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Coloring Sheets Chapter 1

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INTRODUCTION TO COLCRING
(lmportant tips on how to get the most out of this book)
FIOW THE BOOK IS ARRAT{GED
The book is divided by subject matter into sections.
Each section contains many topics. Each topic consists of a page of illustrations, and a column of text on
the page facing it.
It is not important that you color the sections in
order, but for whichever section you select you should
color the pages in order You may wish to read through
the text before coloring, and reread it more carefully
afterward; or you may choose to color first. But always
read the coloring notes (CN) before coloring. They let
you know if certain colors are required, as well as what
order to color in and what to look out for.
COLORING TOOLS
Colored pencils are preferred. They won't show
through to the other side of the page. With colored
pens, test each color on a page in the back of the
book to see if it shows through. Lighter colors and
water-based pens will be less likely to do so; their
transparent qualities also allow details and labels on
the illustration to remain visible.
At least 10 colors are necessary. One of them
should be a medium gray. A single colored pencil can
virtually create many colors, as varying the point pressure produces a range of light and dark values. lf you
purchase your colors individually, such as at stores
selling art supplies, then choose mostly lighter colors.
You will need red, blue, purple, yellow, gray, and
black. Buying colors individually also enables replacement when a pencil is lost or used-up.
XII
HOW THE COLORIHG SYSTEM WOBKS
Structures (the parts of the illustrations to be colored),
are identified by names presented in outlined (colorable)
lettering. Each name has a small letter (A-Q or number
(subscript, letter label) following it. This letter label connects the name with its related structure in the illustration. Name and structure are to receive the same color.
Look ai the cover for a colored example.
Boundaries of the structures are defined by dark
lines. Color over everything within the boundaries. The
label may be found either within the structure or connected to it by a light line. Not every structure to be
colored is labeled. When structures similar in size and
shape lie adjacent to each other, color them all with
the same color even if some are not labeled'
It is important to color the names; they guide you
through the order of coloring. Coloring also promotes
memorization. You may also find very slighi spacing
between letters in the names according to syllables.
These groupings, along with the glossary in the back,
help with learning pronunciation of these unfamiliar
words. lndentations in the list of names reflect impor-
tant relationships among the structures.
A different color is required for each name and its
letter label, except where different names are followed
by the same letter but have different superscripts
(e.g., D1, D2, shown on the opposite page).They (D-D2)
all receive the "D" color because of a close relationship
between the structures to which they refer. Even when
restricted to a single color you may distinguish between
such related names and structures by creating different values with varying pressure on the pencil. lf you
run out of colors because of a very long list of names,
it will obviously be necessary to repeat a color and use
it on more than one name. Except where indicated, you
may choose your own colors. Lighter ones are advised
for large areas, and dark or bright colors for the smaller
structures that are harder to see'
Red is usually associated with arteries, blue with
veins, purple with capillaries, yellow with nerves, and
green with lymphatics. However, on pages dealing
exclusively with any of these structures, you will naturally have to use many colors for the different structures in the same group.
Study of the human body requires an organized visualization of its
internal parts. Dissection (dls, apart; sect, cut) is the term given to
preparation of the body for general or specific internal inspection.
lnternal body structure is studied in sections cut along imaginary
flat surfaces called p/anes. These planes are applied to the erect,
standing body with limbs extended along the sides of the body,
palms and toes forward, thumbs outward. See this "anatomical
position" in the following page.Views of the internal body in life
and after death can be obtained by a number of techniques that
produce computer-generated representational images ol human
structure in series (sections) along one or more planes. These
anatomic images may be produced by computerized tomography
(CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRl).
The median plane is the midline longitudinal plane dividing the
head and torso into right and left halves. The presence of the
sectioned midline of the vertebral column and spinal cord is characteristic of this plane. Planes parallel to the median plane are
sagittal. Watch out! "Medial" is not a plane.
The sagittal plane is a longitudinal plane dividing the body (head,
torso, limbs) or its parts into left and right parts (not halves). lt is
parallel to the median plane.
The coronal or frontal plane is a longitudinal plane dividing the
body or its parts into front and back halves or parts. These planes
are perpendicular to the median and sagittal planes.
transersqor cross plans divides the body into upper and
lower halves or parts (cross sections). This plane is perpendicular
to the longitudinal planes. Transverse planes are horizontal planes
of the body in the anatomical position.
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ANATOMIC PLANES & SECTIONS
CN: Use your lightest colors on A-D. (1) Color a body
:lane in the center diagram; then color its name, related
sectional view, and the sectioned body example. (2) Color
:verything within the dark outlines of the sectional views,
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Median
section
through the
thorax
Coronal
section
through the
Cerebrum
head
ANTERIOR
Sagittal
section
through the
thorax
Cross
section
through the
abdomen
Movements of bones occur at joints.
Terms of movement are
therefore applicable to joints, not
bones (e.g., flexing bones tends
to break theml). Ranges of motion
are limite"J by tne bony archi
tectweof a joint, related ligaments,
and the muscles
in",
joint. Specific directions
"ro"""g
of movement can be clearly delineated,
and ranges of motion measured,
by reference to the anatomical
position.
Extension of a joint generally means
straightening it. ln the ana_
tomical position, most joints are in
relaxejext€nsion (neutral). ln
reration to the anatomical position,
movements of extension are
directed in the sagittal plane. Extreme,
even abnormat
extension
ca'ed hyperextension. At the ankre
and wrist jornts, extension is
termed dorsiflexion.
is
Flexion of a joint is to bend it or decrease
the angle between the
bones of the joint. Movements of flexion
are in the sagittal plane.
At the ankle joint, flexion is also called plantar
flexion.
Adduction of
joint moves a bone toward
the midline of the body
(or, in the case of the fingers
or toes, toward the midrine of the
hand or foot). rn reration to the anatomical
position, movements of
adduction are directed in the coronal plane,
a
Abduction of a joint moves a bone away
from the midrine of the
body (or
hand or foot). Movements of abduction
are directed in
the coronal plane.
Circumduction is a clrcular movement, permitted
at ball and
socket, condylar, and saddle joints.
Circumduction is character_
ized by flexion, abduction, extension,
and adduction of the joint
done in sequence.
Rotation of a joint is to turn the moving
bone about its axis.
Rotation of a limb toward the body
is iitemat otr mediat rotation;
rotation of the limb away from the body
is external or lateral
rotation.
supination is externar rotation of the radiohumerar
the hand and wrist are turned palm
up. ln the foot,
the subtalar (talocalcaneal) joint
and the transverse
(talonavicular and calcaneocuboid joints;
see page
sole of the foot in a medial direction.
joint in which
supination of
tarsal joints
40) moves the
Pronation is internal rotation of the radiohumeral
joint in which
the hand and wrist are turned palm
down. tn tne toot, pronation of
the subtarar and transverse tarsar joints
rotates the foot in a laterar
direction.
lnversion turns the sole of the foot inward,
elevating its medial
border, as a result of supination at the
subtalar and transverse
tarsal joints and adduction of the forefoot.
See Glossary.
Eversion turns the sole of the foot outward,
elevating its lateral
border as a result of subtalar and transverso
tarsal joint prcnation
and forefoot abduction.
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TERMS OF MOVEMENTS
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21
llt lbserve the side view anatomical position of the body centered betr,"reen rhe figures above
*': -exed joints C and D and extended joints A and B. (1) Color the listed items of movement and
:* =iated arrows pointing to the various joints in each of the figures shourn. (2) As you color
gC: arrow,
joint in the same manner.
3rrorv, move
*6c.
move your own related ioint
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AHATOTUIICAL POSITION
(Neutral)
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Terms of position and direction describe the relationship of one
structure on/in the body to another with reference to lhe anatomical
position: body standing erect, limbs extended, palms of the hands
forward, thurnbs direeted outwardty.
Cranial and superior refer to a structure being closer to the top
of the head than another structure in the head, neck, or torso
(excluding limbs).
Ariterior refers to a structure being more in front than another structure in the body. Ventral refers to the abdominal side; in bipeds, it is
synonymous with anterior. Rostral refers to a beak-like structure in
the front of the head or brain that projects fonrvard.
Posterior and dorsal refer to a structure being more in back than
another structure in the body, Dorsa/ is synonymous with posterlor
(the preferred term) except in quadrupeds.
Medial refers to a structure that is closer to the median plane than
another structure in the body.
Lateral refers to a structure that is farther away from the median
plane than another structure in the body.
Employed only with reterence to the limbs, proximal refers to a
structure being closer to the median plane or root of the limb than
another structure in the limb.
Employed only with reference to the limbs, distal refers to a structure being farther away from the median plane or the root of the
limb than another structure in the limb.
Caudal and inferior refer to a structure being closer to the feet
or the lower part of the body than another structure in the body.
These terms are not used with respect to the limbs. ln quadrupeds, caudal means closer to the tail,
The term superficial is synonymous with external, the term deep
wilh internal. Related to the reference point on the chest wall, a
structure closer to the surface of the body is superficial; a structure
farther away {rom the surface is deep.
lpsilateral means "on the same side" (in this case, as the reference
point); contralateral means "on the opposite side" (of the reference
point).
The quadruped presents four points of direction: head end (cranial),
tail end (caudal), belly side (ventral), and back side (dorsal).
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TERMS OF POSITION & DIRECTION
lN: Color the arrows and the names of the positions
.rd directions, but not the illusirations.
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See
7
The axial skeleton, the principal supportive structure of the body,
is oriented along its median longitudinal axis. lt includes the skull,
vertebrae, sternum, ribs, and hyoid bone. Much of the mobility of
the torso is due to the multiple articulations throughout the veftebral
column.
The appendicular skeleton includes the pectoral and pelvic girdles
and the bones of the arms, forearms, wrists, hands, thighs, legs,
and feet. The joints of the appendicular skeleton make possible a
considerable degree of freedom of movement for the upper and
lower limbs. Fractures and dislocations are more common in this
paft of the skeleton, but often more serious in the axial skeleton.
CLASSIFICATION OF BONES
Bones have a variety of shapes and defy classification by shape;
yet such a classification historically exists. Long bones are clearly
longer in one axis than in another; they are characterized by a
medullary cavity, a hollow diaphysis of compact bone, and at least
two epiphyses (e.9., femur, phalanx). Short bones are roughly
cube-shaped; they are predominantly cancellous bone with a thin
coftex of compact bone and. have no cavity (e,g., carpal and tarsal
bones). Flat bones (cranial bones, scapulae, ribs) are generally
more flat than round. lrregular bones (vertebrae) have two or more
different shapes. Bones not specifically long or short go into this
latter category.
Sesamoid bones are developed in tendons (e.g., patellar tendon); they are mostly bone, often mixed with fibrous tissue and
cartilage. They have a cartilaginous articular surface facing an
articular surface of an adjacent bone; they may be parl of a
synovial joint ensheathed within the fibrous joint capsule. The
structures are generally pea-sized and are most commonly found
in certain tendons/joint capsules in hands and feet, and occasionally in other articular sites of the upper and lower limbs, The
largest sesamoid bone is the patella, integrated in the tendon
of the quadriceps femoris. Sesamoid bones resist friction and
compression, enhance joint movement, and may assist local
circulation.
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AXIAL / APPENDICULAR SKELETOH
CLASSIFICATION OF BONES
CN: Use light but contrasting colors for A and B. (1) Color the axiat
:<eleton, A, in all three views. Do not color the intercostal spaces
:etlveen the ribs. (2) Color the darker, outlined appendicular skeleton.
3. (3) Color the arrows identifying bone shape/classification.
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Cranium
Facial
bone
Pectoral
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Bone is a living, vascular structure, composed of organic tissue
and mineral. The organic component (cells, fibers, extracellular
matrix, vessels, nerves) makes up about 35% of a bone's weight;
650/o ot the bone's weight is mineral (calcium hydroxyapatite).
Bone functions as (1) a support structurei (2) a site of attachment
for skeletal muscle, ligaments, tendons, and joint capsules; (3) a
source of calcium; and (4) a significant site of blood cell development. The femur is classified as a long bone.
The
epiphysis is the end of a long bone. The mature epiphysis is
3-5 mm
largely cancellous bone. lts arliculating surface is lined with
of hyaline (articular) cartilage.
The diaphysis is the shaft of a long bone. lt has a manow-filled
medullary cavity surrounded by compact bone that is lined
externally by bone cell-forming periosteum and internally by
bone-forming endosteum (not shown).
Articular cartilage is smooth, slippery porous, malleable, insensitive, and bloodless; it is the only remaining evidence of an adult
bone's cadilaginous past. lt is the articulating surface in freely
movable joints.
Periosteum is a fibrous, cellular, vascular, and highly sensitive
life support sheath for bone, providing a source of bone cells
throughout life.
Cancellous (spongy) bone consists of interwoven beams (trabeculae) of bone in the epiphyses of long bones, the bodies of
the vertebrae, and other bones without cavities. The spaces
among the trabeculae are filled with red or yellow marrow (see
colorable arrows) and blood vessels. Cancellous bone forms a
dynamic latticed truss capable of mechanical alteration in response to the stresses of weight, postural change, and muscle
tension.
Compact bone forms the stout walls of the diaphysis and the
thinner outer sudace of other bones where there is no articular
cartilage (e.9., the flat bones of the skull).
The medullary cavity is the cavity of the diaphysis. lt contains
marrow: red in the young, turning to yellow in many long bones
in maiurity. lt is lined by thin connective tissue with many boneforming cells (endosteum).
Red marrow is a red, gelatinous substance composed of
red and white blood cells in a variety of developmental forms
(hematopoietic fissue), and specialized capillaries (slnusoids)
enmeshed in reticular tissue, ln adults, red marrow is generally
limited to the sternum, vertebrae, ribs, hip bones, clavicles, long
bones, and cranial bones.
Yellow marovv is fatty conneclive tissue that does not produce
blood cells.
The nutrient artery is the principal artery and major supplier of
oxygen and nutrients to the shatt or body of a bone; its branches
snake through the labyrinthine canals of the haversian systems
and other tubular cavities of bones.
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LONG BOilE STRUGTURE
n7
Articular
surface
See 10,
3t{: Use light blue for C, a tan color for D, very light
:::ors for E and F, yellow for l, and red for J and Jl.
'r Color the vertical bar to the right, which represents
:.-e epiphysis, A, and the diaphysis, B, of the long
:ofle. Then color the parts of the long bone and
--e small drawing to its l€ft. (2) Leave the medullary
:"avity, G, uncolored.
Epiphyseal
line
Coronal section through proximal epiphysis
and dissection ol medullary cavity
in upper and lower femur
LOIIG BO]IE STRUCTUBE
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Bones are connected at joints (arliculations). All bones move at
joints' Joints are functionaly crassified as immovable (synarthroses),
parlly movable (amphiarlhroses), or freely movable (diarthroses).
Structural classiJication of freery movabre joints can be seen berow.
Fibrous joints (synarthroses) are those in which the articulat_
ing bones are connected by fibrous tissue. Sutures of the skull
are essentially immovable fibrous joints, especially after having
ossified with age. Teeth in their sockets are fixed fibrous joints
(gomphoses). Syndesmoses are partly movable fibrous joints,
such as the interosseous ligaments between bones of the fore_
arm or the bones of the leg.
Cartilaginous joints (synchondroses) are essentially immovable
joints seen during growth, such as growth (epiphyseal) plates,
and
the joint between the first rib and the sternum. Fibrocartilaginous
joinls (amphiarfhroses) are parfly movable (e.g., the intervertebral
disc, and a part of the sacroiliac joint). Symphyses also are parlly
movable fibrocarlilagious joints, such as between the pubic bones
(symphysis pubis) and the manubrium and the body of the sternum
(sternal angle).
Synovial joints (dlarthroses) are freely movable within ligamen_
tous limits and the bony architecture. They are characterized
by articulating bones whose ends are capped with articutar
cartilage and are enclosed in a ligament-reinforced, sensitive,
fibrous (joint) capsule lined internally with a vascular synovial
membrane that secretes a lubricating fluid within the cavity.
The synovial membrane does not cover articular cartilage.
Synovial or serous fluid-secreting membranes line fibrous tissue
pockets (bursa(e) that exist throughout the body urherever there
are areas of frictional contact between two adjacent structures).
These sacs facilitate irritation-free movement. Often associated
vrith synovial joints, several are associated with the hip, shoulder,
and knee joints, to meniion but a few.
Ball-and-socket joints are best seen at the hip and shoulder.
Movements in all direction are permitted: {lexion, extension, adduciion, abduction, internal and external rotation, and circumduction.
A hinge joint permits movement in only one plane: flexion/
extension. The ankle, interphalangeal, and elbow (humeroulnar)
joints are hinge joints.
A saddle (sellar) joint (e.g., carpometacarpal joint at the base of
the thumb) has two concave articulating sudaces, permitting all
motions but rotation.
The ellipsoid (condyloid, condylar) joint is a reduced ball_
and-socket configuration in which significant rotation is largely
excluded (e.9., the bicondylar knee, temporornandibular, and
radiocarpal (wrist) joints).
A pivot joint has a ring of bone around a peg; for example, the
C1 vertebra rotates about the dens of C2, a rounded humeral
capitulum on which the radial head pivots (rotates).
Gliding joints (e.9., the facet joints of the vertebrae, the acromio_
clavicular, intercarpal, and intertarsal joints) generally have flat
articulating surfaces.
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CLASSIFICATION OF JOINTS
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CN: Use a light blue for D, black for F, and gray for H.
: ) Do not color the bones in the upper half of the page.
2) Below, color the arrows pointing to the location ot
::re loints as well as the joint representations.
CARTILAGINOUS JOIHT
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Vertebral body
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SYNOVIAL JOI]IT
IDEALIZED SYNOVIAL
JOINT & BURSA
(Freely movable)
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TYPES OF SYNOUIAL JOINTS
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