1. Demonstrate integrity 1.1 Act on the basis of a well-informed conscience 1.2 Be honest and trustworthy 1.3 Respect the dignity of all persons 2. Practise competently 2.1 Maintain and develop knowledge and skills 2.2 Represent areas of competence objectively 2.3 Act on the basis of adequate knowledge 3. Exercise leadership 3.1 Uphold the reputation and trustworthiness of the practice of engineering 3.2 Support and encourage diversity 3.3 Communicate honestly and effectively, taking into account the reliance of others on engineering expertise 4. Promote sustainability 4.1 Engage responsibly with the community and other stakeholders 4.2 Practise engineering to foster the health, safety and wellbeing of the community and the environment 4.3 Balance the needs of the present with the needs of future generations Emerging Teamwork Issues: Difference of opinion Communication difficulties Overemphasis on conflict avoidance Stages in Team Formation (Tuckman Model)and Performance: 1. Forming: Getting to know the team members (usually there’s little conflict at this stage) 2. Storming: Discussing processes and roles (uncertainty and sometimes conflict) 3. Norming: Agreeing on collaborative processes and roles (may be some conflict) 4. Performing: Completing the project 5. Mourning: the feelings associated with loss when the team is disbanded once the project is complete Types of Models: 1. Physical 2. Virtual 3. Mathematical Types of Thinking: Critical Thinking Critical thinking is focused, careful analysis of something to better understand it. When people speak of “left brain” activity, they are usually referring to critical thinking. Here are some of the main criticalthinking abilities: Analysing is breaking Creative thinking Creative thinking is expansive, open-ended invention and discovery of possibilities. When people speak of “right brain” activity, they most often mean creative thinking. Here are some of the more common creative thinking abilities: TRIZ MATCEMIB: TRIZ is a generic name for a family of tools for problem analysis, problem reframing, failure analysis and creative problem solving TRIZ MATCEMIB is intended to support idea generation that draws on many different fundamental processes at the heart of the various engineering disciplines Perspectives: mechanical, acoustic, thermal, chemical, electric, magnetic, intermolecular, biological SCAMPER: Substitute. Combine. Adapt. Modify. Put to another use. Eliminate/Elaborate/Enhance some part of the design. Reverse /rearrange sections or parts of the design First, take an existing product or service. This could be one that you want to improve, one that you're currently having problems with, or one that you think could be a good starting point for future development. 2. Then, ask questions about the product you identified, using the mnemonic to guide you. Brainstorm as many questions and answers as you can. 3. Finally, look at the answers that you came up with.