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SS Ancient Rome Review Packet

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Ancient Rome Review
Origins of Rome
What were the names of the twin boys from the legend about the founding of Rome?
Romulus and Remus
Who were the two civilizations that contributed to the creation or Rome?
Greeks and the Etruscans
Class Structure/Republic
What were the two social classes in Rome?
Patricians and the Plebians
How were social classes determined?
The social classes were divided three ways:
Upper- wealthy landowners, priests, nobles
Middle- farmers, traders, city workers
Lower- enslaved individuals
What is a republic?
Government in which citizens choose their leader.
What were the 4 responsibilities of Senators?
They advised the consuls.
Proposed laws.
Approved the construction of roads
Foreign relations
What was a Consul?
They were administrators and military leaders. They both had to agree to new laws.
What was the Conflict of the Orders? (How did the Plebians get what they wanted?)
A political struggle between the Plebeians (commoners) and Patricians (aristocrats) of
the ancient Roman Republic lasting from 500 BC to 287 BC, in which the Plebeians
sought political equality with the Patricians. Yes, they did get what they wanted because
they threatened to leave Rome. The aristocrats realized the importance of the Plebeians
and created a tribune.
Why was the assembly more democratic than the Senate.
The assembly was more democratic than the senate because it included representatives
from both the upper and middle class. It was likely that the right of each group was going
to be protected.
How/why could a dictator come to power?
A dictator could come to power by conquering neighboring countries and unifying them under
his/her rules.
Who was considered a citizen in Rome?
Roman law changed several times over the centuries on who could be a citizen and who
couldn't. For a while, Plebians (common people) were not citizens. Only patricians (noble
class, wealthy landowners, from old families) could be citizens. That law changed. For a
while, plebians could not marry patricians. That law changed. For a while, any children
born from two parents who were not both citizens could not be citizens. That law was
adjusted so that people could apply to become a Roman citizen. Rome was after purity.
But they kept adjusting the laws to suit the times.
Why were the Twelve Tables created?
They were records of the laws that people were expected to follow. Most were about
ownerships, wills, and court actions. They were placed in the forum.
How were women treated unfairly by the Twelve Tables?
There were three classes of women - full citizen, foreign (alien) and slave. Women,
whether they were a "full citizen" or not, could not vote or hold office. For hundreds of
years, women could not own property, inherit goods, sign a contract, work outside the
home, or run a business. They could not defend themselves in court. They had no rights.
A woman was under the full authority of her husband's head of his family (oldest male)
and had no legal say in much of anything. So, although women might be given the title of
full citizen, they did not have the rights of a full citizen. The title was mostly for the
purpose of marriage. The purpose of marriage in ancient Rome was to produce citizens.
If a Roman citizen (male) wanted his children to automatically be Roman citizens
themselves, he had to marry the daughter of two Roman citizens. There were other ways
for his children to become citizens, but that was the easiest.
Punic Wars
Who did Rome fight against during the Punic Wars?
Carthaginians
How did Rome win the first Punic War?
They modified their ships with a corvus, which allowed them to board other ships and
fight hand-to-hand.
Who was the famous general that the Romans faced in the Second Punic an how did he
surprise them?
They fought against General Hannibal. They were surprised because Hannibal traveled
through very difficult terrain and a long distance (Spain) (Alps).
What happened in Third Punic war?
The Romans destroyed Carthage. They ruined their land by plowing salt into the ground.
MAny Carthaginians were sold into slavery or killed. Much of Carthage was burned.
Emperors
Who was the first emperor and was he considered to be a good emperor?
Augustus
Which emperor started out as a good leader, but descended into madness and killed his
mother?
Nero
Which emperor loved the gladiatorial games and even fought in them himself?
Commodus
Which emperor helped poor children and expanded Rome to its largest size?
Trajan
Which emperor constructed Hadrian’s Wall?
Hadrian
Which emperor was the first Christian emperor?
Constantine
Fall of Rome
List 4 reasons that explain why Rome declined?
It’s political structure was weak. There were no rules regarding who would inherit the
throne.
The economy was weak. Taxes were really high in order to pay the soldiers. In addition,
there was inflation. Inflation- it was a period of ever-increasing prices.
Currency in Rome decreased. Gold was being used to pay for luxury items, but was not
coming back to Rome in any sort of conquest or attempt to seize it from another country
or through trade.
Rome was attacked by foreign enemies. This problem was worse because Rome was
fighting against itself at the same time.
Daily Life
What restrictions were placed on women’s rights in Ancient Rome?
For hundreds of years, women could not own property, inherit goods, sign a contract,
work outside the home, or run a business. They could not defend themselves in court.
They had no rights. A woman was under the full authority of her husband's head of his
family (oldest male) and had no legal say in much of anything.
What were some of the subjects taught in school?
Reading, grammar, writing, music, geometry, arithmetic, and shorthand.
What gods were Roman gods based on?
Greek Gods
What was the major event that Romans enjoyed for entertainment?
Circuses, chariot races, and gladitorial games. Gladiators were typically enslaved
individuals that fought animals or other people for the countries entertainment.
Christianity
What about Jesus teaching worried the Romans?
They were concerned that people would follow Jesus instead of honoring the emperor.
Why were people attracted to Jesus’ teachings?
People were attracted to his calmness and sermons focusing on peace and tranquility.
He spoke of stories and parables that people were familiar with.
Why and how were Christians persecuted for their beleifs?
Romans were upset that Christians did not want to serve in the army. Romans balmed
Christians for natural disasters and famines. Christianity was made illegal and many
Christians were killed.
What emperor was essential to establishing Christianity in Rome?
Constantine
What year did Christianity become the primary religion of Western Europe?
800 AD (not sure)
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